Chapter 4 : Enteric Pathogens

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Enteric Pathogens, Page 1 of 2

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The most common agents causing acute bacterial gastroenteritis are species (2.5 million cases annually), nontyphoidal species (1.4 million), species (0.45 million), species (0.27 million), (0.25 million), staphylococcal food poisoning (0.19 million), and (0.1 million). Among the complications of bacterial gastroenteritis are persistent diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chronic bacterial carriage, gall bladder carcinoma, hemolytic uremic syndrome, Guillain-Barrė syndrome (GBS), autoimmune thyroid disease, reactive arthritides (including Reiter’s syndrome and ankylosing spondylitis [AS]), atrophic rhinitis, and rhinoscleroma. The toxins produced by gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens may be classified as neurotoxins, enterotoxins, and cytotoxins. The majority of these are due to sonnei; the remaining 15% are caused by , , and . In many cases, the relative risk posed by the various enteric pathogens and the mechanism through which these syndromes arise require further elucidation. Laboratory-based surveillance programs monitoring bacterial enteric infections have recently identified substantial changes in the incidences of infections caused by the major pathogens. These programs provide an ideal platform for research to track chronic sequelae of these infections. Such studies inform more accurately about the burden of chronic diseases associated with these infections, the effects on susceptibility of the now widely used proton pump inhibitors (PPI), and whether antibiotic use for acute enteritis influences the risk and severity of the long-term complications.

Citation: Rees J. 2009. Enteric Pathogens, p 53-68. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch4

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