Chapter 17 : Probiotics in Human Medicine: Overview

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Probiotics in Human Medicine: Overview, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815462/9781555814038_Chap17-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815462/9781555814038_Chap17-2.gif


The introduction of the core human microbiome concept initiates new ways of thinking about potential clinical applications of probiotics. While important characteristics of probiotics include their abilities to suppress the proliferation and virulence of pathogenic organisms, it is becoming quite clear that these organisms also have direct effects on human physiology and immunity. Studies are beginning to shed light on tangible effects of probiotics in allergic and autoimmune diseases, oral biology, diseases of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, and neurology and psychiatry. Advances in probiotics research are resulting in implementation of probiotics as treatment and prevention strategies for a multitude of human diseases.

Citation: Spinler J, Versalovic J. 2008. Probiotics in Human Medicine: Overview, p 225-229. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch17

Key Concept Ranking

Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Complexity of microbial-host interactions. Reprinted from the ( ) with permission of The University of Chicago Press. LAB, lactic acid bacteria.

Citation: Spinler J, Versalovic J. 2008. Probiotics in Human Medicine: Overview, p 225-229. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch17
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Bach, J. F. 2002. The effect of infections on susceptibility to autoimmune and allergic diseases. N. Engl. J. Med. 347:911920.
2. Backhed, F.,, R. E. Ley,, J. L. Sonnenburg,, D. A. Peterson, and, J. I. Gordon. 2005. Host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine. Science 307:19151920.
3. Boyle, R. J., and, M. L. Tang. 2006. The role of probiotics in the management of allergic disease. Clin. Exp. Allergy 36:568576.
4. Eckburg, P. B.,, E. M. Bik,, C. N. Bernstein,, E. Purdom,, L. Dethlefsen,, M. Sargent,, S. R. Gill,, K. E. Nelson, and, D. A. Relman. 2005. Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora. Science 308:16351638.
5. FAO/WHO. 2002. Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food. FAO/WHO, London, Ontario, Canada.
6. Gill, S. R.,, M. Pop,, R. T. Deboy,, P. B. Eckburg,, P. J. Turnbaugh,, B. S. Samuel,, J. I. Gordon,, D. A. Relman,, C. M. Fraser-Liggett, and, K. E. Nelson. 2006. Metagenomic analysis of the human distal gut microbiome. Science 312:13551359.
7. Guarner, F. 2006. Enteric flora in health and disease. Digestion 73(Suppl. 1):512.
8. Guarner, F.,, R. Bourdet-Sicard,, P. Brandtzaeg,, H. S. Gill,, P. McGuirk,, W. van Eden,, J. Versalovic,, J. V. Weinstock, and, G. A. Rook. 2006. Mechanisms of disease: the hygiene hypothesis revisited. Nat. Clin. Pract. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 3:275284.
9. Kamiya, T.,, L. Wang,, P. Forsythe,, G. Goettsche,, Y. Mao,, Y. Wang,, G. Tougas,, and J. Bienenstock. 2006. Inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus reuteri on visceral pain induced by colorectal distension in Sprague-Dawley rats. Gut 55:191196.
10. Ley, R. E.,, D. A. Peterson, and, J. I. Gordon. 2006a. Ecological and evolutionary forces shaping microbial diversity in the human intestine. Cell 124:837848.
11. Ley, R. E.,, P. J. Turnbaugh,, S. Klein, and, J. I. Gordon. 2006b. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 444:10221023.
12. Liu, X.,, L. A. Lagenaur,, D. A. Simpson,, K. P. Essenmacher,, C. L. Frazier-Parker,, Y. Liu,, D. Tsai,, S. S. Rao,, D. H. Hamer,, T. P. Parks,, P. P. Lee,, and Q. Xu. 2006. Engineered vaginal lactobacillus strain for mucosal delivery of the human immunodeficiency virus inhibitor cyanovirin-N. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:32503259.
13. Metchnikoff, E. 1907. The Prolongation of Life: Optimistic Studies. Heinemann, London, United Kingdom.
14. Meurman, J. H., and, I. Stamatova. 2007. Probiotics: contributions to oral health. Oral Dis. 13:443451.
15. Palmer, C.,, E. M. Bik,, D. B. Digiulio,, D. A. Relman, and, P. O. Brown. 2007. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota. PLoS Biol. 5:e177.
16. Reid, G. 2004. When microbe meets human. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:827830.
17. Reid, G., and, A. W. Bruce. 2003. Urogenital infections in women: can probiotics help? Postgrad. Med. J. 79:428432.
18. Sonnenburg, J. L.,, L. T. Angenent, and, J. I. Gordon. 2004. Getting a grip on things: how do communities of bacterial symbionts become established in our intestine? Nat. Immunol. 5:569573.
19. Turnbaugh, P. J.,, R. E. Ley,, M. Hamady,, C. M. Fraser-Liggett,, R. Knight, and, J. I. Gordon. 2007. The human microbiome project. Nature 449:804810.
20. Wilks, M. 2007. Bacteria and early human development. Early Hum. Dev. 83:165170.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error