1887

Chapter 7 : RNA Respiratory Viruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

RNA Respiratory Viruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815455/9781555813970_Chap07-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815455/9781555813970_Chap07-2.gif

Abstract:

RNA respiratory viruses, including influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), human rhinovirus (HRV), and coronavirus (CoV), are increasingly being recognized as causing significant morbidity, graft failure, and death among immunocompromised patient populations. Respiratory viral infections are associated with increased risk of death, development of viral pneumonia, and coinfections, particularly bacterial pneumonia and invasive aspergillosis. Respiratory viral infections are associated with both acute and chronic rejection. Antiviral resistance is an emerging issue among immunocompromised patients infected with influenza virus, although resistance testing is not yet widely available outside the research setting. Unlike the case for RSV and influenza virus, no rapid antigen test kits are available for detection of PIV. There are several monoclonal antibody (MAb) systems that allow for identification and differentiation of the different PIV serotypes in primary patient samples and in cell cultures. There are currently five clinically significant human coronaviruses recognized, namely, OC43, 229E, NL63, HKU1, and severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV).

Citation: Ison M, Rosenberg E. 2009. RNA Respiratory Viruses, p 141-160. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch7

Key Concept Ranking

Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
0.55373317
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
0.5400106
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
0.4985825
Influenza C virus
0.4156976
0.55373317
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Approach to diagnosis of suspected viral respiratory tract infection.

Citation: Ison M, Rosenberg E. 2009. RNA Respiratory Viruses, p 141-160. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815455.ch07
1. Reference deleted.
2. Reference deleted.
3. al-Mulla, W.,, A. el Mekki, and, W. al-Nakib. 1994. Rapid culture-amplified immunofluorescent test for the detection of human rhinoviruses in clinical samples: evidence of a common epitope in culture. J. Med. Virol. 42:182187.
4. al-Nakib, W.,, C. J. Dearden, and, D. A. Tyrrell. 1989. Evaluation of a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of rhinovirus infection. J. Med. Virol. 29:268272.
5. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases and Committee of Fetus and Newborn. 1998. Prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections: indications for the use of palivizumab and update on the use of RSV-IGIV. Pediatrics 102:12111216.
6. Anaissie, E. J.,, T. H. Mahfouz,, T. Aslan,, A. Pouli,, R. Desikan,, A. Fassas, and, B. Barlogie. 2004. The natural history of respiratory syncytial virus infection in cancer and transplant patients: implications for management. Blood 103:16111617.
7. Anonymous. 1999. Palivizumab (Synagis) for prevention of RSV infection. Med. Lett. Drugs Ther. 41:34.
8. Anonymous. 2003. Revised indications for the use of palivizumab and respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections. Pediatrics 112:14421446.
9. Reference deleted.
10. Apalsch, A. M.,, M. Green,, J. Ledesma-Medina,, B. Nour, and, E. R. Wald. 1995. Parainfluenza and influenza virus infections in pediatric organ transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:394399.
11. Arruda, E.,, C. E. Crump,, B. S. Rollins,, A. Ohlin, and, F. G. Hayden. 1996. Comparative susceptibilities of human embryonic fibroblasts and HeLa cells for isolation of human rhinoviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:12771279.
12. Arruda, E.,, and F. G. Hayden. 1993. Detection of human rhinovirus RNA in nasal washings by PCR. Mol. Cell. Probes 7:373379.
13. Arruda, E.,, A. Pitkaranta,, T. J. J. Witek,, C. A. Doyle, and, F. G. Hayden. 1997. Frequency and natural history of rhinovirus infections in adults during autumn. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:28642868.
14. Astrahan, P.,, I. Kass,, M. A. Cooper, and, I. T. Arkin. 2004. A novel method of resistance for influenza against a channel-blocking antiviral drug. Proteins 55:251257.
15. Barclay, W. S.,, and W. Al-Nakib. 1987. An ELISA for the detection of rhinovirus specific antibody in serum and nasal secretion. J. Virol. Methods 15:5364.
16. Barenfanger, J.,, C. Drake,, T. Mueller,, T. Troutt,, J. O’Brien, and, K. Guttman. 2001. R-Mix cells are faster, at least as sensitive and marginally more costly than conventional cell lines for the detection of respiratory viruses. J. Clin. Virol. 22:101110.
17. Bates, P. J.,, G. Sanderson,, S. T. Holgate, and, S. L. Johnston. 1997. A comparison of RT-PCR, in-situ hybridisation and in-situ RT-PCR for the detection of rhinovirus infection in paraffin sections. J. Virol. Methods 67:153160.
18. Bellau-Pujol, S.,, A. Vabret,, L. Legrand,, J. Dina,, S. Gouarin,, J. Petitjean-Lecherbonnier,, B. Pozzetto,, C. Ginevra, and, F. Freymuth. 2005. Development of three multiplex RT-PCR assays for the detection of 12 respiratory RNA viruses. J. Virol. Methods 126:5363.
19. Bellei, N.,, D. Benfica,, A. H. Perosa,, R. Carlucci,, M. Barros, and, C. Granato. 2003. Evaluation of a rapid test (QuickVue) compared with the shell vial assay for detection of influenza virus clearance after antiviral treatment. J. Virol. Methods 109:8588.
20. Belshe, R. B.,, M. H. Smith,, C. B. Hall,, R. Betts, and, A. J. Hay. 1988. Genetic basis of resistance to rimantadine emerging during treatment of influenza virus infection. J. Virol. 62:15081512.
21. Belshe, R. B.,, L. P. Van Voris, and, M. A. Mufson. 1982. Parenteral administration of live respiratory syncytial virus vaccine: results of a field trial. J. Infect. Dis. 145:311319.
22. Biacchesi, S.,, M. H. Skiadopoulos,, L. Yang,, B. R. Murphy,, P. L. Collins, and, U. J. Buchholz. 2005. Rapid human metapneumovirus microneutralization assay based on green fluorescent protein expression. J. Virol. Methods 128:192197.
23. Billings, J. L.,, M. I. Hertz,, K. Savik, and, C. H. Wendt. 2002. Respiratory viruses and chronic rejection in lung transplant recipients. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 21:559566.
24. Boeckh, M.,, J. Englund,, Y. Li,, C. Miller,, A. Cross,, H. Fernandez,, J. Kuypers,, H. Kim,, J. Gnann,, R. J. Whitley, et al. 2007. Randomized controlled multicenter trial of aerosolized ribavirin for respiratory syncytial virus upper respiratory tract infections in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:245249.
25. Boivin, G.,, Y. Abed,, G. Pelletier,, L. Ruel,, D. Moisan,, S. Cote,, T. C. Peret,, D. D. Erdman, and, L. J. Anderson. 2002. Virological features and clinical manifestations associated with human metapneumovirus: a new paramyxovirus responsible for acute respiratory-tract infections in all age groups. J. Infect. Dis. 186:13301334.
26. Boivin, G.,, Z. Coulombe, and, C. Wat. 2003. Quantification of the influenza virus load by real-time polymerase chain reaction in nasopharyngeal swabs of patients treated with oseltamivir. J. Infect. Dis. 188:578580.
27. Borek, A. P.,, S. H. Clemens,, V. K. Gaskins,, D. Z. Aird, and, A. Valsamakis. 2006. Respiratory syncytial virus detection by Remel Xpect, Binax Now RSV, direct immunofluorescence staining, and tissue culture. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:11051107.
28. Bright, R. A.,, M. J. Medina,, X. Xu,, G. Perez-Oronoz,, T. R. Wallis,, X. M. Davis,, L. Povinelli,, N. J. Cox, and, A. I. Klimov. 2005. Incidence of adamantane resistance among influenza A (H3N2) viruses isolated worldwide from 1994 to 2005: a cause for concern. Lancet 366:11751181.
29. Bright, R. A.,, D. K. Shay,, B. Shu,, N. J. Cox, and, A. I. Klimov. 2006. Adamantane resistance among influenza A viruses isolated early during the 2005–2006 influenza season in the United States. JAMA 295:891894.
30. Brunstein, J.,, and E. Thomas. 2006. Direct screening of clinical specimens for multiple respiratory pathogens using the Genaco respiratory panels 1 and 2. Diagn. Mol. Pathol. 15:169173.
31. Cane, P. A.,, B. G. van den Hoogen,, S. Chakrabarti,, C. D. Fegan, and, A. D. Osterhaus. 2003. Human metapneumovirus in a haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient with fatal lower respiratory tract disease. Bone Marrow Transplant. 31:309310.
32. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006. High levels of adamantane resistance among influenza A (H3N2) viruses and interim guidelines for use of antiviral agents—United States, 2005–06 influenza season. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55:4446.
33. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 3 May 2005, posting date. Public health guidance for community-level preparedness and response to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/sars/guidance/index.htm.
34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49:1128.
35. Chakinala, M. M.,, and M. J. Walter. 2004. Community acquired respiratory viral infections after lung transplantation: clinical features and long-term consequences. Semin. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 16:342349.
36. Christensen, M. S.,, L. P. Nielsen, and, H. Hasle. 2005. Few but severe viral infections in children with cancer: a prospective RT-PCR and PCR-based 12-month study. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 45:945951.
37. Cobian, L.,, S. Houston,, J. Greene, and, J. T. Sinnott. 1995. Parainfluenza virus respiratory infection after heart transplantation: successful treatment with ribavirin. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:10401041.
38. Reference deleted.
39. Cortez, K.,, B. R. Murphy,, K. N. Almeida,, J. Beeler,, R. A. Levandowski,, V. J. Gill,, R. W. Childs,, A. J. Barrett,, M. Smolskis, and, J. E. Bennett. 2002. Immune-globulin prophylaxis of respiratory syncytial virus infection in patients undergoing stem-cell transplantation. J. Infect. Dis. 186:834838.
40. Cote, S.,, Y. Abed, and, G. Boivin. 2003. Comparative evaluation of real-time PCR assays for detection of the human metapneumovirus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:36313635.
41. Dagher, H.,, H. Donninger,, P. Hutchinson,, R. Ghildyal, and, P. Bardin. 2004. Rhinovirus detection: comparison of real-time and conventional PCR. J. Virol. Methods 117:113121.
42. Dare, R.,, S. Sanghavi,, A. Bullotta,, M. C. Keightley,, K. St. George,, R. M. Wadowsky,, D. Paterson,, K. R. McCurry,, T. A. Reinhart,, S. Husain, and, C. R. Rinaldo. 2006. Diagnosis of human metapneumovirus infection in immunosuppressed lung transplant recipients and children evaluated for pertussis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:548552.
43. Davies, H. A.,, and M. R. Macnaughton. 1979. Comparison of the morphology of three coronaviruses. Arch. Virol. 59:2533.
44. Dearden, C. J.,, and W. Al-Nakib. 1987. Direct detection of rhinoviruses by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Med. Virol. 23:179189.
45. Debiaggi, M.,, F. Canducci,, M. Sampaolo,, M. C. Marinozzi,, M. Parea,, C. Terulla,, A. A. Colombo,, E. P. Alessandrino,, L. Z. Bragotti,, M. Arghittu,, A. Goglio,, R. Migliavacca,, E. Romero, and, M. Clementi. 2006. Persistent symptomless human metapneumovirus infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. J. Infect. Dis. 194:474478.
46. De Clercq, E. 2006. Potential antivirals and antiviral strategies against SARS coronavirus infections. Expert Rev. Anti Infect. Ther. 4:291302.
47. Dewhurst-Maridor, G.,, V. Simonet,, J. E. Bornand,, L. P. Nicod, and, J. C. Pache. 2004. Development of a quantitative TaqMan RT-PCR for respiratory syncytial virus. J. Virol. Methods 120:4149.
48. Dingle, K. E.,, D. Crook, and, K. Jeffery. 2004. Stable and noncompetitive RNA internal control for routine clinical diagnostic reverse transcription-PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:10031011.
49. Duchini, A.,, R. M. Hendry,, D. C. Redfield, and, P. J. Pockros. 2000. Influenza infection in patients before and after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 6:531542.
50. Dunn, J. J.,, R. D. Woolstenhulme,, J. Langer, and, K. C. Carroll. 2004. Sensitivity of respiratory virus culture when screening with R-Mix fresh cells. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:7982.
51. Ebihara, T.,, R. Endo,, X. Ma,, N. Ishiguro, and, H. Kikuta. 2005. Detection of human metapneumovirus antigens in nasopharyngeal secretions by an immunofluorescent-antibody test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:11381141.
52. Elizaga, J.,, E. Olavarria,, J. Apperley,, J. Goldman, and, K. Ward. 2001. Parainfluenza virus 3 infection after stem cell transplant: relevance to outcome of rapid diagnosis and ribavirin treatment. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:413418.
53. El Saleeby, C. M.,, J. Suzich,, M. E. Conley, and, J. P. DeVincenzo. 2004. Quantitative effects of palivizumab and donorderived T cells on chronic respiratory syncytial virus infection, lung disease, and fusion glycoprotein amino acid sequences in a patient before and after bone marrow transplantation. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:e17e20.
54. Englund, J. A. 2001. Diagnosis and epidemiology of community-acquired respiratory virus infections in the immunocompromised host. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 7(Suppl.):2S4S.
55. Englund, J. A.,, R. E. Champlin,, P. R. Wyde,, H. Kantarjian,, R. L. Atmar,, J. Tarrand,, H. Yousuf,, H. Regnery,, A. I. Klimov,, N. J. Cox, and, E. Whimbey. 1998. Common emergence of amantadine- and rimantadine-resistant influenza A viruses in symptomatic immunocompromised adults. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:14181424.
56. Englund, J. A.,, P. A. Piedra,, A. Jewell,, K. Patel,, B. B. Baxter, and, E. Whimbey. 1996. Rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections in immunocompromised adults. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:16491653.
57. Erdman, D. D.,, G. A. Weinberg,, K. M. Edwards,, F. J. Walker,, B. C. Anderson,, J. Winter,, M. González, and, L. J. Anderson. 2003. GeneScan reverse transcription-PCR assay for detection of six common respiratory viruses in young children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:42984303.
58. Falsey, A. R.,, M. C. Criddle, and, E. E. Walsh. 2006. Detection of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in adults with and without respiratory illness. J. Clin. Virol. 35:4650.
59. Falsey, A. R.,, R. M. McCann,, W. J. Hall,, M. M. Criddle,, M. A. Formica,, D. Wycoff, and, J. E. Kolassa. 1997. The “common cold” in frail older persons: impact of rhinovirus and coronavirus in a senior daycare center. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 45:706711.
60. Falsey, A. R.,, E. E. Walsh, and, F. G. Hayden. 2002. Rhinovirus and coronavirus infection-associated hospitalizations among older adults. J. Infect. Dis. 185:13381341.
61. Folz, R. J.,, and M. A. Elkordy. 1999. Coronavirus pneumonia following autologous bone marrow transplantation for breast cancer. Chest 115:901905.
62. Fong, C. K.,, M. K. Lee, and, B. P. Griffith. 2000. Evaluation of R-Mix FreshCells in shell vials for detection of respiratory viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:46604662.
63. Franquet, T.,, S. Rodriguez,, R. Martino,, T. Salinas,, A. Gimenez, and, A. Hidalgo. 2005. Human metapneumovirus infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: high-resolution computed tomography findings. J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 29:223227.
64. Freymuth, F.,, G. Eugene,, A. Vabret,, J. Petitjean,, E. Gennetay,, J. Brouard,, J. F. Duhamel, and, B. Guillois. 1995. Detection of respiratory syncytial virus by reverse transcription-PCR and hybridization with a DNA enzyme immunoassay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:33523355.
65. Garbino, J.,, S. Crespo,, J. D. Aubert,, T. Rochat,, B. Ninet,, C. Deffernez,, W. Wunderli,, J. C. Pache,, P. M. Soccal, and, L. Kaiser. 2006. A prospective hospital-based study of the clinical impact of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome (non-SARS)-related human coronavirus infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43:10091015.
66. Ghosh, S.,, R. Champlin,, R. Couch,, J. Englund,, I. Raad,, S. Malik,, M. Luna, and, E. Whimbey. 1999. Rhinovirus infections in myelosuppressed adult blood and marrow transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:528532.
67. Greensill, J.,, P. S. McNamara,, W. Dove,, B. Flanagan,, R. L. Smyth, and, C. A. Hart. 2003. Human metapneumovirus in severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:372375.
68. Greve, J. M.,, G. Davis,, A. M. Meyer,, C. P. Forte,, S. C. Yost,, C. W. Marlor,, M. E. Kamarck, and, A. McClelland. 1989. The major human rhinovirus receptor is ICAM-1. Cell 56:839847.
69. Groneberg, D. A.,, S. M. Poutanen,, D. E. Low,, H. Lode,, T. Welte, and, P. Zabel. 2005. Treatment and vaccines for severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet Infect. Dis. 5:147155.
70. Gruteke, P.,, A. S. Glas,, M. Dierdorp,, W. B. Vreede,, J. W. Pilon, and, S. M. Bruisten. 2004. Practical implementation of a multiplex PCR for acute respiratory tract infections in children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:55965603.
71. Gubareva, L. V. 2004. Molecular mechanisms of influenza virus resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors. Virus Res. 103:199203.
72. Gubareva, L. V.,, M. S. Nedyalkova,, D. V. Novikov,, K. G. Murti,, E. Hoffmann, and, F. G. Hayden. 2002. A release-competent influenza A virus mutant lacking the coding capacity for the neuraminidase active site. J. Gen. Virol. 83:26832692.
73. Gubareva, L. V.,, R. G. Webster, and, F. G. Hayden. 2002. Detection of influenza virus resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors by an enzyme inhibition assay. Antivir. Res. 53:4761.
74. Gwaltney, J. M.,, Jr., and B. A. Heinz. 2002. Rhinovirus, p. 995–1018. In D. D. Richman,, R. J. Whitley, and, F. G. Hayden (ed.), Clinical Virology, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
75. Gwaltney, J. M.,, Jr., J. O. Hendley,, G. Simon, and, W. S. Jordan, Jr. 1966. Rhinovirus infections in an industrial population. I. The occurrence of illness. N. Engl. J. Med. 275:12611268.
76. Haagmans, B. L.,, and A. D. Osterhaus. 2006. Coronaviruses and their therapy. Antivir. Res. 71:397403.
77. Hamelin, M. E.,, Y. Abed, and, G. Boivin. 2004. Human metapneumovirus: a new player among respiratory viruses. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:983990.
78. Harris, J. M.,, II, and J. M. Gwaltney, Jr. 1996. Incubation periods of experimental rhinovirus infection and illness. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:12871290.
79. Hassan, I. A.,, R. Chopra,, R. Swindell, and, K. J. Mutton. 2003. Respiratory viral infections after bone marrow/peripheral stem-cell transplantation: the Christie hospital experience. Bone Marrow Transplant. 32:7377.
80. Hay, A. J.,, M. C. Zambon,, A. J. Wolstenholme,, J. J. Skehel, and, M. H. Smith. 1986. Molecular basis of resistance of influenza A viruses to amantadine. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 18(Suppl. B):1929.
81. Hayashi, K.,, T. Uchiyama,, M. Iwat,, K. Sano,, M. Yanai,, K. Kumasaka, and, Y. Inamo. 2005. The clinical usefulness of a newly rapid diagnosis kit, detection of respiratory syncytial virus. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 79:276283.
82. Hayden, F. G. 1996. Combination antiviral therapy for respiratory virus infections. Antivir. Res. 29:4548.
83. Hayden, F. G. 1997. Prevention and treatment of influenza in immunocompromised patients. Am. J. Med. 102:5560.
84. Hayden, F. G.,, D. T. Herrington,, T. L. Coats,, K. Kim,, E. C. Cooper,, S. A. Villano,, S. Liu,, S. Hudson,, D. C. Pevear,, M. Collett, and, M. McKinlay. 2003. Efficacy and safety of oral pleconaril for treatment of colds due to picornaviruses in adults: results of 2 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36:15231532.
85. Hayden, F. G.,, and P. Palese. 2002. Influenza virus, p. 891–920. In D. D. Richman,, R. J. Whitley, and, F. G. Hayden (ed.), Clinical Virology, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
86. Hays, J. P.,, and S. H. Myint. 1998. PCR sequencing of the spike genes of geographically and chronologically distinct human coronaviruses 229E. J. Virol. Methods 75:179193.
87. Herrmann, B.,, C. Larsson, and, B. W. Zweygberg. 2001. Simultaneous detection and typing of influenza viruses A and B by a nested reverse transcription-PCR: comparison to virus isolation and antigen detection by immunofluorescence and optical immunoassay (FLU OIA). J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:134138.
88. Hofer, F.,, M. Gruenberger,, H. Kowalski,, H. Machat,, M. Huettinger,, E. Kuechler, and, D. Blaas. 1994. Members of the low density lipoprotein receptor family mediate cell entry of a minor-group common cold virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:18391842.
89. Hohenthal, U.,, J. Nikoskelainen,, R. Vainionpaa,, R. Peltonen,, M. Routamaa,, M. Itala, and, P. Kotilainen. 2002. Human parainfluenza type 4 virus (hPIV4) infection provoking many questions regarding the role of this virus as the causative agent of respiratory tract infections in the post-transplant setting. Bone Marrow Transplant. 29:629630.
90. Hopkins, P. M.,, M. L. Plit,, I. W. Carter,, P. N. Chhajed,, M. A. Malouf, and, A. R. Glanville. 2003. Indirect fluorescent antibody testing of nasopharyngeal swabs for influenza diagnosis in lung transplant recipients. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 22:161168.
91. Huck, B.,, M. Egger,, H. Bertz,, G. Peyerl-Hoffman,, W. V. Kern,, D. Neumann-Haefelin, and, V. Falcone. 2006. Human metapneumovirus infection in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient with relapsed multiple myeloma and rapidly progressing lung cancer. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:23002303.
92. Hurt, A. C.,, P. Selleck,, N. Komadina,, R. Shaw,, L. Brown, and, I. G. Barr. 2006. Susceptibility of highly pathogenic A(H5N1) avian influenza viruses to the neuraminidase inhibitors and adamantanes. Antivir. Res. 73:228231.
93. Hyypia, T.,, T. Puhakka,, O. Ruuskanen,, M. Makela,, A. Arola, and, P. Arstila. 1998. Molecular diagnosis of human rhinovirus infections: comparison with virus isolation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:20812083.
94. Ishibashi, T.,, H. Monobe,, Y. Nomura,, M. Shinogami, and, J. Yano. 2003. Multiplex nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for respiratory viruses in acute otitis media. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 112:252257.
95. Ishiguro, N.,, T. Ebihara,, R. Endo,, X. Ma,, R. Shirotsuki,, S. Ochiai,, H. Ishiko, and, H. Kikuta. 2005. Immunofluorescence assay for detection of human metapneumovirus-specific antibodies by use of baculovirus-expressed fusion protein. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 12:202205.
96. Ison, M. G. 2005. Respiratory viral infections in transplant recipients. Curr. Opin. Organ Transplant. 10:312319.
97. Ison, M. G.,, L. V. Gubareva,, R. L. Atmar,, J. Treanor, and, F. G. Hayden. 2006. Recovery of drug-resistant influenza virus from immunocompromised patients: a case series. J. Infect. Dis. 193:760764.
98. Ison, M. G.,, and F. G. Hayden. 2002. Viral infections in immunocompromised patients: what’s new with respiratory viruses? Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 15:355367.
99. Ison, M. G.,, F. G. Hayden,, L. Kaiser,, L. Corey, and, M. Boeckh. 2003. Rhinovirus infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with pneumonia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36:11391143.
100. Ison, M. G.,, S. L. Johnston,, P. Openshaw,, B. Murphy, and, F. Hayden. 2004. Current research on respiratory viral infections: fifth international symposium. Antivir. Res. 62:75110.
101. Ison, M. G.,, J. Mills,, P. Openshaw,, M. Zambon,, A. Osterhaus, and, F. Hayden. 2002. Current research on respiratory viral infections: fourth international symposium. Antivir. Res. 55:227278.
102. Ison, M. G.,, V. P. Mishin,, T. J. Braciale,, F. G. Hayden, and, L. V. Gubareva. 2006. Comparative activities of oseltamivir and A-322278 in immunocompetent and immunocompromised murine models of influenza virus infection. J. Infect. Dis. 193:765772.
103. Ito, T.,, Y. Suzuki,, L. Mitnaul,, A. Vines,, H. Kida, and, Y. Kawaoka. 1997. Receptor specificity of influenza A viruses correlates with the agglutination of erythrocytes from different animal species. Virology 227:493499.
104. Jenison, R.,, M. Rihanek, and, B. Polisky. 2001. Use of a thin film biosensor for rapid visual detection of PCR products in a multiplex format. Biosens. Bioelectron. 16:757763.
105. Johny, A. A.,, A. Clark,, N. Price,, D. Carrington,, A. Oakhill, and, D. I. Marks. 2002. The use of zanamivir to treat influenza A and B infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 29:113115.
106. Kaiser, L.,, J. D. Aubert,, J. C. Pache,, C. Deffernez,, T. Rochat,, J. Garbino,, W. Wunderli,, P. Meylan,, S. Yerly,, L. Perrin,, I. Letovanec,, L. Nicod,, C. Tapparel, and, P. M. Soccal. 2006. Chronic rhinoviral infection in lung transplant recipients. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 174:13921399.
107. Kapikian, A. Z.,, H. D. James, Jr.,, S. J. Kelly,, J. H. Dees,, H. C. Turner,, K. McIntosh,, H. W. Kim,, R. H. Parrott,, M. M. Vincent, and, R. M. Chanock. 1969. Isolation from man of “avian infectious bronchitis virus-like” viruses (coronaviruses) similar to 229E virus, with some epidemiological observations. J. Infect. Dis. 119:282290.
108. Kisch, A. L.,, K. M. Johnson, and, R. M. Chanock. 1962. Immunofluorescence with respiratory syncytial virus. Virology 16:177189.
109. Kishi, Y.,, M. Kami,, Y. Oki,, Y. Kazuyama,, M. Kawabata,, S. Miyakoshi,, S. Morinaga,, R. Suzuki,, S. Mori, and, Y. Muto. 2000. Donor lymphocyte infusion for treatment of life-threatening respiratory syncytial virus infection following bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 26:573576.
110. Kiso, M.,, K. Mitamura,, Y. Sakai-Tagawa,, K. Shiraishi,, C. Kawakami,, K. Kimura,, F. G. Hayden,, N. Sugaya, and, Y. Kawaoka. 2004. Resistant influenza A viruses in children treated with oseltamivir: descriptive study. Lancet 364:759765.
111. Klimov, A. I.,, E. Rocha,, F. G. Hayden,, P. A. Shult,, L. F. Roumillat, and, N. J. Cox. 1995. Prolonged shedding of amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses by immunodeficient patients: detection by polymerase chain reaction-restriction analysis. J. Infect. Dis. 172:13521355.
112. Kobashigawa, J. A.,, L. Warner-Stevenson,, B. L. Johnson,, J. D. Moriguchi,, N. Kawata,, D. C. Drinkwater, and, H. Laks. 1993. Influenza vaccine does not cause rejection after cardiac transplantation. Transplant. Proc. 25:27382739.
113. Kremser, L.,, T. Konecsni,, D. Blaas, and, E. Kenndler. 2004. Fluorescence labeling of human rhinovirus capsid and analysis by capillary electrophoresis. Anal. Chem. 76:41754181.
114. Kumar, D.,, D. Erdman,, S. Keshavjee,, T. Peret,, R. Tellier,, D. Hadjiliadis,, G. Johnson,, M. Ayers,, D. Siegal, and, A. Humar. 2005. Clinical impact of community-acquired respiratory viruses on bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplant. Am. J. Transplant. 5:20312036.
115. Kumar, D.,, and A. Humar. 2005. Emerging viral infections in transplant recipients. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 18:337341.
116. Kumar, D.,, R. Tellier,, R. Draker,, G. Levy, and, A. Humar. 2003. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in a liver transplant recipient and guidelines for donor SARS screening. Am. J. Transplant. 3:977981.
117. Kuroiwa, Y.,, K. Nagai,, L. Okita,, S. Ukae,, T. Mori,, T. Hotsubo, and, H. Tsutsumi. 2004. Comparison of an immunochromatography test with multiplex reverse transcription-PCR for rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:48124814.
118. Reference deleted.
119. Kuypers, J.,, N. Wright,, J. Ferrenberg,, M. L. Huang,, A. Cent,, L. Corey, and, R. Morrow. 2006. Comparison of real-time PCR assays with fluorescent-antibody assays for diagnosis of respiratory virus infections in children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:23822388.
120. Lam, M. F.,, G. C. Ooi,, B. Lam,, J. C. Ho,, W. H. Seto,, P. L. Ho,, P. C. Wong,, R. Liang,, W. K. Lam, and, K. W. Tsang. 2004. An indolent case of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 169:125128.
121. Lamson, D.,, N. Renwick,, V. Kapoor,, Z. Liu,, G. Palacios,, J. Ju,, A. Dean,, K. St. George,, T. Briese, and, W. I. Lipkin. 2006. MassTag polymerase-chain-reaction detection of respiratory pathogens, including a new rhinovirus genotype, that caused influenza-like illness in New York State during 2004–2005. J. Infect. Dis. 194:13981402.
122. Landry, M. L.,, and D. Ferguson. 2000. SimulFluor respiratory screen for rapid detection of multiple respiratory viruses in clinical specimens by immunofluorescence staining. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:708711.
123. Landry, M. L.,, D. Ferguson,, S. Cohen,, T. C. Peret, and, D. D. Erdman. 2005. Detection of human metapneumovirus in clinical samples by immunofluorescence staining of shell vial centrifugation cultures prepared from three different cell lines. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:19501952.
124. Larcher, C.,, C. Geltner,, H. Fischer,, D. Nachbaur,, L. C. Muller, and, H. P. Huemer. 2005. Human metapneumovirus infection in lung transplant recipients: clinical presentation and epidemiology. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 24:18911901.
125. Lennette, E. H. 1992. Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
126. Leonardi, G. P.,, H. Leib,, G. S. Birkhead,, C. Smith,, P. Costello, and, W. Conron. 1994. Comparison of rapid detection methods for influenza A virus and their value in health care management of institutionalized geriatric patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:7074.
127. Levin, M. D.,, and G. J. van Doornum. 2004. An immunocompromised host with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Neth. J. Med. 62:197210.
128. Liolios, L.,, A. Jenney,, D. Spelman,, T. Kotsimbos,, M. Catton, and, S. Wesselingh. 2001. Comparison of a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR-enzyme hybridization assay with conventional viral culture and immunofluorescence techniques for the detection of seven viral respiratory pathogens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:27792783.
129. Lopez-Huertas, M. R.,, I. Casas,, B. Acosta-Herrera,, M. L. Garcia,, M. T. Coiras, and, P. Perez-Brena. 2005. Two RT-PCR based assays to detect human metapneumovirus in nasopharyngeal aspirates. J. Virol. Methods 129:17.
130. Machado, C. M.,, L. S. Boas,, A. V. Mendes,, I. F. da Rocha,, D. Sturaro,, F. L. Dulley, and, C. S. Pannuti. 2004. Use of oseltamivir to control influenza complications after bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 34:111114.
131. Machado, C. M.,, L. S. Boas,, A. V. Mendes,, M. F. Santos,, I. F. da Rocha,, D. Sturaro,, F. L. Dulley, and, C. S. Pannuti. 2003. Low mortality rates related to respiratory virus infections after bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 31:695700.
132. Macnaughton, M. R. 1982. Occurrence and frequency of coronavirus infections in humans as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infect. Immun. 38:419423.
133. Macnaughton, M. R.,, D. Flowers, and, D. Isaacs. 1983. Diagnosis of human coronavirus infections in children using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Med. Virol. 11:319325.
134. Madhi, S. A.,, H. Ludewick,, Y. Abed,, K. P. Klugman, and, G. Boivin. 2003. Human metapneumovirus-associated lower respiratory tract infections among hospitalized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected and HIV-1-uninfected African infants. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:17051710.
135. Magnard, C.,, M. Valette,, M. Aymard, and, B. Lina. 1999. Comparison of two nested PCR, cell culture, and antigen detection for the diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infections due to influenza viruses. J. Med. Virol. 59:215220.
136. Mahony, J.,, S. Chong,, F. Merante,, S. Yaghoubian,, T. Sinha,, C. Lisle, and, R. Janeczko. 2007. Development of a respiratory virus panel test for detection of twenty human respiratory viruses by use of multiplex PCR and a fluid microbead-based assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:29652970.
137. Makela, M. J.,, T. Puhakka,, O. Ruuskanen,, M. Leinonen,, P. Saikku,, M. Kimpimaki,, S. Blomqvist,, T. Hyypia, and, P. Arstila. 1998. Viruses and bacteria in the etiology of the common cold. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:539542.
138. Malavaud, S.,, B. Malavaud,, K. Sandres,, D. Durand,, N. Marty,, J. Icart, and, L. Rostaing. 2001. Nosocomial outbreak of influenza virus A (H3N2) infection in a solid organ transplant department. Transplantation 72:535537.
139. Marr, K. A.,, R. A. Carter,, M. Boeckh,, P. Martin, and, L. Corey. 2002. Invasive aspergillosis in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: changes in epidemiology and risk factors. Blood 100:43584366.
140. Martino, R.,, R. P. Porras,, N. Rabella,, J. V. Williams,, E. Ramila,, N. Margall,, R. Labeaga,, J. E. Crowe, Jr.,, P. Coll, and, J. Sierra. 2005. Prospective study of the incidence, clinical features, and outcome of symptomatic upper and lower respiratory tract infections by respiratory viruses in adult recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplants for hemato-logic malignancies. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 11:781796.
141. Martins, T. B. 2002. Development of internal controls for the Luminex instrument as part of a multiplex seven-analyte viral respiratory antibody profile. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 9:4145.
142. McCurdy, L. H.,, A. Milstone, and, S. Dummer. 2003. Clinical features and outcomes of paramyxoviral infection in lung transplant recipients treated with ribavirin. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 22:745753.
143. McIntosh, K. 2002. Coronaviruses, p. 1087–1096. In D. D. Richman,, R. J. Whitley, and, F. G. Hayden (ed.), Clinical Virology, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
144. McKimm-Breschkin, J.,, T. Trivedi,, A. Hampson,, A. Hay,, A. Klimov,, M. Tashiro,, F. Hayden, and, M. Zambon. 2003. Neuraminidase sequence analysis and susceptibilities of influenza virus clinical isolates to zanamivir and oseltamivir. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:22642272.
145. McKimm-Breschkin, J. L. 2005. Management of influenza virus infections with neuraminidase inhibitors: detection, incidence, and implications of drug resistance. Treat. Respir. Med. 4:107116.
146. Mentel, R.,, U. Wegner,, R. Bruns, and, L. Gütler. 2003. Real-time PCR to improve the diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection. J. Med. Microbiol. 52:893896.
147. Miall, F.,, A. Rye,, M. Fraser,, A. Hunter, and, J. A. Snowden. 2002. Human parainfluenza type 4 infection: a case report highlighting pathogenicity and difficulties in rapid diagnosis in the post-transplant setting. Bone Marrow Transplant. 29:541542.
148. Milstone, A. P.,, L. M. Brumble,, J. Barnes,, W. Estes,, J. E. Loyd,, R. N. Pierson III, and, S. Dummer. 2006. A single-season prospective study of respiratory viral infections in lung transplant recipients. Eur. Respir. J. 28:131137.
149. Moes, E.,, L. Vijgen,, E. Keyaerts,, K. Zlateva,, S. Li,, P. Maes,, K. Pyrc,, B. Berkhout,, L. van der Hoek, and, M. Van Ranst. 2005. A novel pancoronavirus RT-PCR assay: frequent detection of human coronavirus NL63 in children hospitalized with respiratory tract infections in Belgium. BMC Infect. Dis. 5:6.
150. Monto, A. S. 1994. Studies of the community and family: acute respiratory illness and infection. Epidemiol. Rev. 16:351373.
151. Monto, A. S.,, E. R. Bryan, and, S. Ohmit. 1987. Rhinovirus infections in Tecumseh, Michigan: frequency of illness and number of serotypes. J. Infect. Dis. 156:4349.
152. Moore, C.,, S. Hibbitts,, N. Owen,, S. A. Corden,, G. Harrison,, J. Fox,, C. Gelder, and, D. Westmoreland. 2004. Development and evaluation of a real-time nucleic acid sequence based amplification assay for rapid detection of influenza A. J. Med. Virol. 74:619628.
153. Moscona, A. 2005. Neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza. N. Engl. J. Med. 353:13631373.
154. Myint, S.,, D. Harmsen,, T. Raabe, and, S. G. Siddell. 1990. Characterization of a nucleic acid probe for the diagnosis of human coronavirus 229E infections. J. Med. Virol. 31:165172.
155. Myint, S.,, S. Johnston,, G. Sanderson, and, H. Simpson. 1994. Evaluation of nested polymerase chain methods for the detection of human coronaviruses 229E and OC43. Mol. Cell. Probes 8:357364.
156. Ng, E. K.,, and Y. M. Lo. 2006. Molecular diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Methods Mol. Biol. 336:163175.
157. Nichols, W. G.,, L. Corey,, T. Gooley,, C. Davis, and, M. Boeckh. 2001. Parainfluenza virus infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: risk factors, response to antiviral therapy, and effect on transplant outcome. Blood 98:573578.
158. Nichols, W. G.,, D. D. Erdman,, A. Han,, C. Zukerman,, L. Corey, and, M. Boeckh. 2004. Prolonged outbreak of human parainfluenza virus 3 infection in a stem cell transplant outpatient department: insights from molecular epidemiologic analysis. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 10:5864.
159. Nichols, W. G.,, T. Gooley, and, M. Boeckh. 2001. Community-acquired respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center experience. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 7(Suppl.):11S15S.
160. Nichols, W. G.,, K. A. Guthrie,, L. Corey, and, M. Boeckh. 2004. Influenza infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: risk factors, mortality, and the effect of antiviral therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:13001306.
161. Nicholson, K. G.,, J. M. Wood, and, M. Zambon. 2003. Influenza. Lancet 362:17331745.
162. Noyola, D. E.,, B. Clark,, F. T. O’Donnell,, R. L. Atmar,, J. Greer, and, G. J. Demmler. 2000. Comparison of a new neuraminidase detection assay with an enzyme immunoassay, immunofluorescence, and culture for rapid detection of influenza A and B viruses in nasal wash specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:11611165.
163. Noyola, D. E.,, and G. J. Demmler. 2000. Effect of rapid diagnosis on management of influenza A infections. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 19:303307.
164. Ong, G. M.,, D. E. Wyatt,, H. J. O’Neill,, C. McCaughey, and, P. V. Coyle. 2001. A comparison of nested polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence for the diagnosis of respiratory infections in children with bronchiolitis, and the implications for a cohorting strategy. J. Hosp. Infect. 49:122128.
165. Ottolini, M. G.,, S. R. Curtis,, A. Mathews,, S. R. Ottolini, and, G. A. Prince. 2002. Palivizumab is highly effective in suppressing respiratory syncytial virus in an immunosuppressed animal model. Bone Marrow Transplant. 29:117120.
166. Ottolini, M. G.,, D. D. Porter,, V. G. Hemming,, M. N. Zimmerman,, N. M. Schwab, and, G. A. Prince. 1999. Effectiveness of RSVIG prophylaxis and therapy of respiratory syncytial virus in an immunosuppressed animal model. Bone Marrow Transplant. 24:4145.
167. Pachucki, C. T. 2005. Rapid tests for influenza. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 7:187192.
168. Papadopoulos, N. G.,, J. Hunter,, G. Sanderson,, J. Meyer, and, S. L. Johnston. 1999. Rhinovirus identification by BglI digestion of picornavirus RT-PCR amplicons. J. Virol. Methods 80:179185.
169. Papadopoulos, N. G.,, G. Sanderson,, J. Hunter, and, S. L. Johnston. 1999. Rhinoviruses replicate effectively at lower airway temperatures. J. Med. Virol. 58:100104.
170. Peck, A. J.,, L. Corey, and, M. Boeckh. 2004. Pretrans-plantation respiratory syncytial virus infection: impact of a strategy to delay transplantation. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:673680.
171. Peiris, J. S.,, Y. Guan, and, K. Y. Yuen. 2004. Severe acute respiratory syndrome. Nat. Med. 10:S88S97.
172. Pelletier, G.,, P. Déry,, Y. Abed, and, G. Boivin. 2002. Respiratory tract reinfections by the new human metapneumovirus in an immunocompromised child. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:976979.
173. Percivalle, E.,, A. Sarasini,, L. Visai,, M. G. Revello, and, G. Gerna. 2005. Rapid detection of human metapneumovirus strains in nasopharyngeal aspirates and shell vial cultures by monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:34433446.
174. Peters, P. H.,, Jr., S. Gravenstein,, P. Norwood,, V. De Bock,, A. Van Couter,, M. Gibbens,, T. A. von Planta, and, P. Ward. 2001. Long-term use of oseltamivir for the prophylaxis of influenza in a vaccinated frail older population. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 49:10251031.
175. Piedra, P. A.,, J. A. Englund, and, W. P. Glezen. 2002. Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza viruses, p. 763–790. In D. D. Richman,, R. J. Whitley, and, F. G. Hayden (ed.), Clinical Virology, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
176. Pitkaranta, A.,, T. Puhakka,, M. J. Makela,, O. Ruuskanen,, O. Carpen, and, A. Vaheri. 2003. Detection of rhinovirus RNA in middle turbinate of patients with common colds by in situ hybridization. J. Med. Virol. 70:319323.
177. Puhakka, T.,, H. Lehti,, R. Vainionpaa,, V. Jormanainen,, M. Pulkkinen,, S. Sharp,, C. Kerr,, M. Dempsey,, C. J. Ring,, C. Ward, and, M. Tisdale. 2003. Zanamivir: a significant reduction in viral load during treatment in military conscripts with influenza. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 35:5258.
178. Pyrc, K.,, B. Berkhout, and, L. van der Hoek. 2007. The novel human coronaviruses NL63 and HKU1. J. Virol. 81:30513057.
179. Roghmann, M.,, K. Ball,, D. Erdman,, J. Lovchik,, L. J. Anderson, and, R. Edelman. 2003. Active surveillance for respiratory virus infections in adults who have undergone bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 32:10851088.
180. Rothberg, M. B.,, D. Fisher,, B. Kelly, and, D. N. Rose. 2005. Management of influenza symptoms in healthy children: cost-effectiveness of rapid testing and antiviral therapy. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 159:10551062.
181. Rovida, F.,, E. Percivalle,, M. Zavattoni,, M. Torsellini,, A. Sarasini,, G. Campanini,, S. Paolucci,, F. Baldanti,, M. G. Revello, and, G. Gerna. 2005. Monoclonal antibodies versus reverse transcription-PCR for detection of respiratory viruses in a patient population with respiratory tract infections admitted to hospital. J. Med. Virol. 75:336347.
182. Sauerbrei, A.,, A. Ulbricht, and, P. Wutzler. 2003. Semi-quantitative detection of viral RNA in influenza A virus-infected mice for evaluation of antiviral compounds. Antivir. Res. 58:8187.
183. Scheltinga, S. A.,, K. E. Templeton,, M. F. Beersma, and, E. C. Claas. 2005. Diagnosis of human metapneumovirus and rhinovirus in patients with respiratory tract infections by an internally controlled multiplex real-time RNA PCR. J. Clin. Virol. 33:306311.
184. Semple, M. G.,, A. Cowell,, W. Dove,, J. Greensill,, P. S. McNamara,, C. Halfhide,, P. Shears,, R. L. Smyth, and, C. A. Hart. 2005. Dual infection of infants by human metapneumovirus and human respiratory syncytial virus is strongly associated with severe bronchiolitis. J. Infect. Dis. 191:382386.
185. Sizun, J.,, N. Arbour, and, P. J. Talbot. 1998. Comparison of immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies and RT-PCR for the detection of human coronaviruses 229E and OC43 in cell culture. J. Virol. Methods 72:145152.
186. Sizun, J.,, D. Soupre,, M. C. Legrand,, J. D. Giroux,, S. Rubio,, J. M. Cauvin,, C. Chastel,, D. Alix, and, L. de Parscau. 1995. Neonatal nosocomial respiratory infection with corona-virus: a prospective study in a neonatal intensive care unit. Acta Paediatr. 84:617620.
187. Smit, M.,, K. A. Beynon,, D. R. Murdoch, and, L. C. Jennings. 2007. Comparison of the NOW Influenza A & B, NOW Flu A, NOW Flu B, and Directigen Flu A+B assays, and immunofluorescence with viral culture for the detection of influenza A and B viruses. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 57:6770.
188. Smith, K. J.,, and M. S. Roberts. 2002. Cost-effectiveness of newer treatment strategies for influenza. Am. J. Med. 113:300307.
189. Smith, N. M.,, J. S. Bresee,, D. K. Shay,, T. M. Uyeki,, N. J. Cox, and, R. A. Strikas. 2006. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommend. Rep. 55:142.
190. Steininger, C.,, S. W. Aberle, and, T. Popow-Kraupp. 2001. Early detection of acute rhinovirus infections by a rapid reverse transcription-PCR assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:129133.
191. Steininger, C.,, M. Kundi,, S. W. Aberle,, J. H. Aberle, and, T. Popow-Kraupp. 2002. Effectiveness of reverse transcription-PCR, virus isolation, and enzyme-linked immunosor-bent assay for diagnosis of influenza A virus infection in different age groups. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:20512056.
192. St. George, K.,, N. M. Patel,, R. A. Hartwig,, D. R. Scholl,, J. A. Jollick, Jr.,, L. M. Kauffmann,, M. R. Evans, and, C. R. Rinaldo, Jr. 2002. Rapid and sensitive detection of respiratory virus infections for directed antiviral treatment using RMix cultures. J. Clin. Virol. 24:107115.
193. Sumino, K. C.,, E. Agapov,, R. A. Pierce,, E. P. Trulock,, J. D. Pfeifer,, J. H. Ritter,, M. Gaudreault-Keener,, G. A. Storch, and, M. J. Holtzman. 2005. Detection of severe human metapneumovirus infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction and histopathological assessment. J. Infect. Dis. 192:10521060.
194. Thervet, E.,, C. Legendre,, P. Beaune, and, D. Anglicheau. 2005. Cytochrome P450 3A polymorphisms and immunosuppressive drugs. Pharmacogenomics 6:3747.
195. The Writing Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) Consultation on Human Influenza A/H5. 2005. Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans. N. Engl. J. Med. 353:13741385.
196. Thompson, W. W.,, D. K. Shay,, E. Weintraub,, L. Brammer,, C. B. Bridges,, N. J. Cox, and, K. Fukuda. 2004. Influenza-associated hospitalizations in the United States. JAMA 292:13331340.
197. Thompson, W. W.,, D. K. Shay,, E. Weintraub,, L. Brammer,, N. Cox,, L. J. Anderson, and, K. Fukuda. 2003. Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States. JAMA 289:179186.
198. Uncapher, C. R.,, C. M. DeWitt, and, R. J. Colonno. 1991. The major and minor group receptor families contain all but one human rhinovirus serotype. Virology 180:814817.
199. van Burik, J. A. 2006. Human metapneumovirus: important but not currently diagnosable. Ann. Intern. Med. 144:374375.
200. van den Hoogen, B. G.,, J. C. de Jong,, J. Groen,, T. Kuiken,, R. de Groot,, R. A. Fouchier, and, A. D. Osterhaus. 2001. A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease. Nat. Med. 7:719724.
201. van den Hoogen, B. G.,, D. M. Osterhaus, and, R. A. Fouchier. 2004. Clinical impact and diagnosis of human metapneumovirus infection. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 23:S25S32.
202. van den Hoogen, B. G.,, G. J. van Doornum,, J. C. Fockens,, J. J. Cornelissen,, W. E. Beyer,, R. de Groot,, A. D. Osterhaus, and, R. A. Fouchier. 2003. Prevalence and clinical symptoms of human metapneumovirus infection in hospitalized patients. J. Infect. Dis. 188:15711577.
203. van der Hoek, L.,, K. Pyrc, and, B. Berkhout. 2006. Human coronavirus NL63, a new respiratory virus. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 30:760773.
204. van der Hoek, L.,, K. Pyrc,, M. F. Jebbink,, W. Vermeulen-Oost,, R. J. Berkhout,, K. C. Wolthers,, P. M. Wertheim-van Dillen,, J. Kaandorp,, J. Spaargaren, and, B. Berkhout. 2004. Identification of a new human coronavirus. Nat. Med. 10:368373.
205. van Elden, L. J.,, A. M. van Loon,, A. van der Beek,, K. A. Hendriksen,, A. I. Hoepelman,, M. G. van Kraaij,, P. Schipper, and, M. Nijhuis. 2003. Applicability of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection in immunocompromised adults. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:43784381.
206. van Kraaij, M. G.,, L. J. van Elden,, A. M. van Loon,, K. A. Hendriksen,, L. Laterveer,, A. W. Dekker, and, M. Nijhuis. 2005. Frequent detection of respiratory viruses in adult recipients of stem cell transplants with the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction, compared with viral culture. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:662669.
207. Vilchez, R. A.,, J. Dauber, and, S. Kusne. 2003. Infectious etiology of bronchiolitis obliterans: the respiratory viruses connection—myth or reality? Am. J. Transplant. 3:245249.
208. Vilchez, R. A.,, J. Dauber,, K. McCurry,, A. Iacono, and, S. Kusne. 2003. Parainfluenza virus infection in adult lung transplant recipients: an emergent clinical syndrome with implications on allograft function. Am. J. Transplant. 3:116120.
209. Vilchez, R. A.,, K. McCurry,, J. Dauber,, A. Lacono,, B. Griffith,, J. Fung, and, S. Kusne. 2002. Influenza virus infection in adult solid organ transplant recipients. Am. J. Transplant. 2:287291.
210. Wang, D.,, L. Coscoy,, M. Zylberberg,, P. C. Avila,, H. A. Boushey,, D. Ganem, and, J. L. DeRisi. 2002. Microarray-based detection and genotyping of viral pathogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:1568715692.
211. Watzinger, F.,, M. Suda,, S. Preuner,, R. Baumgartinger,, K. Ebner,, L. Baskova,, H. G. Niesters,, A. Lawitschka, and, T. Lion. 2004. Real-time quantitative PCR assays for detection and monitoring of pathogenic human viruses in immunosuppressed pediatric patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:51895198.
212. Weinberg, A.,, L. Brewster,, J. Clark, and, E. Simoes. 2004. Evaluation of R-Mix shell vials for the diagnosis of viral respiratory tract infections. J. Clin. Virol. 30:100105.
213. Weinberg, A.,, M. R. Zamora,, S. Li,, F. Torres, and, T. N. Hodges. 2002. The value of polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of viral respiratory tract infections in lung transplant recipients. J. Clin. Virol. 25:171175.
214. Wendt, C. H.,, J. M. Fox, and, M. I. Hertz. 1995. Paramyxovirus infection in lung transplant recipients. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 14:479485.
215. Williams, J. V.,, R. Martino,, N. Rabella,, M. Otegui,, R. Parody,, J. M. Heck, and, J. E. Crowe, Jr. 2005. A prospective study comparing human metapneumovirus with other respiratory viruses in adults with hematologic malignancies and respiratory tract infections. J. Infect. Dis. 192:10611065.
216. Woo, P. C.,, S. K. Lau,, C. M. Chu,, K. H. Chan,, H. W. Tsoi,, Y. Huang,, B. H. Wong,, R. W. Poon,, J. J. Cai,, W. K. Luk,, L. L. Poon,, S. S. Wong,, Y. Guan,, J. S. Peiris, and, K. Y. Yuen. 2005. Characterization and complete genome sequence of a novel coronavirus, coronavirus HKU1, from patients with pneumonia. J. Virol. 79:884895.
217. Woo, P. C.,, S. K. Lau,, H. W. Tsoi,, Y. Huang,, R. W. Poon,, C. M. Chu,, R. A. Lee,, W. K. Luk,, G. K. Wong,, B. H. Wong,, V. C. Cheng,, B. S. Tang,, A. K. Wu,, R. W. Yung,, H. Chen,, Y. Guan,, K. H. Chan, and, K. Y. Yuen. 2005. Clinical and molecular epidemiological features of coronavirus HKU1-associated community-acquired pneumonia. J. Infect. Dis. 192:18981907.
218. Woods, J. M.,, R. C. Bethell,, J. A. Coates,, N. Healy,, S. A. Hiscox,, B. A. Pearson,, D. M. Ryan,, J. Ticehurst,, J. Tilling,, S. M. Walcott, et al. 1993. 4-Guanidino-2,4-dideoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid is a highly effective inhibitor both of the sialidase (neuraminidase) and of growth of a wide range of influenza A and B viruses in vitro. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:14731479.
219. Wyde, P. R.,, S. N. Chetty,, A. M. Jewell,, G. Boivin, and, P. A. Piedra. 2003. Comparison of the inhibition of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus by ribavirin and immune serum globulin in vitro. Antivir. Res. 60:5159.
220. Wyde, P. R.,, S. N. Chetty,, A. M. Jewell,, S. L. Schoonover, and, P. A. Piedra. 2005. Development of a cotton rat-human metapneumovirus (hMPV) model for identifying and evaluating potential hMPV antivirals and vaccines. Antivir. Res. 66:5766.
221. Wyde, P. R.,, E. H. Moylett,, S. N. Chetty,, A. Jewell,, T. L. Bowlin, and, P. A. Piedra. 2004. Comparison of the inhibition of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus by NMSO3 in tissue culture assays. Antivir. Res. 63:5159.
222. Zambon, M.,, and F. G. Hayden. 2001. Position statement: global neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility network. Antivir. Res. 49:147156.
223. Zambon, M. C.,, J. D. Stockton,, J. P. Clewley, and, D. M. Fleming. 2001. Contribution of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus to community cases of influenza-like illness: an observational study. Lancet 358:14101416.
224. Zavattoni, M.,, E. Percivalle,, E. Cattaneo,, M. G. Revello,, M. Torsellini, and, G. Gerna. 2003. Optimized detection of respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal secretions. New Microbiol. 26:133140.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy for respiratory viral infections in transplant recipients

Citation: Ison M, Rosenberg E. 2009. RNA Respiratory Viruses, p 141-160. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 2.

FDA-approved rapid diagnostic tests for influenza

Citation: Ison M, Rosenberg E. 2009. RNA Respiratory Viruses, p 141-160. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 3.

FDA approved rapid diagnostic tests for RSV

Citation: Ison M, Rosenberg E. 2009. RNA Respiratory Viruses, p 141-160. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Sensitivity of R-Mix cell cultures in detecting specific respiratory viruses

Citation: Ison M, Rosenberg E. 2009. RNA Respiratory Viruses, p 141-160. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 5.

Detection of respiratory viruses by MAbs versus reverse transcription-PCR

Citation: Ison M, Rosenberg E. 2009. RNA Respiratory Viruses, p 141-160. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch7

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error