Full text loading...
Chapter 4 : Enteric Pathogens
Category: Clinical Microbiology
Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase
The most common agents causing acute bacterial gastroenteritis are Campylobacter species (2.5 million cases annually), nontyphoidal Salmonella species (1.4 million), Shigella species (0.45 million), Escherichia coli species (0.27 million), Clostridium perfringens (0.25 million), staphylococcal food poisoning (0.19 million), and Yersinia enterocolitica (0.1 million). Among the complications of bacterial gastroenteritis are persistent diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chronic bacterial carriage, gall bladder carcinoma, hemolytic uremic syndrome, Guillain-Barrė syndrome (GBS), autoimmune thyroid disease, reactive arthritides (including Reiter’s syndrome and ankylosing spondylitis [AS]), atrophic rhinitis, and rhinoscleroma. The toxins produced by gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens may be classified as neurotoxins, enterotoxins, and cytotoxins. The majority of these are due to Shigella sonnei; the remaining 15% are caused by Shigella boydii, Shigella dysenteriae, and Shigella flexneri. In many cases, the relative risk posed by the various enteric pathogens and the mechanism through which these syndromes arise require further elucidation. Laboratory-based surveillance programs monitoring bacterial enteric infections have recently identified substantial changes in the incidences of infections caused by the major pathogens. These programs provide an ideal platform for research to track chronic sequelae of these infections. Such studies inform more accurately about the burden of chronic diseases associated with these infections, the effects on susceptibility of the now widely used proton pump inhibitors (PPI), and whether antibiotic use for acute enteritis influences the risk and severity of the long-term complications.
Key Concept Ranking
- Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II