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Chapter 9 : Parvovirus
Category: Clinical Microbiology
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Until the discovery of Human bocavirus, Parvovirus B19 was the only member of the large Parvoviridae family to be associated unequivocally with human disease. During acute infection, parvovirus B19 has been detected in the nasopharynx, blood, bone marrow, liver, skin, cerebrospinal fluid, and synovium. It is not clear whether parvovirus B19 is eliminated from the host or remains in an inactive state capable of reactivation. It is possible that parvovirus B19 may integrate into the human genome, as occurs with other parvoviruses, such as minute virus of mice and dependoviruses. Acquisition of parvovirus B19 infection begins in childhood and continues throughout life. Infection with parvovirus occurs year-round but may peak in late winter to early summer. Parvovirus B19 has also been linked to myocarditis, a variety of neurologic syndromes, uveitis, hepatitis, renal syndromes, vasculitis, and chronic fatigue syndrome. No vaccine or antiviral is available for parvovirus B19 infection. Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies is the mainstay of parvovirus B19 diagnosis in the immunocompetent host. Parvovirus B19 is an infrequent but serious and treatable cause of chronic anemia in immunocompromised hosts.
Parvovirus B19 diagnostic methods in order of diagnostic utility
Parvovirus B19 serologic assays
Examples of parvovirus B19 real-time PCR assays