1887

Chapter 20 : Soft Tissue and Prosthetic Device Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Soft Tissue and Prosthetic Device Infections, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815455/9781555813970_Chap20-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815455/9781555813970_Chap20-2.gif

Abstract:

Soft tissue infections can occur in any host when a microorganism is introduced accidentally into these tissues. Prostheses and medical devices predispose the patient to infections due to their foreign body effects that disrupt anatomic integrity and favor microbial entry, colonization, or attachment to the device in all hosts, whether they are immunocompromised or not. The interaction between the host and the microorganism determines whether infection takes place, its course, and its outcome. At the opposite ends of this delicate balance, rare but highly virulent microorganisms, such as , , and , can strike any host, while common, minimally virulent microbes may infect only the most vulnerable hosts, such as those with immature or defective immune functions or those with prostheses or medical devices. Intravascular catheters provide a window to the bloodstream or to a target organ (such as the heart), where hemodynamics or organ functions may be measured and therapeutic drugs, nutrients, and radiological contrast materials are delivered. Patients with prosthetic devices, cancer, or other immune defects or weakness are prone to various skin and soft tissue infections.

Citation: Han X. 2009. Soft Tissue and Prosthetic Device Infections, p 419-427. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch20

Key Concept Ranking

Toxic Shock Syndrome
0.4283889
Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections
0.41456988
0.4283889
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815455.ch20
1. Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. 2006. A randomized trial of diagnostic techniques for ventilator-associated pneumonia. N. Engl. J. Med. 355:26192630.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51(RR10):126.
3. De, I.,, K. V. Rolston, and, X. Y. Han. 2004. Clinical significance of Roseomonas species isolated from blood and catheter samples: analysis of 36 cases in patients with cancer. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:15791584.
4. Gaur, A. H.,, P. M. Flynn,, D. J. Heine,, M. A. Giannini,, J. L. Shenep, and, R. T. Hayden. 2005. Diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infections among pediatric oncology patients lacking a peripheral culture, using differential time to detection. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 24:445449.
5. Gaur, A. H.,, P. M. Flynn,, M. A. Giannini,, J. L. Shenep, and, R. T. Hayden. 2003. Difference in time to detection: a simple method to differentiate catheter-related from non-catheter-related bloodstream infection in immunocompromised pediatric patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:469475.
6. Greenberg, E. P. 2003. Bacterial communication: tiny team-work. Nature 424:134.
7. Han, X. Y.,, A. S. Pham,, J. J. Tarrand,, K. V. Rolston,, L. O. Helsel, and, N. P. Levett. 2003. Bacteriological characterization of 36 strains of Roseomonas species and proposal of Roseomonas mucosa sp. nov. and Roseomonas gilardii subsp. rosea subsp. nov. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 120:256264.
8. Han, X. Y.,, A. S. Pham,, J. J. Tarrand,, P. K. Sood, and, R. Luthra. 2002. Rapid and accurate identification of mycobacteria by sequencing hypervariable regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 118:796801.
9. Han, X. Y., and, A. L. Truant. 1999. The detection of positive blood cultures by the Accumed ESP-384 system: the clinical significance of three day testing. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 33:16.
10. Han, X. Y.,, and J. J. Tarrand. 2004. Moraxella osloensis blood and catheter infections: clinical and microbiological studies of 10 cases. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 121:581588.
11. Han, X. Y.,, I. De, and, K. L. Jacobson. 2007. Clinical and microbiologic studies of 115 cases of rapidly growing mycobacteria. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 128:612621.
12. Han, X. Y.,, J. J. Tarrand, and, D. C. Rice. 2005. Oral Campylobacter species involved in extraoral abscess: a report of three cases. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:25132515.
13. Han, X. Y.,, M. Kamana, and, K. V. Rolston. 2006. Viridans streptococci isolated by cultures from blood of cancer patients: clinical and microbiologic analysis of 50 cases. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:160165.
14. Houpikian, P.,, and D. Raoult. 2005. Blood culture-negative endocarditis in a reference center: etiologic diagnosis of 348 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 84:162173.
15. Johnson, L. B.,, M. J. Busuito, and, R. Khatib. 2000. Breast implant infection in a cat owner due to Pasteurella multo-cida. J. Infect. 41:110111.
16. Kapadia, M.,, K. V. Rolston, and, X. Y. Han. 2007. Invasive Streptomyces infections: six cases and literature review. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 127:619624.
17. Karchmer, A. W. 2001. Infective endocarditis, p. 809–816. In E. Braunwald,, A. S. Fauci,, D. L. Kasper,, S. L. Hauser,, D. L. Longo, and, J. L. Jameson (ed.), Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 15th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, NY.
18. LaSala, P. R.,, J. Segal,, F. S. Han,, J. J. Tarrand, and, X. Y. Han. 2007. First reported infections caused by three newly described genera in the family Xanthomonadaceae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:641644.
19. Maki, D. G.,, C. E. Weise, and, H. W. Sarafin. 1977. A semiquantitative culture method for identifying intravenous-catheter-related infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 296:13051309.
20. Maki, D. G.,, D. M. Kluger, and, C. J. Crnich. 2006. The risk of bloodstream infection in adults with different intravascular devices: a systematic review of 200 published prospective studies. Mayo Clin. Proc. 81:11591171.
21. Memish, Z. A.,, M. Alazzawi, and, R. Bannatyne. 2001. Unusual complication of breast implants: Brucella infection. Infection 29:291292.
22. Mermel, L. A.,, B. M. Farr,, R. J. Sherertz,, I. I. Raad,, N. O’Grady,, J. S. Harris, and, D. E. Craven. 2001. Guidelines for the management of intravascular catheter related infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:12491272.
23. Nucci, M., and E. Anaissie. 2002. Cutaneous infection by Fusarium species in healthy and immunocompromised hosts: implications for diagnosis and management. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:909920.
24. O’Grady, N. P.,, M. Alexander,, E. P. Dellinger,, J. L. Gerberding,, S. O. Heard,, D. G. Maki,, H. Masur,, R. D. McCormick,, L. A. Mermel,, M. L. Pearson,, I. I. Raad,, A. Randolph, and, R. A. Weinstein. 2002. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. MMWR Recommend. Rep. 51:131.
25. Pham, A. S.,, I. Dé,, K. V. Rolston,, J. J. Tarrand, and, X. Y. Han. 2003. Catheter-related bacteremia caused by the nocardioform actinomycete Gordonia terrae. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36:524527.
26. Piper, C.,, R. Korfer, and, D. Horstkotte. 2001. Prosthetic valve endocarditis. Heart 85:590593.
27. Pittet, B.,, D. Montandon, and, D. Pittet. 2005. Infection in breast implants. Lancet Infect. Dis. 5:94106.
28. Raad, I.,, H. A. Hanna,, B. Alakech,, I. Chatzinikolaou,, M. M. Johnson, and, J. Tarrand. 2004. Differential time to positivity: a useful method for diagnosing catheter-related bloodstream infections. Ann. Intern. Med. 140:1825.
29. Reference deleted.
30. Reimer, L. G.,, M. L. Wilson, and, M. P. Weinstein. 1997. Update on detection of bacteremia and fungemia. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10:444465.
31. Schwartz, M. A.,, S. R. Tabet,, A. C. Collier,, C. K. Wallis,, L. C. Carlson,, T. T. Nguyen,, M. M. Kattar, and, M. B. Coyle. 2002. Central venous catheter-related bacteremia due to Tsukamurella species in the immunocompromised host: a case series and review of the literature. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:e72e77.
32. Sherertz, R. J.,, I. I. Raad,, A. Belani,, L. C. Koo,, K. H. Rand,, D. L. Pickett,, S. A. Straub, and, L. L. Fauerbach. 1990. Three-year experience with sonicated vascular catheter cultures in a clinical microbiology laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:7682.
33. Tarrand, J. J.,, C. Guillot,, M. Wenglar,, J. Jackson,, J. D. Laje-unesse, and, K. V. Rolston. 1991. Clinical comparison of the resin-containing Bactec 26 Plus and the Isolator 10 blood culturing systems. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:22452249.
34. Wallace, R. J.,, L. C. Steele,, A. Labidi, and, V. A. Silcox. 1989. Heterogeneity among isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria responsible for infections following augmentation mammaplasty despite case clustering in Texas and other southern coastal States. J. Infect. Dis. 160:281288.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Results for 2,406 wound cultures at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (2002) from patients with cancer or HSCT

Citation: Han X. 2009. Soft Tissue and Prosthetic Device Infections, p 419-427. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch20
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Causative organisms in 428 cases of prosthetic valve endocarditis from German and other European studies

Citation: Han X. 2009. Soft Tissue and Prosthetic Device Infections, p 419-427. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch20
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Cultures from CVC sites and catheter tips at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center

Citation: Han X. 2009. Soft Tissue and Prosthetic Device Infections, p 419-427. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch20
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Some unusual bacterial species found in catheter-related bacteremia and other infections

Citation: Han X. 2009. Soft Tissue and Prosthetic Device Infections, p 419-427. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch20

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error