Chapter 9 : Parvovirus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Parvovirus, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815455/9781555813970_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815455/9781555813970_Chap09-2.gif


Until the discovery of , B19 was the only member of the large family to be associated unequivocally with human disease. During acute infection, parvovirus B19 has been detected in the nasopharynx, blood, bone marrow, liver, skin, cerebrospinal fluid, and synovium. It is not clear whether parvovirus B19 is eliminated from the host or remains in an inactive state capable of reactivation. It is possible that parvovirus B19 may integrate into the human genome, as occurs with other parvoviruses, such as minute virus of mice and dependoviruses. Acquisition of parvovirus B19 infection begins in childhood and continues throughout life. Infection with parvovirus occurs year-round but may peak in late winter to early summer. Parvovirus B19 has also been linked to myocarditis, a variety of neurologic syndromes, uveitis, hepatitis, renal syndromes, vasculitis, and chronic fatigue syndrome. No vaccine or antiviral is available for parvovirus B19 infection. Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies is the mainstay of parvovirus B19 diagnosis in the immunocompetent host. Parvovirus B19 is an infrequent but serious and treatable cause of chronic anemia in immunocompromised hosts.

Citation: Landry M. 2009. Parvovirus, p 183-193. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch9

Key Concept Ranking

Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Aberham, C.,, C. Pendl,, P. Gross,, G. Zerlauth, and, M. Gessner. 2001. A quantitative, internally controlled real-time PCR assay for the detection of parvovirus B19 DNA. J. Virol. Methods 92:183191.
2. Allander, T.,, M. T. Tammi,, M. Eriksson,, A. Bjerkner,, A. Tiveljung-Lindell, and, B. Andersson. 2005. Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1289112896.
3. Amiot, L.,, T. Langanay,, B. Drenou,, B. Lelong,, P. Y. Le Prise,, Y. Logeais,, R. Colimon, and, R. Fauchet. 1998. Spontaneous recovery from severe parvovirus B19 pure red cell aplasia, in a heart transplant recipient, as demonstrated by marrow culture. Hematol. Cell Ther. 40:7173.
4. Anderson, M. J.,, P. G. Higgins,, L. R. Davis,, J. S. Willman,, S. E. Jones,, I. M. Kidd,, J. R. Pattison, and, D. A. Tyrrell. 1985. Experimental parvoviral infection in humans. J. Infect. Dis. 152:257265.
5. Arnold, J. C.,, K. K. Singh,, S. A. Spector, and, M. H. Sawyer. 2006. Human bocavirus: prevalence and clinical spectrum at a children’s hospital. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43:283288.
6. Arzouk, N.,, R. Snanoudj,, A. Beauchamp-Nicoud,, G. Mourad,, B. Charpentier,, G. Tchernia, and, A. Durrbach. 2006. Parvovirus B19-induced anemia in renal transplantation: a role for rHuEPO in resistance to classical treatment. Transpl. Int. 19:166169.
7. Bakhshi, S.,, S. A. Sarnaik,, C. Becker,, W. W. Shurney,, M. Nigro, and, S. Savasan. 2002. Acute encephalopathy with parvovirus B19 infection in sickle cell disease. Arch. Dis. Child. 87:541542.
8. Barah, F.,, P. J. Vallely,, M. L. Chiswick,, G. M. Cleator, and, J. R. Kerr. 2001. Association of human parvovirus B19 infection with acute meningoencephalitis. Lancet 358:729730.
9. Barah, F.,, P. J. Vallely,, G. M. Cleator, and, J. R. Kerr. 2003. Neurological manifestations of human parvovirus B19 infection. Rev. Med. Virol. 13:185199.
10. Bastien, N.,, K. Brandt,, K. Dust,, D. Ward, and, Y. Li. 2006. Human bocavirus infection, Canada. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:848850.
11. Baylis, S. A.,, J. F. Fryer, and, P. Grabarczyk. 2007. Effects of probe binding mutations in an assay designed to detect parvovirus B19: implications for the quantitation of different virus genotypes. J. Virol. Methods 139:9799.
12. Baylis, S. A.,, N. Shah, and, P. D. Minor. 2004. Evaluation of different assays for the detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in human plasma. J. Virol. Methods 121:716.
13. Bilge, I.,, B. Sadikoglu,, S. Emre,, A. Sirin,, K. Aydin, and, B. Tatli. 2005. Central nervous system vasculitis secondary to parvovirus B19 infection in a pediatric renal transplant patient. Pediatr. Nephrol. 20:529533.
14. Bock, C. T.,, K. Klingel,, S. Aberle,, A. Duechting,, A. Lupescu,, F. Lang, and, R. Kandolf. 2005. Human parvovirus B19: a new emerging pathogen of inflammatory cardiomyopathy. J. Vet. Med. B 52:340343.
15. Borkowski, J.,, M. Amrikachi, and, S. D. Hudnall. 2000. Fulminant parvovirus infection following erythropoietin treatment in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 124:441445.
16. Braham, S.,, J. Gandhi,, S. Beard, and, B. Cohen. 2004. Evaluation of the Roche LightCycler parvovirus B19 quantification kit for the diagnosis of parvovirus B19 infections. J. Clin. Virol. 31:510.
17. Brown, K. E. 2004. Detection and quantitation of parvovirus B19. J. Clin. Virol. 31:14.
18. Brown, K. E. 2004. Variants of B19. Dev. Biol. (Basel) 118:7177.
19. Brown, K. E.,, S. M. Anderson, and, N. S. Young. 1993. Erythrocyte P antigen: cellular receptor for B19 parvovirus. Science 262:114117.
20. Brown, K. E.,, N. S. Young, and, J. M. Liu. 1994. Molecular, cellular and clinical aspects of parvovirus B19 infection. Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 16:131.
21. Buller, R. S.,, and G. Storch. 2004. Evaluation of a real-time PCR assay using the LightCycler system for detection of parvovirus B19 DNA. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:33263328.
22. Bultmann, B. D.,, K. Klingel,, K. Sotlar,, C. T. Bock,, H. A. Baba,, M. Sauter, and, R. Kandolf. 2003. Fatal parvovirus B19-associated myocarditis clinically mimicking ischemic heart disease: an endothelial cell-mediated disease. Hum. Pathol. 34:9295.
23. Bultmann, B. D.,, K. Klingel,, K. Sotlar,, C. T. Bock, and, R. Kandolf. 2003. Parvovirus B19: a pathogen responsible for more than hematologic disorders. Virchows Arch. 442:817.
24. Butchko, A. R.,, and J. A. Jordan. 2004. Comparison of three commercially available serologic assays used to detect human parvovirus B19-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies in sera of pregnant women. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:31913195.
25. Calvet, A.,, M. O. Pujol,, M. Bertocchi,, O. Bastien,, P. Boissonnat, and, J. F. Mornex. 1999. Parvovirus B19 infection in thoracic organ transplant recipients. J. Clin. Virol. 13:3742.
26. Cassinotti, P.,, G. Burtonboy,, M. Fopp, and, G. Siegl. 1997. Evidence for persistence of human parvovirus B19 DNA in bone marrow. J. Med. Virol. 53:229232.
27. Cassinotti, P.,, D. Schultze,, P. Schlageter,, S. Chevili, and, G. Siegl. 1993. Persistent human parvovirus B19 infection following an acute infection with meningitis in an immunocompetent patient. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 12:701704.
28. Cassinotti, P.,, and G. Siegl. 2000. Quantitative evidence for persistence of human parvovirus B19 DNA in an immunocompetent individual. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 19:886887.
29. Chen, M. Y.,, C. C. Hung,, C. T. Fang, and, S. M. Hsieh. 2001. Reconstituted immunity against persistent parvovirus B19 infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:13611365.
30. Chinsky, J. M.,, and R. R. Kalyani. 2006. Fever and petechial rash associated with parvovirus B19 infection. Clin. Pediatr. (Philadelphia) 45:275280.
31. Cohen, B. J.,, S. Beard,, W. A. Knowles,, J. S. Ellis,, D. Joske,, J. M. Goldman,, P. Hewitt, and, K. N. Ward. 1997. Chronic anemia due to parvovirus B19 infection in a bone marrow transplant patient after platelet transfusion. Transfusion 37:947952.
32. Cohen, B. J.,, J. Gandhi, and, J. P. Clewley. 2006. Genetic variants of parvovirus B19 identified in the United Kingdom: implications for diagnostic testing. J. Clin. Virol. 36:152155.
33. Corcoran, A.,, and S. Doyle. 2004. Advances in the biology, diagnosis and host-pathogen interactions of parvovirus B19. J. Med. Microbiol. 53:459475.
34. Cossart, Y. E.,, A. M. Field,, B. Cant, and, D. Widdows. 1975. Parvovirus-like particles in human sera. Lancet i:7273.
35. Crook, T. W.,, B. B. Rogers,, R. D. McFarland,, S. H. Kroft,, P. Muretto,, J. A. Hernandez,, M. J. Latimer, and, R. W. McKenna. 2000. Unusual bone marrow manifestations of parvovirus B19 infection in immunocompromised patients. Hum. Pathol. 31:161168.
36. Eid, A. J.,, R. A. Brown,, R. Patel, and, R. R. Razonable. 2006. Parvovirus B19 infection after transplantation: a review of 98 cases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43:4048.
37. El-Mahallawy, H. A.,, T. Mansour,, S. E. El-Din,, M. Hafez, and, S. Abd-el-Latif. 2004. Parvovirus B19 infection as a cause of anemia in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients during maintenance chemotherapy. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 26:403406.
38. Erdman, D. D.,, E. L. Durigon, and, B. P. Holloway. 1994. Detection of human parvovirus B19 DNA PCR products by RNA probe hybridization enzyme immunoassay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:22952298.
39. Fattet, S.,, P. Cassinotti, and, M. B. Popovic. 2004. Persistent human parvovirus B19 infection in children under maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 26:497503.
40. Ferguson, M.,, and A. Heath. 2004. Report of a collaborative study to calibrate the second international standard for parvovirus B19 antibody. Biologicals 32:207212.
41. Flunker, G.,, A. Peters,, S. Wiersbitzky,, S. Modrow, and, W. Seidel. 1998. Persistent parvovirus B19 infections in immunocompromised children. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. (Berlin) 186:189194.
42. Frickhofen, N.,, J. L. Abkowitz,, M. Safford,, J. M. Berry,, J. Antunez-de-Mayolo,, A. Astrow,, R. Cohen,, I. Halperin,, L. King,, D. Mintzer, et al. 1990. Persistent B19 parvovirus infection in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1): a treatable cause of anemia in AIDS. Ann. Intern. Med. 113:926933.
43. Frickhofen, N.,, Z. J. Chen,, N. S. Young,, B. J. Cohen,, H. Heimpel, and, J. L. Abkowitz. 1994. Parvovirus B19 as a cause of acquired chronic pure red cell aplasia. Br. J. Haematol. 87:818824.
44. Gallinella, G.,, M. Zerbini,, M. Musiani,, S. Venturoli,, G. Gentilomi, and, E. Manaresi. 1997. Quantitation of parvovirus B19 DNA sequences by competitive PCR: differential hybridization of the amplicons and immunoenzymatic detection on microplate. Mol. Cell. Probes 11:127133.
45. Geetha, D.,, J. B. Zachary,, H. M. Baldado,, J. D. Kronz, and, E. S. Kraus. 2000. Pure red cell aplasia caused by parvovirus B19 infection in solid organ transplant recipients: a case report and review of literature. Clin. Transplant. 14:586591.
46. Gilsanz, F.,, J. Garcia Vela,, J. A. Vargas,, J. Ibanez,, F. Ona,, J. Lopez, and, M. Roggendorf. 1995. Acquired pure red cell aplasia: a study of six cases. Ann. Hematol. 71:181183.
47. Goedert, J. J.,, D. D. Erdman,, B. A. Konkle,, T. J. Torok,, M. M. Lederman,, D. Kleinert,, T. Mandalaki,, C. M. Kessler,, L. J. Anderson, and, N. L. Luban. 1997. Parvovirus B19 quiescence during the course of human immunodeficiency virus infection in persons with hemophilia. Am. J. Hematol. 56:248251.
48. Graeve, J. L.,, P. A. de Alarcon, and, S. J. Naides. 1989. Parvovirus B19 infection in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy: the expanding spectrum of disease. Am. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 11:441444.
49. Harder, T. C.,, M. Hufnagel,, K. Zahn,, K. Beutel,, H. J. Schmitt,, U. Ullmann, and, P. Rautenberg. 2001. New Light-Cycler PCR for rapid and sensitive quantification of parvovirus B19 DNA guides therapeutic decision-making in relapsing infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:44134419.
50. Heegaard, E. D.,, and K. E. Brown. 2002. Human parvovirus B19. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 15:485505.
51. Heegaard, E. D.,, B. L. Petersen,, C. J. Heilmann, and, A. Hornsleth. 2002. Prevalence of parvovirus B19 and parvovirus V9 DNA and antibodies in paired bone marrow and serum samples from healthy individuals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:933936.
52. Heegaard, E. D.,, N. A. Peterslund, and, A. Hornsleth. 1995. Parvovirus B19 infection associated with encephalitis in a patient suffering from malignant lymphoma. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 27:631633.
53. Heegaard, E. D.,, K. Qvortrup, and, J. Christensen. 2002. Baculovirus expression of erythrovirus V9 capsids and screening by ELISA: serologic cross-reactivity with erythrovirus B19. J. Med. Virol. 66:246252.
54. Hemauer, A.,, A. von Poblotzki,, A. Gigler,, P. Cassinotti,, G. Siegl,, H. Wolf, and, S. Modrow. 1996. Sequence variability among different parvovirus B19 isolates. J. Gen. Virol. 77:17811785.
55. Hofbauer, G. F.,, A. Boehler,, R. Speich,, G. Burg, and, F. O. Nestle. 2002. Painless erythema of the hands associated with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in a lung transplant recipient. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 46:S159S160.
56. Hokynar, K.,, P. Norja,, H. Laitinen,, P. Palomaki,, A. Garbarg-Chenon,, A. Ranki,, K. Hedman, and, M. Soderlund-Venermo. 2004. Detection and differentiation of human parvovirus variants by commercial quantitative real-time PCR tests. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:20132019.
57. Hokynar, K.,, M. Soderlund-Venermo,, M. Pesonen,, A. Ranki,, O. Kiviluoto,, E. K. Partio, and, K. Hedman. 2002. A new parvovirus genotype persistent in human skin. Virology 302:224228.
58. Isobe, Y.,, K. Sugimoto,, Y. Shiraki,, M. Nishitani,, K. Koike, and, K. Oshimi. 2004. Successful high-titer immunoglobulin therapy for persistent parvovirus B19 infection in a lymphoma patient treated with rituximab-combined chemotherapy. Am. J. Hematol. 77:370373.
59. Jordan, J. A. 2000. Comparison of a baculovirus-based VP2 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to an Escherichia coli-based VP1 EIA for detection of human parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G in sera of pregnant women. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:14721475.
60. Jordan, J. A. 2001. Diagnosing human parvovirus B19 infection: guidelines for test selection. Mol. Diagn. 6:307312.
61. Jordan, J. A.,, S. J. Faas,, E. R. Braun, and, M. Trucco. 1996. Exonuclease-released fluorescence detection of human parvovirus B19 DNA. Mol. Diagn. 1:321328.
62. Kariyawasam, H. H.,, K. M. Gyi,, M. E. Hodson, and, B. J. Cohen. 2000. Anaemia in lung transplant patient caused by parvovirus B19. Thorax 55:619620.
63. Kerr, J. R. 2005. Pathogenesis of parvovirus B19 infection: host gene variability, and possible means and effects of virus persistence. J. Vet. Med. B 52:335339.
64. Kerr, J. R.,, F. Barah,, M. L. Chiswick,, G. V. McDonnell,, J. Smith,, M. D. Chapman,, J. B. Bingham,, P. Kelleher, and, M. N. Sheppard. 2002. Evidence for the role of demyelination, HLA-DR alleles, and cytokines in the pathogenesis of parvovirus B19 meningoencephalitis and its sequelae. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psych. 73:739746.
65. Kerr, J. R.,, F. Barah,, D. L. Mattey,, I. Laing,, S. J. Hopkins,, I. V. Hutchinson, and, D. A. Tyrrell. 2001. Circulating tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma are detectable during acute and convalescent parvovirus B19 infection and are associated with prolonged and chronic fatigue. J. Gen. Virol. 82:30113019.
66. Kerr, J. R.,, J. Bracewell,, I. Laing,, D. L. Mattey,, R. M. Bernstein,, I. N. Bruce, and, D. A. Tyrrell. 2002. Chronic fatigue syndrome and arthralgia following parvovirus B19 infection. J. Rheumatol. 29:595602.
67. Kerr, J. R.,, V. S. Cunniffe,, P. Kelleher,, R. M. Bernstein, and, I. N. Bruce. 2003. Successful intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in 3 cases of parvovirus B19-associated chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36:e100e106.
68. Kerr, J. R.,, M. D. Curran,, J. E. Moore, and, P. G. Murphy. 1995. Parvovirus B19 infection—persistence and genetic variation. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 27:551557.
69. Kerr, J. R.,, and S. Modrow. 2006. Human and primate parvovirus infections and associated disease, p. 385–416. In J. R. Kerr,, S. G. Cotmore,, M. E. Bloom,, R. M. Linden, and, C. R. Parrish (ed.), Parvoviruses. Edward Arnold Limited, London, United Kingdom.
70. Kesebir, D.,, M. Vazquez,, C. Weibel,, E. D. Shapiro,, D. Ferguson,, M. L. Landry, and, J. S. Kahn. 2006. Human bocavirus infection in young children in the United States: molecular epidemiological profile and clinical characteristics of a newly emerging respiratory virus. J. Infect. Dis. 194:12761282.
71. Koch, W. C.,, G. Massey,, C. E. Russell, and, S. P. Adler. 1990. Manifestations and treatment of human parvovirus B19 infection in immunocompromised patients. J. Pediatr. 116:355359.
72. Kuo, S. H.,, L. I. Lin,, C. J. Chang,, Y. R. Liu,, K. S. Lin, and, A. L. Cheng. 2002. Increased risk of parvovirus B19 infection in young adult cancer patients receiving multiple courses of chemotherapy. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:39093912.
73. Kurtzman, G.,, N. Frickhofen,, J. Kimball,, D. W. Jenkins,, A. W. Nienhuis, and, N. S. Young. 1989. Pure red-cell aplasia of 10 years’ duration due to persistent parvovirus B19 infection and its cure with immunoglobulin therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 321:519523.
74. Kurtzman, G. J.,, B. Cohen,, P. Meyers,, A. Amunullah, and, N. S. Young. 1988. Persistent B19 parvovirus infection as a cause of severe chronic anaemia in children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia. Lancet ii:11591162.
75. Kurtzman, G. J.,, B. J. Cohen,, A. M. Field,, R. Oseas,, R. M. Blaese, and, N. S. Young. 1989. Immune response to B19 parvovirus and an antibody defect in persistent viral infection. J. Clin. Investig. 84:11141123.
76. Liefeldt, L.,, A. Plentz,, B. Klempa,, O. Kershaw,, A. S. Endres,, U. Raab,, H. H. Neumayer,, H. Meisel, and, S. Modrow. 2005. Recurrent high level parvovirus B19/genotype 2 viremia in a renal transplant recipient analyzed by real-time PCR for simultaneous detection of genotypes 1 to 3. J. Med. Virol. 75:161169.
77. Manaresi, E.,, G. Gallinella,, E. Zuffi,, F. Bonvicini,, M. Zerbini, and, M. Musiani. 2002. Diagnosis and quantitative evaluation of parvovirus B19 infections by real-time PCR in the clinical laboratory. J. Med. Virol. 67:275281.
78. Matsumoto, Y.,, D. Naniwa,, S. Banno, and, Y. Sugiura. 1998. The efficacy of therapeutic plasmapheresis for the treatment of fatal hemophagocytic syndrome: two case reports. Ther. Apher. 2:300304.
79. McNall, R. Y.,, D. R. Head,, C. H. Pui, and, B. I. Razzouk. 2001. Parvovirus B19 infection in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during induction therapy. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 23:309311.
80. McNeely, M.,, J. Friedman, and, E. Pope. 2005. Generalized petechial eruption induced by parvovirus B19 infection. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52:S109S113.
81. Moudgil, A.,, C. C. Nast,, A. Bagga,, L. Wei,, A. Nurmamet,, A. H. Cohen,, S. C. Jordan, and, M. Toyoda. 2001. Association of parvovirus B19 infection with idiopathic collapsing glomerulopathy. Kidney Int. 59:21262133.
82. Moudgil, A.,, H. Shidban,, C. C. Nast,, A. Bagga,, S. Aswad,, S. L. Graham,, R. Mendez, and, S. C. Jordan. 1997. Parvovirus B19 infection-related complications in renal transplant recipients: treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Transplantation 64:18471850.
83. Musiani, M.,, A. Azzi,, M. Zerbini,, D. Gibellini,, S. Venturoli,, K. Zakrzewska,, M. C. Re,, G. Gentilomi,, G. Gallinella, and, M. La Placa. 1993. Nested polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of B19 parvovirus DNA in human immunodeficiency virus patients. J. Med. Virol. 40:157160.
84. Nakazawa, T.,, N. Tomosugi,, K. Sakamoto,, M. Asaka,, T. Yuri,, I. Ishikawa, and, S. Kitagawa. 2000. Acute glomerulonephritis after human parvovirus B19 infection. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 35:E31.
85. Nguyen, Q. T.,, C. Sifer,, V. Schneider,, X. Allaume,, A. Servant,, F. Bernaudin,, V. Auguste, and, A. Garbarg-Chenon. 1999. Novel human erythrovirus associated with transient aplastic anemia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:24832487.
86. Nguyen, Q. T.,, C. Sifer,, V. Schneider,, F. Bernaudin,, V. Auguste, and, A. Garbarg-Chenon. 1998. Detection of an erythrovirus sequence distinct from B19 in a child with acute anaemia. Lancet 352:1524.
87. Nguyen, Q. T.,, S. Wong,, E. D. Heegaard, and, K. E. Brown. 2002. Identification and characterization of a second novel human erythrovirus variant, A6. Virology 301:374380.
88. Nigro, G.,, V. Bastianon,, V. Colloridi,, F. Ventriglia,, P. Gallo,, G. D’Amati,, W. C. Koch, and, S. P. Adler. 2000. Human parvovirus B19 infection in infancy associated with acute and chronic lymphocytic myocarditis and high cytokine levels: report of 3 cases and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31:6569.
89. Peterlana, D.,, A. Puccetti,, R. Corrocher, and, C. Lunardi. 2006. Serologic and molecular detection of human parvovirus B19 infection. Clin. Chim. Acta 372:1423.
90. Plentz, A.,, J. Hahn,, E. Holler,, W. Jilg, and, S. Modrow. 2004. Long-term parvovirus B19 viraemia associated with pure red cell aplasia after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. J. Clin. Virol. 31:1619.
91. Rao, S. P.,, S. T. Miller, and, B. J. Cohen. 1994. B19 parvovirus infection in children with malignant solid tumors receiving chemotherapy. Med. Pediatr. Oncol. 22:255257.
92. Rao, S. P.,, S. T. Miller, and, B. J. Cohen. 1990. Severe anemia due to B19 parvovirus infection in children with acute leukemia in remission. Am. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 12:194197.
93. Saldanha, J.,, N. Lelie,, M. W. Yu, and, A. Heath. 2002. Establishment of the first World Health Organization international standard for human parvovirus B19 DNA nucleic acid amplification techniques. Vox Sang. 82:2431.
94. Schalasta, G.,, M. Schmid,, T. Lachmund, and, G. Enders. 2004. LightCycler consensus PCR for rapid and differential detection of human erythrovirus B19 and V9 isolates. J. Med. Virol. 73:5459.
95. Schleuning, M.,, G. Jager,, E. Holler,, W. Hill,, C. Thomssen,, C. Denzlinger,, T. Lorenz,, G. Ledderose,, W. Wilmanns, and, H. J. Kolb. 1999. Human parvovirus B19-associated disease in bone marrow transplantation. Infection 27:114117.
96. Schowengerdt, K. O.,, J. Ni,, S. W. Denfield,, R. J. Gajarski,, N. E. Bowles,, G. Rosenthal,, D. L. Kearney,, J. K. Price,, B. B. Rogers,, G. M. Schauer,, R. E. Chinnock, and, J. A. Towbin. 1997. Association of parvovirus B19 genome in children with myocarditis and cardiac allograft rejection: diagnosis using the polymerase chain reaction. Circulation 96:35493554.
97. Servant, A.,, S. Laperche,, F. Lallemand,, V. Marinho,, G. De Saint Maur,, J. F. Meritet, and, A. Garbarg-Chenon. 2002. Genetic diversity within human erythroviruses: identification of three genotypes. J. Virol. 76:91249134.
98. Seyama, K.,, R. Kobayashi,, H. Hasle,, A. J. Apter,, J. C. Rutledge,, D. Rosen, and, H. D. Ochs. 1998. Parvovirus B19 induced anemia as the presenting manifestation of X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 178:318324.
99. Shaw, P. J.,, T. Eden, and, B. J. Cohen. 1993. Parvovirus B19 as a cause of chronic anemia in rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer 72:945949.
100. Siegl, G.,, and P. Cassinotti. 1998. Presence and significance of parvovirus B19 in blood and blood products. Biologicals 26:8994.
101. Smith, M. A.,, N. R. Shah,, J. S. Lobel,, P. J. Cera,, G. W. Gary, and, L. J. Anderson. 1988. Severe anemia caused by human parvovirus in a leukemia patient on maintenance chemotherapy. Clin. Pediatr. (Philadelphia) 27:383386.
102. Smith, P. T.,, M. L. Landry,, H. Carey,, J. Krasnoff, and, E. Cooney. 1998. Papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome associated with acute parvovirus B19 infection: case report and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:164168.
103. Soderlund-Venermo, M.,, K. Hokynar,, J. Nieminen,, H. Rautakorpi, and, K. Hedman. 2002. Persistence of human parvovirus B19 in human tissues. Pathol. Biol. (Paris) 50:307316.
104. Solano, C.,, O. Juan,, C. Gimeno, and, J. Garcia-Conde. 1996. Engraftment failure associated with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation after B19 parvovirus infection. Blood 88:15151517.
105. Takahashi, T.,, K. Ozawa,, K. Takahashi,, S. Asano, and, F. Takaku. 1990. Susceptibility of human erythropoietic cells to B19 parvovirus in vitro increases with differentiation. Blood 75:603610.
106. Tang, M. L.,, A. S. Kemp, and, L. D. Moaven. 1994. Parvovirus B19-associated red blood cell aplasia in combined immunodeficiency with normal immunoglobulins. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 13:539542.
107. Vafaie, J.,, and R. A. Schwartz. 2004. Parvovirus B19 infections. Int. J. Dermatol. 43:747749.
108. Ware, A. J.,, and T. Moore. 2001. Resolution of chronic parvovirus B19-induced anemia, by use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:E122E123.
109. Weigel-Kelley, K. A.,, M. C. Yoder, and, A. Srivastava. 2003. Alpha5beta1 integrin as a cellular coreceptor for human parvovirus B19: requirement of functional activation of beta1 integrin for viral entry. Blood 102:39273933.
110. Wong, T. Y.,, P. K. Chan,, C. B. Leung,, C. C. Szeto,, J. S. Tam, and, P. K. Li. 1999. Parvovirus B19 infection causing red cell aplasia in renal transplantation on tacrolimus. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 34:11321136.
111. Young, N. S.,, and K. E. Brown. 2004. Parvovirus B19. N. Engl. J. Med. 350:586597.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

Parvovirus B19 diagnostic methods in order of diagnostic utility

Citation: Landry M. 2009. Parvovirus, p 183-193. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Parvovirus B19 serologic assays

Citation: Landry M. 2009. Parvovirus, p 183-193. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Examples of parvovirus B19 real-time PCR assays

Citation: Landry M. 2009. Parvovirus, p 183-193. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch9

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error