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Food-Borne Microbes: Shaping the Host Ecosystem

Editors: Lee-Ann Jaykus1, Hua H. Wang2, Larry S. Schlesinger3
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Affiliations: 1: Department of Food, Eioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences North Carolina State University Raleiph. North Carolina; 2: Department of Food Science and Technology and Department of Microbiology, The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio; 3: Center Jor Microhial Interface Biology and Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio
Content Type: Monograph
Format: Hardcover, Electronic
Publication Year: 2009

Category: Food Microbiology; Applied and Industrial Microbiology

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With contributions from experts in environmental, food, oral, medical, and veterinary microbiology, this book takes an innovative and interdisciplinary approach that sheds new light on microbial communities and their interactions within and between different environments, with particular emphasis on food systems. The book underscores the central role played by food and food-borne microbes in host ecosystem development by connecting complex ecosystems from the environment to the host and linking them to the food carrier.

is organized into five sections. The first section introduces major microbial ecosystems associated with hosts, foods, and the natural environment. The second section describes various mechanisms and manifestations of microbial interaction. The example of antibiotic resistance is used in the third section to illustrate the interactions among food, environmental, and host microbial systems and their potential impact on public health. The next section focuses on notable food-borne bacteria as models to demonstrate core concepts set forth in the previous chapters. The final section introduces new and emerging tools for advancing the study of microbial ecosystems.

This book serves as an excellent introduction to important concepts, mechanisms, and tools used in microbial ecology and medical microbiology research. Moreover, its comprehensive and integrated approach to microbial ecology as it relates to food microbiology, the environment, and the host serves as a springboard for developing new, effective approaches for ensuring safe foods and healthy hosts.

Book Summary

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Microbiology Today

03 March 2013

On first glance, this would seem to be a book on typical food-borne pathogens and their physiology, virulence and characterization. However, it is different in that it describes the influence that food micro-organisms can exert on the ecology of associated ecosystems, like the oral cavity, gut and water environments. It then looks at microbial interactions (biofilms, quorum sensing), antibiotic resistance, emerging organisms and new detection tools. It is a refreshing approach that should interest readers from a more varied range of disciplines than is usual in the food microbiology area. The authors are well regarded in their fields and the presentation style is of high quality. There is good, but sparse, use of graphics and tables. The editors should be congratulated on their approach and the finished work. It maintains the high quality that is usually expected from ASM books. It will interest graduate students as well as microbial ecology researchers.

Society for General Microbiology: Microbiology Today

Reviewer: Glenn Gibson, University of Reading

Review Date: 2009

Quarterly Review of Biology

20 February 2013

The field of microbiology can be loosely organized into four major areas - microbial ecology, food/water microbiology, industrial microbiology, and medical microbiology,each of which have their own subdisciplines such as plant pathology, oral/gut microbiology, probiotics, pathogenicity mechanisms, antibiotic resistance, molecular diagnostics, genomics, and proteomics. Food-Borne Microbes: Shaping the Host Ecosystem represents the first attempt to foster better crosstalk among food, environmental, and medical microbiologists concerning the impact microflora from these wide-ranging microbial communities have on human health and disease.

This book is separated into five distinct sections, the first of which sets the stage by characterizing the microbial diversity of various fresh foods and water, the oral cavity, and the human gut. Section II addresses biofilms and the importance of quorum sensing/cell-to-cell communication in microbial survival, various molecular mechanisms for microbial survival in food, the principles of food fermentation and biocontrol, and the role of parasitic worms in triggering immunological diseases. The development and spread of antimicrobial resistant microbes and the importance of commensal bacteria in horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance are discussed in Section III. Thereafter, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis are used to illustrate the range of pathogen survival mechanisms within the host. The book concludes with a cuttingedge discussion of the latest molecular methods - e.g., community fingerprinting, small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequencing - and mathematical models for assesing both the diversity and the dynamic interactions of the wide range of microorganisms found in biofilms and the gut.

This up-to-date, technically advanced, well-written, and thought-provoking volume clearly conveys the message that the origins and interactions of these diverse microbial communities cannot be ignored when assessing human health and disease. As such, this book would be a most welcome addition to any library.

Quarterly Review of Biology

Reviewer: Elliot Ryser, Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan

Review Date: March 2010

Doody Enterprises

27 January 2013

At A Glance

This book uniquely addresses the impact, both positive and negative, of food-borne microbes on the host and their role in shaping the ecosystems of the gut and oral cavity. This book is a comprehensive reference for the general microbiology community, with particular interest to food and industrial microbiologists and those engaged in microbial ecology research. It addresses the impact, both positive and negative, of food-borne microbes on the host and their role in shaping the ecosystems of the gut and oral cavity. It is organized to reflect the progression of the microflora along the food chain from production to consumption, and the connections with the environment and the host flora. It promotes the stimulation of new ideas and new opportunities in future food microbiology research.

Description

Usually a book with this title would describe the microorganisms found in food products that cause disease in humans. However, this book describes the effect of microbes in food on the health of humans and how the change in this microbial flora can lead to disease. The editors note that "food microbiology research is now evolving to consider complex microbial ecosystems."

Purpose

The purpose is to present scientific viewpoints about the microbial communities that exist in food, the environment, and different human physiological spaces. The research relating to these various areas is brought together in order to encourage a new view of how microbial interactions with human hosts may benefit or harm the health of the human host.

Audience

This book is written for scientists working in the food industry, nutritionists, medical practitioners, and microbiologists. It would be appropriate for an advanced course in microbial interactions with humans. The authors are from a variety of backgrounds and are all active in research in the area of host microflora and immune system balance.

Features

Chapters in the first section describe the microflora that are typically found in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract and the microflora of common food products and water environments. This section focuses on the potential interactions of the numerous microflora in each niche. The next section focuses on the bacterial response to environment such as biofilms, how they sense the environment by signal transduction, the ability to survive in various foods, and in the presence of bile salts. An interesting and provocative chapter suggests that the lack of helminths in the gastrointestinal tract of humans in developed countries may contribute to the increased reactive immunological diseases found in people living in these countries. Later sections discuss antibiotic resistance that is carried by microbes in food and describe experimental models for studying these principles.

Assessment

This interesting book would be a good textbook for an advanced graduate course in microbiology. It is packed with intriguing ideas and interesting studies. Various sections show a complex biosystem inside and outside the human body in which microorganisms adapt and influence these environments.

Doody Enterprises

Reviewer: Rebecca Horvat, PhD, D(ABMM) (University of Kansas Medical Center)

Review Date: Unknown

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