1887

Chapter 18 : Probiotics and Other Organisms in Allergy and Autoimmune Diseases

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Probiotics and Other Organisms in Allergy and Autoimmune Diseases, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815462/9781555814038_Chap18-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815462/9781555814038_Chap18-2.gif

Abstract:

The incidences of several chronic inflammatory disorders have been increasing strikingly in the developed countries. These include allergic disorders (asthma and hay fever) and some autoimmune diseases. The validity of the pathways is supported by clinical trials and experimental models in which microorganisms that are depleted from the environment in rich countries have been shown to treat allergy, autoimmunity, or intestinal inflammation. This chapter discusses current progress in this area. All of the classes of organisms discussed in the chapter have immunoregulatory potential, and workers studying probiotics might benefit from the experience of those working with killed mycobacteria or helminths, and vice versa. There have been extremely few studies of the actual effects on the human immune system of the probiotics and other microbes used in clinical trials. The chapter outlines a few studies that address the issue of immunoregulation. The reports of clinical trials involving helminths do not present any data on changes in parameters of immunoregulation.

Citation: Rook G, Witt N. 2008. Probiotics and Other Organisms in Allergy and Autoimmune Diseases, p 231-247. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch18

Key Concept Ranking

Immune Systems
0.48594615
Transforming Growth Factor beta
0.4169389
0.48594615
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Immunoregulatory organisms stimulate T responses. These organisms cause a pattern of maturation of DC such that these drive regulatory T rather than Th1 or Th2 effector cells. TLR2, TLR9, NOD2, and DC-SIGN expressed by the DC can be involved. Moreover, the regulation-inducing materials tend to contain TLR2 agonists, and there is evidence in studies of mice and humans that TLR2 is expressed by T, which can be directly triggered to proliferate via TLR2 ligands. Increased induction of DC and T leads to two mechanisms that help to control inappropriate inflammation. First, continuous exposure to Old Friends causes continuous background activation of T specific for the Old Friends themselves. The result is a constant background of bystander suppression. Secondly, these DC cells sample self, gut contents, and allergens and induce T specific for target antigens, thereby suppressing inflammation.

Citation: Rook G, Witt N. 2008. Probiotics and Other Organisms in Allergy and Autoimmune Diseases, p 231-247. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch18
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815462.ch18
1. Aaby, P.,, S. O. Shaheen,, C. B. Heyes,, A. Goudiaby,, A. J. Hall,, A. W. Shiell,, H. Jensen,, and A. Marchant. 2000. Early BCG vaccination and reduction in atopy in Guinea-Bissau. Clin. Exp. Allergy 30:644650.
2. Adams, V. C.,, J. R. Hunt,, R. Martinelli,, R. Palmer,, G. A. Rook, and, L. R. Brunet. 2004. Mycobacterium vaccae induces a population of pulmonary CD11c+ cells with regulatory potential in allergic mice. Eur. J. Immunol. 34:631638.
3. Akdis, M.,, J. Verhagen,, A. Taylor,, F. Karamloo,, C. Karagiannidis,, R. Crameri,, S. Thunberg,, G. Deniz,, R. Valenta,, H. Fiebig,, C. Kegel,, R. Disch,, C. B. Schmidt-Weber,, K. Blaser, and, C. A. Akdis. 2004. Immune responses in healthy and allergic individuals are characterized by a fine balance between allergen-specific T regulatory 1 and T helper 2 cells. J. Exp. Med. 199:15671575.
4. Alm, J. S.,, G. Lilja,, G. Pershagen, and, A. Scheynius. 1998. BCG vaccination does not seem to prevent atopy in children with atopic heredity. Allergy 53:537.
5. Arkwright, P. D., and, T. J. David. 2003. Effect of Mycobacterium vaccae on atopic dermatitis in children of different ages. Br. J. Dermatol. 149:10291034.
6. Arkwright, P. D.,, C. Fujisawa,, A. Tanaka, and, H. Matsuda. 2005. Mycobacterium vaccae reduces scratching behavior but not the rash in NC mice with eczema: a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial. J. Investig. Dermatol. 124:140143.
7. Babu, S.,, C. P. Blauvelt,, V. Kumaraswami, and, T. B. Nutman. 2006. Regulatory networks induced by live parasites impair both Th1 and Th2 pathways in patent lymphatic filariasis: implications for parasite persistence. J. Immunol. 176:32483256.
8. Bach, J. F. 2002. The effect of infections on susceptibility to autoimmune and allergic diseases. N. Engl. J. Med. 347:911920.
9. Berth-Jones, J.,, P. D. Arkwright,, D. Marasovic,, N. Savani,, C. R. Aldridge,, S. N. Leech,, C. Morgan,, S. M. Clark,, S. Ogilvie,, S. Chopra,, J. I. Harper,, C. H. Smith,, G. A. Rook, and, P. S. Friedmann. 2006. Killed Mycobacterium vaccae suspension in children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin. Exp. Allergy 36:11151121.
10. Bjorksten, B.,, P. Naaber,, E. Sepp, and, M. Mikelsaar. 1999. The intestinal microflora in allergic Estonian and Swedish 2-year-old children. Clin. Exp. Allergy 29:342346.
11. Braat, H., J. van den Brande,, E. van Tol,, D. Hommes,, M. Peppelenbosch,, and S. van Deventer. 2004. Lactobacillus rhamnosus induces peripheral hyporesponsiveness in stimulated CD4+ T cells via modulation of dendritic cell function. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80:16181625.
12. Calcinaro, F.,, S. Dionisi,, M. Marinaro,, P. Candeloro,, V. Bonato,, S. Marzotti,, R. B. Corneli,, E. Ferretti,, A. Gulino,, F. Grasso,, C. De Simone,, U. Di Mario,, A. Falorni,, M. Boirivant,, and F. Dotta. 2005. Oral probiotic administration induces interleukin-10 production and prevents spontaneous auto-immune diabetes in the non-obese diabetic mouse. Diabetologia 48:15651575.
13. Camporota, L.,, A. Corkhill,, H. Long,, J. Lordan,, L. Stanciu,, N. Tuckwell,, A. Cross,, J. L. Stanford,, G. A. Rook,, S. T. Holgate,, and R. Djukanovic. 2003. The effects of Mycobacterium vaccae on allergen-induced airway responses in atopic asthma. Eur. Respir. J. 21:287293.
14. Charng, Y. C.,, C. C. Lin, and, C. H. Hsu. 2006. Inhibition of allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperreactivity by recombinant lactic-acid bacteria. Vaccine 24:59315936.
15. Christensen, H. R.,, H. Frokiaer, and, J. J. Pestka. 2002. Lactobacilli differentially modulate expression of cytokines and maturation surface markers in murine dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 168:171178.
16. Ciprandi, G.,, A. Vizzaccaro,, I. Cirillo, and, M. A. Tosca. 2005. Bacillus clausii exerts immuno-modulatory activity in allergic subjects: a pilot study. Allerg. Immunol. (Paris) 37:129134.
17. Correale, J., and, M. Farez. 2007. Association between parasite infection and immune responses in multiple sclerosis. Ann. Neurol. 61:97108.
18. Daniel, C.,, A. Repa,, C. Wild,, A. Pollak,, B. Pot,, H. Breiteneder,, U. Wiedermann,, and A. Mercenier. 2006. Modulation of allergic immune responses by mucosal application of recombinant lactic acid bacteria producing the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Allergy 61:812819.
19. De Heer, H. J.,, H. Hammad,, T. Soullie,, D. Hijdra,, N. Vos,, M. A. Willart,, H. C. Hoogsteden, and, B. N. Lambrecht. 2004. Essential role of lung plasmacytoid dendritic cells in preventing asthmatic reactions to harmless inhaled antigen. J. Exp. Med. 200:8998.
20. Del Giudice, M. M.,, A. Rocco, and, C. Capristo. 2006. Probiotics in the atopic march: highlights and new insights. Dig. Liver. Dis. 38(Suppl. 2):S288–S290.
21. Demissie, A.,, M. Abebe,, A. Aseffa,, G. Rook,, H. Fletcher,, A. Zumla,, K. Weldingh,, I. Brock,, P. Andersen, and, T. M. Doherty. 2004. Healthy individuals that control a latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis express high levels of Th1 cytokines and the IL-4 antagonist IL-4delta2. J. Immunol. 172:6938.
22. Di Giacinto, C.,, M. Marinaro,, M. Sanchez,, W. Strober, and, M. Boirivant. 2005. Probiotics ameliorate recurrent Th1-mediated murine colitis by inducing IL-10 and IL-10-dependent TGF-β-bearing regulatory cells. J. Immunol. 174:32373246.
23. Dlugovitzky, D.,, G. Fiorenza,, M. Farroni,, C. Bogue,, C. Stanford,, and J. Stanford. 2006. Immunological consequences of three doses of heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae in the immunotherapy of tuberculosis. Respir. Med. 100:10791087.
24. Drakes, M.,, T. Blanchard, and, S. Czinn. 2004. Bacterial probiotic modulation of dendritic cells. Infect. Immun. 72:32993309.
25. Ellertsen, L. K.,, H. G. Wiker,, N. T. Egeberg,, and G. Hetland. 2005. Allergic sensitisation in tuberculosis and leprosy patients. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 138:217224.
26. Farooqi, I. S., and, J. M. Hopkin. 1998. Early childhood infection and atopic disorder. Thorax 53:927932.
27. Feleszko, W.,, J. Jaworska,, R. D. Rha,, S. Steinhausen,, A. Avagyan,, A. Jaudszus,, B. Ahrens,, D. A. Groneberg,, U. Wahn,, and E. Hamelmann. 2007. Probiotic-induced suppression of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation is associated with an increase of T regulatory-dependent mechanisms in a murine model of asthma. Clin. Exp. Allergy 37:498505.
28. Fine, P. E. 1995. Variation in protection by BCG: implications of and for heterologous immunity. Lancet 346:13391345.
29. Fletcher, H. A.,, P. Owiafe,, D. Jeffries,, P. Hill,, G. A. Rook,, A. Zumla,, T. M. Doherty, and, R. H. Brookes. 2004. Increased expression of mRNA encoding interleukin (IL)-4 and its splice variant IL-4delta2 in cells from contacts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in the absence of in vitro stimulation. Immunology 112:669.
30. Flohr, C.,, L. N. Tuyen,, S. Lewis,, R. Quinnell,, T. T. Minh,, H. T. Liem,, J. Campbell,, D. Pritchard,, T. T. Hien,, J. Farrar,, H. Williams,, and J. Britton. 2006. Poor sanitation and helminth infection protect against skin sensitization in Vietnamese children: a cross-sectional study. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 118:13051311.
31. Foligne, B.,, S. Nutten,, C. Grangette,, V. Dennin,, D. Goudercourt,, S. Poiret,, J. Dewulf,, D. Brassart,, A. Mercenier,, and B. Pot. 2007a. Correlation between in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory properties of lactic acid bacteria. World J. Gastroenterol. 13:236243.
32. Foligne, B.,, G. Zoumpopoulou,, J. Dewulf,, A. Ben Younes, F. Chareyre,, J. C. Sirard,, B. Pot,, and C. Grangette. 2007b. A key role of dendritic cells in probiotic functionality. PLoS ONE 2:e313.
33. Forsythe, P.,, M. D. Inman, and, J. Bienenstock. 2007. Oral treatment with live Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits the allergic airway response in mice. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175:561569.
34. Fujii, T.,, Y. Ohtsuka,, T. Lee,, T. Kudo,, H. Shoji,, H. Sato,, S. Nagata,, T. Shimizu,, and Y. Yamashiro. 2006. Bifidobacterium breve enhances transforming growth factor beta1 signaling by regulating Smad7 expression in preterm infants. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 43:8388.
35. Gruber, C.,, G. Meinlschmidt,, R. Bergmann,, U. Wahn, and, K. Stark. 2002. Is early BCG vaccination associated with less atopic disease? An epidemiological study in German pre-school children with different ethnic backgrounds. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 13:177181.
36. Gueimonde, M.,, M. Kalliomaki,, E. Isolauri, and, S. Salminen. 2006. Probiotic intervention in neonates—will permanent colonization ensue? J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 42:604606.
37. Hadley, E. A.,, F. I. Smillie,, M. A. Turner,, A. Custovic,, A. Woodcock, and, P. D. Arkwright. 2005. Effect of Mycobacterium vaccae on cytokine responses in children with atopic dermatitis. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 140:101108.
38. Hart, A. L.,, K. Lammers,, P. Brigidi,, B. Vitali,, F. Rizzello,, P. Gionchetti,, M. Campieri,, M. A. Kamm,, S. C. Knight, and, A. J. Stagg. 2004. Modulation of human dendritic cell phenotype and function by probiotic bacteria. Gut 53:16021609.
39. Hatakka, K.,, J. Martio,, M. Korpela,, M. Herranen,, T. Poussa,, T. Laasanen,, M. Saxelin,, H. Vapaatalo,, E. Moilanen,, and R. Korpela. 2003. Effects of probiotic therapy on the activity and activation of mild rheumatoid arthritis – a pilot study. Scand. J. Rheumatol. 32:211215.
40. Helin, T.,, S. Haahtela, and, T. Haahtela. 2002. No effect of oral treatment with an intestinal bacterial strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 53103), on birch-pollen allergy: a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Allergy 57:243246.
41. Herz, U.,, K. Gerhold,, C. Gruber,, A. Braun,, U. Wahn,, H. Renz,, and K. Paul. 1998. BCG infection suppresses allergic sensitization and development of increased airway reactivity in an animal model. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 102:867874.
42. Hopfenspirger, M. T.,, S. K. Parr,, R. J. Hopp,, R. G. Townley, and, D. K. Agrawal. 2001. Mycobacterial antigens attenuate late phase response, airway hyperresponsiveness, and bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia in a mouse model of bronchial asthma. Int. Immunopharmacol. 1:17431751.
43. Hopkin, J. M.,, S. Shaldon,, B. Ferry,, P. Coull,, P. Antrobus,, T. Enomoto,, T. Yamashita,, F. Kurimoto,, J. L. Stanford,, T. Shirakawa, and, G. A. W. Rook. 1998. Mycobacterial immunisation in grass pollen asthma and rhinitis. Thorax 53 (Suppl. 4):Abstract S63.
44. Hori, S.,, T. Nomura, and, S. Sakaguchi. 2003. Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor Foxp3. Science 299:10571061.
45. Hunninghake, G. M.,, M. E. Soto-Quiros,, L. Avila,, N. P. Ly,, C. Liang,, J. S. Sylvia,, B. J. Klanderman,, E. K. Silverman, and, J. C. Celedon. 2007. Sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides and severity of childhood asthma in Costa Rica. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 119:654661.
46. Hunt, J. R.,, R. Martinelli,, V. C. Adams,, G. A., W. Rook,, and L. Rosa Brunet. 2005. Intragastric administration of Mycobacterium vaccae inhibits severe pulmonary allergic inflammation in a mouse model. Clin. Exp. Allergy 35:685690.
47. Jacobsen, C. N.,, V. Rosenfeldt Nielsen,, A. E. Hayford,, P. L. Moller,, K. F. Michaelsen,, A. Paerregaard,, B. Sandstrom,, M. Tvede,, and M. Jakobsen. 1999. Screening of probiotic activities of forty-seven strains of Lactobacillus spp. by in vitro techniques and evaluation of the colonization ability of five selected strains in humans. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:49494956.
48. Kalliomaki, M.,, S. Salminen,, H. Arvilommi,, P. Kero,, P. Koskinen,, and E. Isolauri. 2001. Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 357:10761079.
49. Kalliomaki, M.,, S. Salminen,, T. Poussa,, H. Arvilommi, and, E. Isolauri. 2003. Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 361:18691871.
50. Kalliomaki, M.,, S. Salminen,, T. Poussa, and, E. Isolauri. 2007. Probiotics during the first 7 years of life: a cumulative risk reduction of eczema in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 119:10191021.
51. Karadag, B.,, M. Ege,, J. E. Bradley,, C. Braun-Fahrlander,, J. Riedler,, D. Nowak,, and E. von Mutius. 2006. The role of parasitic infections in atopic diseases in rural schoolchildren. Allergy 61:9961001.
52. Karlsson, M. R.,, J. Rugtveit, and, P. Brandtzaeg. 2004. Allergen-responsive CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in children who have outgrown cow’s milk allergy. J. Exp. Med. 199:16791688.
53. Kato, I.,, K. Endo-Tanaka, and, T. Yokokura. 1998. Suppressive effects of the oral administration of Lactobacillus casei on type II collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice. Life Sci. 63:635644.
54. Kim, H.,, K. Kwack,, D. Y. Kim, and, G. E. Ji. 2005a. Oral probiotic bacterial administration suppressed allergic responses in an ovalbumin-induced allergy mouse model. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 45:259267.
55. Kim, H.,, S. Y. Lee, and, G. E. Ji. 2005b. Timing of Bifidobacterium administration influences the development of allergy to ovalbumin in mice. Biotechnol. Lett. 27:13611367.
56. Kitagaki, K.,, T. R. Businga,, D. Racila,, D. E. Elliott,, J. V. Weinstock, and, J. N. Kline. 2006. Intestinal helminths protect in a murine model of asthma. J. Immunol. 177:16281635.
57. Kohashi, O.,, Y. Kohashi,, T. Takahashi,, A. Ozawa, and, N. Shigematsu. 1985. Reverse effect of gram-positive bacteria vs. gram-negative bacteria on adjuvant-induced arthritis in germfree rats. Microbiol. Immunol. 29:487497.
58. Kradin, R. L.,, K. Badizadegan,, P. Auluck,, J. Korzenik, and, G. Y. Lauwers. 2006. Iatrogenic Trichuris suis infection in a patient with Crohn’s disease. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 130:718720.
59. Kriegel, M. A.,, T. Lohmann,, C. Gabler,, N. Blank,, J. R. Kalden, and, H. M. Lorenz. 2004. Defective suppressor function of human CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II. J. Exp. Med. 199:12851291.
60. Kukkonen, K.,, E. Savilahti,, T. Haahtela,, K. Juntunen-Backman,, R. Korpela,, T. Poussa,, T. Tuure,, and M. Kuitunen. 2007. Probiotics and prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in the prevention of allergic diseases: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 119:192198.
61. Liu, H.,, M. Komai-Koma,, D. Xu, and, F. Y. Liew. 2006. Toll-like receptor 2 signaling modulates the functions of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:70487053.
62. Ljungberg, M.,, R. Korpela,, J. Ilonen,, J. Ludvigsson, and, O. Vaarala. 2006. Probiotics for the prevention of beta cell autoimmunity in children at genetic risk of type 1 diabetes–the PRODIA study. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1079:360364.
63. Majamaa, H., and, E. Isolauri. 1997. Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 99:179185.
64. Michail, S.,, F. Sylvester,, G. Fuchs, and, R. Issenman. 2006. Clinical efficacy of probiotics: review of the evidence with focus on children. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 43:550557.
65. Mortimer, K.,, A. Brown,, J. Feary,, C. Jagger,, S. Lewis,, M. Antoniak,, D. Pritchard,, and J. Britton. 2006. Dose-ranging study for trials of therapeutic infection with Necator americanus in humans. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 75:914920.
66. Murray, R. A.,, M. R. Siddiqui,, M. Mendillo,, J. Krahenbuhl,, and G. Kaplan. 2007. Mycobacterium leprae inhibits dendritic cell activation and maturation. J. Immunol. 178:338344.
67. Obihara, C. C.,, N. Beyers,, R. P. Gie,, P. C. Potter,, B. J. Marais,, C. J. Lombard,, D. A. Enarson, and, J. L. Kimpen. 2005. Inverse association between Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and atopic rhinitis in children. Allergy 60:11211125.
68. Obihara, C. C.,, J. L. Kimpen,, R. P. Gie,, S. W. Lill,, M. O. Hoekstra,, B. J. Marais,, H. S. Schaaf,, K. Lawrence,, P. C. Potter,, E. D. Bateman,, C. J. Lombard,, and N. Beyers. 2006. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection may protect against allergy in a tuberculosis endemic area. Clin. Exp. Allergy 36:7076.
69. Ogawa, T.,, S. Hashikawa,, Y. Asai,, H. Sakamoto,, K. Yasuda,, and Y. Makimura. 2006. A new synbiotic, Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei together with dextran, reduces murine and human allergic reaction. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 46:400409.
70. Ozdemir, C.,, T. Akkoc,, N. N. Bahceciler,, D. Kucukercan,, I. B. Barlan, and, M. M. Basaran. 2003. Impact of Mycobacterium vaccae immunization on lung histopathology in a murine model of chronic asthma. Clin. Exp. Allergy 33:266270.
71. Pasare, C., and, R. Medzhitov. 2003. Toll pathway-dependent blockade of CD4+CD25+ T cell-mediated suppression by dendritic cells. Science 299:10331036.
72. Peng, G. C., and, C. H. Hsu. 2005. The efficacy and safety of heat-killed Lactobacillus paracasei for treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis induced by house-dust mite. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 16:433438.
73. Perez-Machado, M. A.,, P. Ashwood,, M. A. Thomson,, F. Latcham,, R. Sim,, J. A. Walker-Smith, and, S. H. Murch. 2003. Reduced transforming growth factor-beta1-producing T cells in the duodenal mucosa of children with food allergy. Eur. J. Immunol. 33:23072315.
74. Rachmilewitz, D.,, K. Katakura,, F. Karmeli,, T. Hayashi,, C. Reinus,, B. Rudensky,, S. Akira,, K. Takeda,, J. Lee,, K. Takabayashi,, and E. Raz. 2004. Toll-like receptor 9 signaling mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics in murine experimental colitis. Gastroenterology 126:520528.
75. Rautava, S.,, H. Arvilommi, and, E. Isolauri. 2006. Specific probiotics in enhancing maturation of IgA responses in formula-fed infants. Pediatr. Res. 60:221224.
76. Ricklin-Gutzwiller, M. E.,, M. Reist,, J. E. Peel,, W. Seewald,, L. R. Brunet, and, P. J. Roosje. 2007. Intradermal injection of heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae in dogs with atopic dermatitis: a multicentre pilot study. Vet. Dermatol. 18:8793.
77. Riedler, J.,, C. Braun-Fahrlander,, W. Eder,, M. Schreuer,, M. Waser,, S. Maisch,, D. Carr,, R. Schierl,, D. Nowak,, and E. von Mutius. 2001. Exposure to farming in early life and development of asthma and allergy: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet 358:11291133.
78. Rinne, M.,, M. Kalliomaki,, S. Salminen, and, E. Isolauri. 2006. Probiotic intervention in the first months of life: short-term effects on gastrointestinal symptoms and long-term effects on gut microbiota. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 43:200205.
79. Rook, G. A. 2007. Th2 cytokines in susceptibility to tuberculosis. Curr. Mol. Med. 7:327337.
80. Rook, G. A.,, V. Adams,, J. Hunt,, R. Palmer,, R. Martinelli, and, L. R. Brunet. 2004. Mycobacteria and other environmental organisms as immunomodulators for immunoregulatory disorders. Springer Semin. Immunopathol. 25:237255.
81. Rook, G. A.,, E. Hamelmann, and, L. Rosa Brunet. 2007. Mycobacteria and allergies. Immunobiology 212:461473.
82. Rosenfeldt, V.,, E. Benfeldt,, S. D. Nielsen,, K. F. Michaelsen,, D. L. Jeppesen,, N. H. Valerius,, and A. Paerregaard. 2003. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111:389395.
83. Sashihara, T.,, N. Sueki, and, S. Ikegami. 2006. An analysis of the effectiveness of heat-killed lactic acid bacteria in alleviating allergic diseases. J. Dairy Sci. 89:28462855.
84. Saunders, K. A.,, T. Raine,, A. Cooke, and, C. E. Lawrence. 2007. Inhibition of autoimmune type 1 diabetes by gastrointestinal helminth infection. Infect. Immun. 75:397407.
85. Sheil, B., J. McCarthy,, L. O’Mahony,, M. W. Bennett,, P. Ryan,, J. J. Fitzgibbon,, B. Kiely,, J. K. Collins,, and F. Shanahan. 2004. Is the mucosal route of administration essential for probiotic function? Subcutaneous administration is associated with attenuation of murine colitis and arthritis. Gut 53:694700.
86. Smit, J. J.,, H. Van Loveren,, M. O. Hoekstra,, M. A. Schijf,, G. Folkerts, and, F. P. Nijkamp. 2003. Mycobacterium vaccae administration during allergen sensitization or challenge suppresses asthmatic features. Clin. Exp. Allergy 33:10831089.
87. Smits, H. H.,, A. Engering,, D. van der Kleij, E. C. de Jong,, K. Schipper,, T. M. van Capel,, B. A. Zaat,, M. Yazdanbakhsh,, E. A. Wierenga,, Y. van Kooyk, and, M. L. Kapsenberg. 2005. Selective probiotic bacteria induce IL-10-producing regulatory T cells in vitro by modulating dendritic cell function through dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 115:12601267.
88. Sudo, N.,, S. Sawamura,, K. Tanaka,, Y. Aiba,, C. Kubo,, and Y. Koga. 1997. The requirement of intestinal bacterial flora for the development of an IgE production system fully susceptible to oral tolerance induction. J. Immunol. 159:17391754.
89. Summers, R. W.,, D. E. Elliott,, J. F. Urban, Jr.,, R. Thompson, and, J. V. Weinstock. 2005a. Trichuris suis therapy in Crohn’s disease. Gut 54:8790.
90. Summers, R. W.,, D. E. Elliott,, J. F. Urban, Jr.,, R. A. Thompson, and, J. V. Weinstock. 2005b. Trichuris suis therapy for active ulcerative colitis: a randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterology 128:825832.
91. Summers, R. W.,, D. E. Elliott, and, J. V. Weinstock. 2006. Therapeutic colonization with Trichuris suis. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 130:17531754.
92. Sutmuller, R. P.,, M. H. den Brok,, M. Kramer,, E. J. Bennink,, L. W. Toonen,, B. J. Kullberg,, L. A. Joosten,, S. Akira,, M. G. Netea, and, G. J. Adema. 2006. Toll-like receptor 2 controls expansion and function of regulatory T cells. J. Clin. Investig. 116:485494.
93. Suzuki, N.,, K. Kudo,, Y. Sano, and, K. Ito. 2001. Can Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection prevent asthma and other allergic disorders? Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 124:113116.
94. Takahashi, N.,, H. Kitazawa,, N. Iwabuchi,, J. Z. Xiao,, K. Miyaji,, K. Iwatsuki,, and T. Saito. 2006. Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide from Bifidobacterium longum suppresses Th2 immune responses in a murine model. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 145:130138.
95. Taylor, A.,, J. Hale,, J. Wiltschut,, H. Lehmann,, J. A. Dun-stan, and, S. L. Prescott. 2006a. Evaluation of the effects of probiotic supplementation from the neonatal period on innate immune development in infancy. Clin. Exp. Allergy 36:12181226.
96. Taylor, A.,, J. Verhagen,, K. Blaser,, M. Akdis, and, C. A. Akdis. 2006b. Mechanisms of immune suppression by interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta: the role of T regulatory cells. Immunology 117:433442.
97. Taylor, A. L.,, J. A. Dunstan, and, S. L. Prescott. 2007a. Pro-biotic supplementation for the first 6 months of life fails to reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis and increases the risk of allergen sensitization in high-risk children: a randomized controlled trial. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 119:184191.
98. Taylor, A. L.,, J. Hale,, B. J. Hales,, J. A. Dunstan,, W. R. Thomas, and, S. L. Prescott. 2007b. FOXP3 mRNA expression at 6 months of age is higher in infants who develop atopic dermatitis, but is not affected by giving probiotics from birth. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 18:1019.
99. Taylor, A. L.,, J. Hale,, J. Wiltschut,, H. Lehmann,, J. A. Dun-stan, and, S. L. Prescott. 2006c. Effects of probiotic supplementation for the first 6 months of life on allergen- and vaccine-specific immune responses. Clin. Exp. Allergy 36:12271235.
100. van der Kleij, D.,, E. Latz,, J. F. Brouwers,, Y. C. Kruize,, M. Schmitz,, E. A. Kurt-Jones,, T. Espevik,, E. C. de Jong,, M. L. Kapsenberg,, D. T. Golenbock,, A. G. Tielens,, and M. Yazdanbakhsh. 2002. A novel host-parasite lipid crosstalk. Schistosomal lyso-phosphatidylserine activates Toll-like receptor 2 and affects immune polarization. J. Biol. Chem. 277:4812248129.
101. Van Kruiningen, H. J., and, A. B. West. 2007. Iatrogenic Trichuris suis infection. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 131:180.
102. van Riet, E.,, F. C. Hartgers, and, M. Yazdanbakhsh. 2007. Chronic helminth infections induce immunomodulation: consequences and mechanisms. Immunobiology 212:475490.
103. Viglietta, V.,, C. Baecher-Allan,, H. L. Weiner, and, D. A. Hafler. 2004. Loss of functional suppression by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in patients with multiple sclerosis. J. Exp. Med. 199:971979.
104. Viljanen, M.,, E. Savilahti,, T. Haahtela,, K. Juntunen-Backman,, R. Korpela,, T. Poussa,, T. Tuure,, and M. Kuitunen. 2005. Probiotics in the treatment of atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome in infants: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Allergy 60:494500.
105. Vizoso Pinto, M. G.,, T. Schuster,, K. Briviba,, B. Watzl,, W. H. Holzapfel, and, C. M. Franz. 2007. Adhesive and chemokine stimulatory properties of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains. J. Food Prot. 70:125134.
106. Wan, Y. Y., and, R. A. Flavell. 2007. Regulatory T-cell functions are subverted and converted owing to attenuated Foxp3 expression. Nature 445:766770.
107. Wang, C. C.,, T. J. Nolan,, G. A. Schad,, and D. Abraham. 2001. Infection of mice with the helminth Strongyloides stercoralis suppresses pulmonary allergic responses to ovalbumin. Clin. Exp. Allergy 31:495503.
108. Wang, C. C., and, G. A. W. Rook. 1998. Inhibition of an established allergic response to ovalbumin in Balb/c mice by killed Mycobacterium vaccae. Immunology 93:307313.
109. Wang, M. F.,, H. C. Lin,, Y. Y. Wang, and, C. H. Hsu. 2004. Treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis with lactic acid bacteria. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 15:152158.
110. Weston, S.,, A. Halbert,, P. Richmond, and, S. L. Prescott. 2005. Effects of probiotics on atopic dermatitis: a randomised controlled trial. Arch. Dis. Child. 90:892897.
111. Wildin, R. S., S. Smyk-Pearson, and, A. H. Filipovich. 2002. Clinical and molecular features of the immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X linked (IPEX) syndrome. J. Med. Genet. 39:537545.
112. Williams, H. C. 2006. Two “positive” studies of probiotics for atopic dermatitis: or are they? Arch. Dermatol. 142:12011203.
113. Wilson, M. S.,, M. D. Taylor,, A. Balic,, C. A. Finney,, J. R. Lamb, and, R. M. Maizels. 2005. Suppression of allergic airway inflammation by helminth-induced regulatory T cells. J. Exp. Med. 202:11991212.
114. Xiao, J. Z.,, S. Kondo,, N. Yanagisawa,, K. Miyaji,, K. Enomoto,, T. Sakoda,, K. Iwatsuki,, and T. Enomoto. 2007. Clinical efficacy of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum for the treatment of symptoms of Japanese cedar pollen allergy in subjects evaluated in an environmental exposure unit. Allergol. Int. 56:6775.
115. Xiao, J. Z.,, S. Kondo,, N. Yanagisawa,, N. Takahashi,, T. Odamaki,, N. Iwabuchi,, K. Iwatsuki,, S. Kokubo,, H. Togashi,, K. Enomoto,, and T. Enomoto. 2006a. Effect of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 in relieving clinical symptoms and modulating plasma cytokine levels of Japanese cedar pollinosis during the pollen season. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J. Investig. Allergol. Clin. Immunol. 16:8693.
116. Xiao, J. Z.,, S. Kondo,, N. Yanagisawa,, N. Takahashi,, T. Odamaki,, N. Iwabuchi,, K. Miyaji,, K. Iwatsuki,, H. Togashi,, K. Enomoto,, and T. Enomoto. 2006b. Probiotics in the treatment of Japanese cedar pollinosis: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Clin. Exp. Allergy 36:14251435.
117. Yang, J.,, J. Zhao,, Y. Yang,, L. Zhang,, X. Yang,, X. Zhu,, M. Ji,, N. Sun,, and C. Su. 2007. Schistosoma japonicum egg antigens stimulate CD4 CD25 T cells and modulate airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma. Immunology 120:818.
118. Yazdanbakhsh, M.,, P. G. Kremsner, and, R. van Ree. 2002. Allergy, parasites, and the hygiene hypothesis. Science 296:490494.
119. Yazdanbakhsh, M., and, P. M. Matricardi. 2004. Parasites and the hygiene hypothesis: regulating the immune system? Clin. Rev. Allergy Immunol. 26:1524.
120. Zaccone, P.,, Z. Fehervari,, F. M. Jones,, S. Sidobre,, M. Kronenberg,, D. W. Dunne,, and A. Cooke. 2003. Schistosoma mansoni antigens modulate the activity of the innate immune response and prevent onset of type 1 diabetes. Eur. J. Immunol. 33:14391449.
121. Zanin-Zhorov, A.,, L. Cahalon,, G. Tal,, R. Margalit,, O. Lider, and, I. R. Cohen. 2006. Heat shock protein 60 enhances CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cell function via innate TLR2 signaling. J. Clin. Investig. 116:20222032.
122. Zuany-Amorim, C.,, C. Manlius,, A. Trifilieff,, L. R. Brunet,, G. Rook,, G. Bowen,, G. Pay,, and C. Walker. 2002a. Long-term protective and antigen-specific effect of heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae in a murine model of allergic pulmonary inflammation. J. Immunol. 169:1492.
123. Zuany-Amorim, C.,, E. Sawicka,, C. Manlius,, A. Le Moine, L. R. Brunet,, D. M. Kemeny,, G. Bowen,, G. Rook,, and C. Walker. 2002b. Suppression of airway eosinophilia by killed Mycobacterium vaccae-induced allergen-specific regulatory T-cells. Nat. Med. 8:625629.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error