Chapter 13 : Effects of Prebiotic Supplementation on Bone Mineral Metabolism and Weight in Humans

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The ability of prebiotics to enhance calcium absorption and bone mineralization has become an important rationale for their use. This chapter reviews the key human studies related to this potential effect and considers the role prebiotics may play in bone health. In addition, it discusses recent evidence that prebiotics may be beneficial in weight management. Finally, it considers potential applications of prebiotics in nutritional planning, especially for children and adolescents.

Citation: Abrams S. 2008. Effects of Prebiotic Supplementation on Bone Mineral Metabolism and Weight in Humans, p 175-182. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch13

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1. Abrams,, S. A. 1999. Using stable isotopes to assess mineral absorption and utilization by children. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70:955964.
2. Abrams,, S. A. 2005. Long-term benefits of calcium supplementation during childhood on bone mineralization. Nutr. Rev. 63:251255.
3. Abrams,, S. A.,, I. J. Griffin,, K. M. Hawthorne,, Z. Chen,, S. K. Gunn,, M. Wilde,, G. Darlington,, R. Shypailo, and, K. Ellis. 2005a. Vitamin D receptor Fok1 polymorphisms affect calcium absorption, kinetics and bone mineralization rates during puberty. J. Bone Miner. Res. 20:945953.
4. Abrams,, S.A.,, I. J. Griffin,, K. M. Hawthorne,, S. K. Gunn,, C. M. Gundberg, and, T. O. Carpenter. 2005b. Relationships among vitamin D levels, PTH, and calcium absorption in young adolescents. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 90:55765581.
5. Abrams,, S. A.,, I. J. Griffin,, K. M. Hawthorne,, L. Liang,, S. K. Gunn,, G. Darlington, and, K. J. Ellis. 2005c. A combination of prebiotic short-and long-chain inulin-type fructans enhances calcium absorption and bone mineralization in young adolescents. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 82:471476.
6. Abrams,, S. A.,, I. J. Griffin, and, K. M. Hawthorne. 2007a. Young adolescents who respond to an inulin-type fructan (ITF) substantially increase total absorbed calcium and daily calcium accretion to the skeleton. J. Nutr. 137(11 Suppl.): 2524S–2526S.
7. Abrams,, S. A.,, I. J. Griffin,, K. M. Hawthorne, and, K. J. Ellis. 2007b. Effect of prebiotic supplementation and calcium intake on body mass index. J. Pediatr. 151:293298.
8. Barger-Lux,, M. J., and, R. P. Heaney. 2005. Calcium absorptive efficiency is positively related to body size. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 90:51185120.
9. Cani,, P. D.,, C. Dewever, and, N. M. Delzenne. 2004. Inulin-type fructans modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation (glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin) in rats. Br. J. Nutr. 92:521526.
10. Cani,, P. D.,, E. Joly,, Y. Horsmans, and, N. M. Delzenne. 2006. Oligofructose promotes satiety in healthy human: a pilot study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 60:567572.
11. Cashman,, K. D. 2006. A prebiotic substance persistently enhances intestinal calcium absorption and increases bone mineralization in young adolescents. Nutr. Rev. 64:189196.
12. Greer,, F. R., and, N. F. Krebs. 2006. Optimizing bone health and calcium intakes of infants, children and adolescents. Pediatrics 117:578585.
13. Griffin,, I. J.,, P. M. Davila, and, S. A. Abrams. 2002. Non-digestible oligosaccharides and calcium absorption in girls with adequate calcium intakes. Br. J. Nutr. 87(Suppl. 2):S187S191.
14. Griffin,, I. J.,, P. M. D. Hicks,, R. P. Heaney, and, S. A. Abrams. 2003. Enriched chicory inulin increases calcium absorption in girls with lower calcium absorption. Nutr. Res. 23:901909.
15. Griffin,, I. J., and, S. A. Abrams. 2005. Methodological issues in assessing calcium absorption in humans: relevance to study the effects of inulin-type fructans. Br. J. Nutr. 93(Suppl. 1):S105S110.
16. Haerens,, L.,, B. Deforche,, L. Maes,, V. Stevens,, G. Cardon, and, I. De Bourdeaudhuij. 2006. Body mass effects of a physical activity and healthy food intervention in middle schools. Obesity 14:847854.
17. Holloway,, L.,, S. Moynihan,, S. A. Abrams,, K. Kent,, A. R. Hsu, and, A. L. Friedlander. 2007. Effects of oligofructose enriched inulin on calcium and magnesium intestinal absorption and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women. Br. J. Nutr. 97:365372.
18. Lopez-Huertas,, E.,, B. Teucher,, J. J. Boza,, A. Martinez-Ferz,, G. Majsak-Newman,, L. Baro,, J. J. Carrero,, M. Gonzalez-Santiago,, J. Fonolla, and, S. Fairweather-Tait. 2006. Absorption of calcium from milks enriched with fructooligosaccharides, caseinophosphopeptides, tricalcium phosphate, and milk solids. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 83:310316.
19. Maynard,, L. M.,, W. Wisemandle,, A. F. Roche,, W. C. Chumlea,, S. S. Guo, and, R. M. Siervogel. 2001. Childhood body composition in relation to body mass index. Pediatrics 107:344350.
20. Mineo, H.,, H. Hara,, N. Shigematsu,, Y. Okuhara, and, F. Tomita. 2002. Melibiose, difructose anhydride III and difructose anhydride IV enhance net calcium absorption in rat small and large intestinal epithelium by increasing the passage of tight junctions in vitro. J. Nutr. 132:33943399.
21. Nzeusseu,, A.,, D. Dienst,, V. Haufroid,, G. Depresseux,, J. P. Devogelaer, and, D. H. Manicourt. 2006. Inulin and fructooligosaccharides differ in their ability to enhance the density of cancellous and cortical bone in the axial and peripheral skeleton of growing rats. Bone 38:394399.
22. Ohta,, A.,, M. Ohtsuki,, S. Baba,, T. Adachi,, T. Sakata, and, E. Sakaguchi. 1995. Calcium and magnesium absorption from the colon and rectum are increased in rats fed fructooligosaccharides. J. Nutr. 125:24172424.
23. Raschka, L., and, H. Daniel. 2005. Mechanisms underlying the effects of inulin-type fructans on calcium absorption in the large intestine of rats. Bone 37:728735.
24. Scholz-Ahrens,, K. E.,, P. Ade,, B. Marten,, P. Weber,, W. Timm,, Y. Acil,, C. C. Gluer, and, J. Schrezenmeir. 2007. Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics affect mineral absorption, bone mineral content, and bone structure. J Nutr. 137(3 Suppl. 2):838S846S.
25. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
26. Suzuki, T., and, H. Hara. 2004. Various nondigestible saccharides open a paracellular calcium transport pathway with the induction of intracellular calcium signaling in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. J. Nutr. 134:19351941.
27. van den Heuvel,, E. G.,, G. Schaafsma,, T. Muys, and, W. van Dokkum. 1999. Nondigestible oligosaccharides do not interfere with calcium and nonheme-iron absorption in young, healthy men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 67:445451.
28. van den Heuvel,, E. G.,, M. H. Schoterman, and, T. Muijs. 2000. Transgalactooligosaccharides stimulate calcium absorption in postmenopausal women. J. Nutr. 130:29382942.


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Table 1

Determination of the equivalent daily intake of calcium needed to achieve the same benefit as inclusion of a prebiotic on calcium absorption

Citation: Abrams S. 2008. Effects of Prebiotic Supplementation on Bone Mineral Metabolism and Weight in Humans, p 175-182. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch13

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