1887

Chapter 23 : Prebiotics in Human Medicine

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Prebiotics in Human Medicine, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815462/9781555814038_Chap23-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815462/9781555814038_Chap23-2.gif

Abstract:

The main areas that are reviewed in this chapter include constipation, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease), and colorectal cancer. Constipation may also be a side effect of medication intake, in particular, antidepressants, antihistamines, opioids, and diuretics. Diarrhea can be acute (less than 14 days duration and usually caused by enteric infections), persistent (lasting more than 14 days), or chronic (lasting 30 days or more). Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) usually occurs 2 to 8 weeks after treatment with antibiotics, especially broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. Only one study of the effect of prebiotics consumption on prevention of traveler’s diarrhea has been published. In this study, 244 healthy subjects who were traveling to destinations at high or medium risk for traveler’s diarrhea were randomized to groups receiving either fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) (10 g/day) or a placebo orally for 2 weeks prior to and during a 2-week excursion. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a very common gastrointestinal disorder associated with a wide range of symptoms, including abdominal pain or discomfort, loose or hard stools, bloating, and flatulence. Generally, treatment of IBS is focused on medications rather than nutritional approaches. The decline in immune function is associated mainly with changes in T-cell populations, although other components of the immune system are also affected. Clinical studies of applications of prebiotics in human medicine are limited compared to the numbers of reports regarding probiotics.

Citation: Rowland I. 2008. Prebiotics in Human Medicine, p 299-306. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch23

Key Concept Ranking

Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
0.9014259
Traveler's Diarrhea
0.7828948
Immune Systems
0.61435336
Large Intestine
0.60283804
Small Intestine
0.60283804
Crohn's Disease
0.5232088
Tumor Necrosis Factor
0.50205994
0.9014259
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815462.ch23
1. Boyle, P., and, J. S. Langman. 2000. ABC of colorectal cancer: epidemiology. Br. Med. J. 321:805808.
2. Bunout, D.,, S. Hirsch,, M. Pia de la Maza,, C. Munoz,, F. Haschke,, P. Steenhout,, P. Klassen,, G. Barrera,, V. Gattas,, and M. Petermann. 2002. Effects of prebiotics on the immune response to vaccination in the elderly. J. Parenteral Enteral Nutr. 26:372376.
3. Chermesh, I.,, A. Tamir,, R. Reshef,, Y. Chowers,, A. Suissa,, D. Katz,, M. Gelber,, Z. Halpern,, S. Bengmark, and, S. R. Eliakim. 2007. Failure of Synbiotic 2000 to prevent postoperative recurrence of Crohn’s disease. Dig. Dis. Sci. 52:385389.
4. Colecchia, A.,, A. Vestito,, A. La Rocca,, F. Pasqui,, A. Nikiforaki,, D. Festi, and the Symbiotic Study Group. 2006. Effect of a symbiotic preparation on the clinical manifestations of irritable bowel syndrome, constipation-variant. Results of an open, uncontrolled multicenter study. Minerva Gastroenterol. Dietol. 52:349358.
5. Commane, D.,, R. Hughes,, C. Shortt, and, I. Rowland. 2005. The potential mechanisms involved in the anti-carcinogenic action of probiotics. Mutat. Res. 591:278289.
6. Cummings, J. H.,, S. A. Bingham,, K. W. Heaton, and, M. A. Eastwood. 1992. Fecal weight, colon cancer risk, and dietary intake of nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber). Gastroenterology 103:17831789.
7. Cummings, J. H.,, S. Christie, and, T. J. Cole. 2001. A study of fructo oligosaccharides in the prevention of travellers’ diarrhoea. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 15:11391145.
8. Cummings, J. H.,, M. J. Hill,, D. J. Jenkins,, J. R. Pearson, and, H. W. Wiggins. 1976. Changes in fecal composition and colonic function due to cereal fiber. Am. J Clin. Nutr. 29:14681473.
9. Deitch, E. A. 1990. Intestinal permeability is increased in burn patients shortly after injury. Surgery 107:411416.
10. Femia, A. P.,, C. Luceri,, P. Dolara,, A. Giannini,, A. Biggeri,, M. Salvadori,, Y. Clune,, K. J. Collins,, M. Paglierani,, and G. Caderni. 2002. Antitumorigenic activity of the prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Carcinogenesis 23:19531960.
11. Franceschi, C.,, M. Bonafe,, S. Valensin,, F. Olivieri,, M. De Luca,, E. Ottaviani,, and G. De Benedictis. 2000. Inflamm-aging. An evolutionary perspective on immunosenescence. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 908:244254.
12. Furrie, E.,, S. Macfarlane,, A. Kennedy,, J. H. Cummings,, S. V. Walsh, D. A. O’Neil, and, G. T. Macfarlane. 2005. Synbiotic therapy (Bifidobacterium longum/Synergy 1) initiates resolution of inflammation in patients with active ulcerative colitis: a randomised controlled pilot trial. Gut 54:242249.
13. Gangarosa, R. E.,, R. I. Glass,, J. F. Lew, and, J. R. Boring. 1992. Hospitalizations involving gastroenteritis in the United States 1985: the special burden of the disease in the elderly. Am. J. Epidemiol. 135:281290.
14. Garrigues, V.,, C. Galvez,, V. Ortiz,, M. Ponce,, P. Nos,, and J. Ponce. 2004. Prevalence of constipation: agreement among several criteria and evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of qualifying symptoms and self-reported definition in a population-based survey in Spain. Am. J. Epidemiol. 159:520526.
15. Gibson, G. R., and, M. B. Roberfroid. 1995. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J. Nutr. 125:14011412.
16. Gill, H. S.,, K. J. Rutherfurd, and, M. L. Cross. 2001. Enhancement of immunity in the elderly by dietary supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HNO19. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 74:833839.
17. Gotteland, M.,, S. Cruchet, and, S. Verbeke. 2001. Effect of Lactobacillus ingestion on the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier alterations induced by indomethacin in humans. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 15:1117.
18. Halpern, G. M.,, T. Prindiville,, M. Blankenburg,, T. Hsia, and, M. E. Gershwin. 1996. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with Lacteol Fort: a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 91:579585.
19. Heavey, P. M.,, D. McKenna, and, I. R. Rowland. 2004. Colorectal cancer and the relationship between genes and environment. Nutr. Cancer 48:124141.
20. Guigoz, Y.,, F. Rochat,, G. Perruisseau-Carrier,, I. Rochat, and, E. J. Schiffrin. 2002. Effects of oligosaccharide on the faecal flora and non-specific immune system in elderly people. Nutr. Res. 22:325.
21. Higgins, P. D., and, J. F. Johanson. 2004. Epidemiology of constipation in North America: a systematic review. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 99:750759.
22. Hughes, R., and, I. Rowland. 2003. Nutritional and microbial modification of carcinogenesis, pp. 208236. In R. Fuller and, G. Perdigon (ed.), Gut Flora, Nutrition, Immunity and Health. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, United Kingdom.
23. Hunter, J. O.,, Q. Tuffnell, and, A. J. Lee. 1999. Controlled trial of oligofructose in the management of irritable bowel syndrome. J. Nutr. 129:1451S–1453S.
24. Husebye, E.,, P. M. Hellstrom,, F. Sundler,, J. Chen, and, T. Midtvedt. 2001. Influence of microbial species on small intestinal myoelectric activity and transit in germ-free rats. Am. J. Physiol. Gastroenterol. Liver Physiol. 280:G368–G380.
25. Kelly, C. P.,, C. Pothoulakis,, and J. T. LaMont. 1994. Clostridium difficile colitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 330:257262.
26. Kleessen, B.,, B. Sykura,, H.-J. Zunft, and, M. Blaut. 1997. Effects of inulin and lactose on fecal microflora, microbial activity and bowel habit in elderly constipated persons. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 65:13971402.
27. Kot, T. V., and, N. A. Pettit-Young. 1992. Lactulose in the management of constipation: a current review. Ann. Pharmacother. 26:12771282.
28. Lesniewska, V.,, I. Rowland,, H. N. Laerke,, G. Grant, and, P. J. Naughton. 2006. Relationship between dietary induced changes in intestinal commensal microflora and duodenojejunal myoelectric activity monitored by radiotelemetry in the rat in vivo. Exp. Physiol. 91:229237.
29. Lewis, S.,, S. Burmeister,, S. Cohen,, J. Brazier, and, A. Awasthi. 2005a. Failure of dietary oligofructose to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 21:469477.
30. Lewis, S.,, S. Burmeister, and, J. Brazier. 2005b. Effect of prebiotic oligofructose on relapse of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a randomized, controlled study. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 3:442448.
31. Lindsay, J. O.,, K. Whelan,, A. J. Stagg,, P. Gobin,, H. O. Al-Hassi,, N. Rayment,, M. A. Kamm,, S. C. Knight,, and A. Forbes. 2006. Clinical, microbiological, and immunological effects of fructo-oligosaccharide in patients with Crohn’s disease. Gut 55:348355.
32. Macfarlane, S.,, G. T. Macfarlane, and, J. H. Cummings. 2006. Review article: prebiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 24:701714.
33. McFarland, L. V. 1993. Diarrhoea acquired in the hospital. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 22:563577.
34. McFarland, L. V. 1998. Epidemiology, risk factors and treatments for antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Dig. Dis. 16:292307.
35. Niedzielin, K.,, H. Kordecki, and, B. Birkenfeld. 2001. A controlled, double-blind, randomized study on the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13:11351136.
36. Niv, E.,, T. Naftali,, R. Hallak, and, N. Vaisman. 2005. The efficacy of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome—a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Clin. Nutr. 24:925931.
37. Olguin, F.,, M. Araya,, S. Hirsch,, O. Brunser,, V. Ayala,, R. Rivera,, and M. Gotteland. 2005. Prebiotic ingestion does not improve gastrointestinal barrier function in burn patients. Burns 31:482488.
38. Orrhage, K.,, S. Sjostedt, and, C. E. Nord. 2000. Effect of supplements with lactic acid bacteria and oligofructose on the intestinal microflora during administration of cefpodoxime proxetil J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 46:603612.
39. Pawelec, G., and, R. Solana. 1997. Immunosenescence. Immunol. Today 18:514516.
40. Pawelec, G.,, R. B. Effros,, C. Caruso,, E. Remarque,, Y. Barnett,, and R. Solana. 1999. T cells and aging. Front. Biosci. 4:D216–D269.
41. Potter, J. 2003. Bowel care in older people. Clin. Med. 3:4851.
42. Rafter, J.,, M. Bennett,, G. Caderni,, Y. Clune,, R. Hughes,, P. C. Karlsson,, A. Klinder,, M. O’Riordan,, G. O’Sullivan,, B. Pool-Zobel,, G. Rechkemmer,, M. Roller,, I. Rowland,, M. Salvadori,, H. Thijs,, J. Van Loo,, B. Watzl,, and J. K. Collins. 2007. Dietary synbiotics reduce cancer risk factors in polypectomised and colon cancer patients. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 85:488496.
43. Rowland, I. R.,, and S. D. Gangolli. 1999. Role of gastrointestinal flora in the metabolic and toxicological activities of xenobiotics, p. 561576. In B. Ballantyne,, T. C. Marrs,, and T. Syverson (ed.), General and Applied Toxicology, 2nd ed. Macmillan Publishers Ltd, London, United Kingdom.
44. Rutgeerts, P., G. Van Assche, and, S. Vermeire. 2004. Optimizing anti-TNF treatment in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 126:15931610.
45. Scheppach, W. 1994. Effects of short chain fatty acids on gut morphology and function. Gut 35:S35–S38.
46. Strober, W.,, I. Fuss, and, P. Mannon. 2007. The fundamental basis of inflammatory bowel disease. J. Clin. Investig. 117:514521.
47. Talley, N. J.,, M. Jones,, G. Nuyts, and, D. Dubois. 2003. Risk factors for chronic constipation based on a general practice sample. Am. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 98:11071111.
48. Teuri, U., and, R. Korpela. 1998. Galacto-oligosaccharides relieve constipation in elderly people. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 42:319327.
49. Venturi, M.,, R. J. Hambly,, B. Glinghammar,, J. J. Rafter, and, I. R. Rowland. 1997. Genotoxic activity in human faecal water and the role of bile acids: a study using the Comet assay. Carcinogenesis 18:23532359.
50. Whitehead, W. E.,, D. Drinkwater,, L. J. Cheskin,, B. R. Heller, and, M. M. Schuster. 1989. Constipation in the elderly living at home. Definition, prevalence, and relationship to lifestyle and health status, J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 37:423429.
51. Whorwell, P. J.,, L. Altringer,, J. Morel,, Y. Bond,, D. Char-bonneau,, L. O’Mahony,, B. Kiely,, F. Shanahan, and, E. M. Quigley. 2006. Efficacy of an encapsulated probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis35624 in women with irritable bowel syndrome. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101:15811590.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Effect of synbiotic treatment on colon cancer-related biomarkers in polypectomized patients

Citation: Rowland I. 2008. Prebiotics in Human Medicine, p 299-306. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch23

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error