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Chapter 16 : Genitourinary Tract Infections

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Genitourinary Tract Infections, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Infections of the reproductive system and external genitalia in immunocompromised hosts most commonly result from reactivation of latent viruses, leading to genital lesions and other significant sequelae, as seen with reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in transplant patients. Infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) occur frequently and are often severe in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies or with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This chapter covers major genitourinary tract infections seen in different immunocompromised patient populations but does not address all possible infections of the reproductive system and external genitalia in these patients. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in immunocompromised patients have been most well studied among transplant patients and HIV-infected patients. In chronic granulomatous disease, severe infections of the skin, central nervous system, mouth, and gastrointestinal system are seen, and genitourinary tract infections caused by gram-negative organisms, spp., and spp. can develop. The major effects of cancer chemotherapy include myelosuppression and disruption of normal anatomic barriers. Diagnostic approaches such as radiographic methods, surgical pathology methods and microbiological methods are discussed in the chapter. The most important microbiological method for diagnosing UTI in immunocompromised patients is quantitative culture of bacteria from urine or biopsy specimens, with susceptibility testing to detect resistant organisms. The major microbiological method for diagnosis of UTI, including cystitis and pyelonephritis, is the quantitative urine culture.

Citation: Haller B. 2009. Genitourinary Tract Infections, p 357-377. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch16

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