1887

Chapter 8 : Mycobacteria: Leprosy, a Battle Turned; Tuberculosis, a Battle Raging; Paratuberculosis, a Battle Ignored

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Mycobacteria: Leprosy, a Battle Turned; Tuberculosis, a Battle Raging; Paratuberculosis, a Battle Ignored, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815486/9781555814304_Chap08-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815486/9781555814304_Chap08-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter addresses three mycobacterial organisms that have entirely different profiles: , , and subsp. Several trends continue to gravely threaten progress toward further global reductions in tuberculosis (TB). Of the 85 species within the genus , members of the complex have evolved as one of the preeminent pathogens of man. The clinical course of TB can be roughly divided into three phases: primary infection, latent TB, and chronic active TB. Additionally, for both and , multiple-drug therapy (MDT) is usually considered obligatory, to prevent the emergence of resistant mycobacterial strains. The other two components of this chapter enunciate in detail that even with the most intensive MDT regimes, neither nor is eradicated. A provocative study has reported that mycobacterial antigen activation of toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) on monocytes from tuberculoid leprosy patients induced differentiation into cells bearing the dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule grabbing nonintegrin MPH and CD1b DC. Biopsies of lepromatous lesions reveal acute inflammation, with focal infiltrates of polymorphs, superimposed upon the chronic inflammation and high mycobacterial load of lepromatous (LL-BL) leprosy. Initial comparisons of genome with that of and more recently with those of other mycobacterial species have made it possible to assign potential gene function to many of genes. Additionally, an appropriately designed potent vaccine should protect against many, if not all, drug-resistant mutants of the infectious agent, an inevitability in leprosy that cannot be minimized.

Citation: Greenstein R, Gillis T, Scollard D, Brown S. 2009. Mycobacteria: Leprosy, a Battle Turned; Tuberculosis, a Battle Raging; Paratuberculosis, a Battle Ignored, p 135-167. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch8

Key Concept Ranking

Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II
0.4224767
0.4224767
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

The cycle of TB infection and opportunities to interrupt it. Solid arrows indicate the path of various stages in the cycle of TB infection. Dashed lines indicate opportunities to interrupt the cycle of infection. Numbers refer to the most important corresponding control methods used to interrupt the cycle of infection. 1, public health and epidemiological measures; 2, multidrug treatment of active disease; 3, single-drug treatment of asymptomatic infection; 4, immunologic enhancement, including vaccination.

Citation: Greenstein R, Gillis T, Scollard D, Brown S. 2009. Mycobacteria: Leprosy, a Battle Turned; Tuberculosis, a Battle Raging; Paratuberculosis, a Battle Ignored, p 135-167. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Salicylic acid and derivatives.

Citation: Greenstein R, Gillis T, Scollard D, Brown S. 2009. Mycobacteria: Leprosy, a Battle Turned; Tuberculosis, a Battle Raging; Paratuberculosis, a Battle Ignored, p 135-167. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

The immunopathologic spectrum of leprosy. Representative sections of human skin biopsy specimens illustrate the full spectrum of inflammation seen in leprosy. Well-organized granulomatous inflammation characterizes polar TT lesions; the perimeter of the epithelioid center of a granuloma is outlined by the arrowheads. In borderline tuberculoid (BT) lesions, the granulomas are less well organized but still contain typical features, such as giant multi-nucleated cells (arrow). BB lesions contain both well-formed granulomas (bottom of BB panel) and disorganized areas (top of panel). Disorganization becomes more pronounced and foamy histiocytes become more prominent in BL lesions, and polar LL lesions are composed of the completely disorganized sheets of foamy MPH. Most patients are classified in the broad borderline region. As indicated in the diagram, the number of bacilli present in lesions (solid line) varies from rare in TT lesions to abundant in LL ones. This is inversely related to the patient’s degree of CMI to . The open arrows indicate the portions of the spectrum in which patients are at risk for T1R or T2R, reversal or ENL leprosy reactions, respectively. [Modified from Frankel, R. I., and D. M. Scollard. Leprosy. Philip Brachman and Elias Abrutyn (ed.), , 3rd ed. Springer, in press.]

Citation: Greenstein R, Gillis T, Scollard D, Brown S. 2009. Mycobacteria: Leprosy, a Battle Turned; Tuberculosis, a Battle Raging; Paratuberculosis, a Battle Ignored, p 135-167. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815486.ch08
1. Abe, T.,, Y. Iinuma,, M. Ando,, T. Yokoyama,, T. Yamamoto,, K. Nakashima,, N. Takagi,, H. Baba,, Y. Hasegawa, and, K. Shimokata. 2003. NRAMP1 polymorphisms, susceptibility and clinical features of tuberculosis. J. Infect. 46:215220.
2. Abebe, F.,, C. Holm-Hansen,, H. G. Wiker, and, G. Bjune. 2007. Progress in serodiagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Scand. J. Immunol. 66:176191.
3. Abel, L.,, F. O. Sanchez,, J. Oberti,, N. V. Thuc,, L. V. Hoa,, V. D. Lap,, E. Skamene,, P. H. Lagrange, and, E. Schurr. 1998. Susceptibility to leprosy is linked to the human NRAMP1 gene. J. Infect. Dis. 177:133145.
4. Aguado, J. M.,, J. A. Herrero,, J. Gavalda,, J. Torre-Cisneros,, M. Blanes,, G. Rufi,, A. Moreno,, M. Gurgui,, M. Hayek,, C. Lumbreras,, C. Cantarell, et al. 1997. Clinical presentation and outcome of tuberculosis in kidney, liver, and heart transplant recipients in Spain. Transplantation 63:12781286.
5. Akahoshi, M.,, M. Ishihara,, N. Remus,, K. Uno,, K. Miyake,, T. Hirota,, K. Nakashima,, A. Matsuda,, M. Kanda,, T. Enomoto,, S. Ohno,, H. Nakashima,, J. L. Casanova,, J. M. Hopkin,, M. Tamari,, X. Q. Mao, and, T. Shirakawa. 2004. Association between IFNA genotype and the risk of sarcoidosis. Hum. Genet. 114:503509.
6. Alcais, A.,, A. Alter,, G. Antoni,, M. Orlova,, V. T. Nguyen,, M. Singh,, P. R. Vanderborght,, K. Katoch,, M. T. Mira,, H. T. Vu,, T. H. Ngyuen,, N. B. Nguyen,, M. Moraes,, N. Mehra,, E. Schurr, and, L. Abel. 2007. Stepwise replication identifies a low-producing lymphotoxin-alpha allele as a major risk factor for early-onset leprosy. Nat. Genet. 39:517522.
7. Andersson, A. K.,, M. Chaduvula,, S. E. Atkinson,, S. Khanolkar-Young,, S. Jain,, L. Suneetha,, S. Suneetha, and, D. N. Lockwood. 2005. Effects of prednisolone treatment on cytokine expression in patients with leprosy type 1 reactions. Infect. Immun. 73:37253733.
8. Anonymous. 1998. The thalidomide comeback. HIV Hotline 8:7, 9, 15.
9. Reference deleted.
10. Anonymous. 2006. Global strategy for further reducing the leprosy burden and sustaining leprosy control activities 2006–2010. Operational guidelines. Lepr. Rev. 77:IX, X, 150.
11. Antognoli, M. C.,, F. B. Garry,, H. L. Hirst,, J. E. Lombard,, M. M. Dennis,, D. H. Gould, and, M. D. Salman. 2008. Characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis disseminated infection in dairy cattle and its association with antemortem test results. Vet. Microbiol. 127:300308.
12. Askling, J.,, L. Brandt,, A. Lapidus,, P. Karlen,, M. Bjorkholm,, R. Lofberg, and, A. Ekbom. 2005. Risk of haematopoietic cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 54:617622.
13. Autschbach, F.,, S. Eisold,, U. Hinz,, S. Zinser,, M. Linnebacher,, T. Giese,, T. Loffler,, M. W. Buchler, and, J. Schmidt. 2005. High prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis IS900 DNA in gut tissues from individuals with Crohn’s disease. Gut 54:944949.
14. Ayele, W. Y.,, P. Svastova,, P. Roubal,, M. Bartos, and, I. Pavlik. 2005. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis cultured from locally and commercially pasteurized cow’s milk in the Czech Republic. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:12101214.
15. Azad Khan, A. K.,, J. Piris, and, S. C. Truelove. 1977. An experiment to determine the active therapeutic moiety of sulphasalazine. Lancet ii:829831.
16. Barksdale, L.,, and K. S. Kim. 1977. Mycobacterium. Bacteriol. Rev. 41:217372.
17. Beard, P. M.,, M. J. Daniels,, D. Henderson,, A. Pirie,, K. Rudge,, D. Buxton,, S. Rhind,, A. Greig,, M. R. Hutchings,, I. McKendrick,, K. Stevenson, and, J. M. Sharp. 2001. Paratuberculosis infection of nonruminant wildlife in Scotland. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:15171521.
18. Behr, M. A.,, M. Semret,, A. Poon, and, E. Schurr. 2004. Crohn’s disease, mycobacteria, and NOD2. Lancet Infect. Dis. 4:136137.
19. Behr, M. A.,, S. A. Warren,, H. Salamon,, P. C. Hopewell,, D. L. Ponce,, C. L. Daley, and, P. M. Small. 1999. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients smear-negative for acid-fast bacilli. Lancet 353:444449.
20. Berardi, R. R. 1996. Inflammatory bowel disease, p. 483–502. In E. T. Herfindal and, D. R. Gourley (ed.), Textbook of Therapeutics. Drugs and Disease Management, vol. 1. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
21. Bercik, P.,, E. F. Verdu, and, S. M. Collins. 2005. Is irritable bowel syndrome a low-grade inflammatory bowel disease? Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 34:235245.
22. Bernadsky, S.,, A. Clarke, and, S. Suissa. 2008. Hematologic malignant neoplasms in drug exposure in rheumatoid arthritis. Arch. Intern. Med. 168:378381.
23. Bernheim, F. 1940. The effect of salicylate on the oxygen uptake of the tubercle bacillus. Science 92:204.
24. Bernstein, C. N.,, L. Artinian,, P. A. Anton, and, F. Shanahan. 1994. Low-dose 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease is associated with minimal hematologic toxicity. Dig. Dis. Sci. 39:16381641.
25. Bernstein, C. N.,, M. H. Wang,, M. Sargent,, S. R. Brant, and, M. T. Collins. 2007. Testing the interaction between NOD-2 status and serological response to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in cases of inflammatory bowel disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:968971.
26. Bhatt, K.,, and P. Salgame. 2007. Host innate immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Clin. Immunol. 27:347362.
27. Binford, C. H. 1956. Comprehensive program for the inoculation of human leprosy into laboratory animals. US Public Health Rep. 71:995996.
28. Blackwell, J. M. 1996. Genetic susceptibility to leishmanial infections: studies in mice and man. Parasitology 112(Suppl.):S67S74.
29. Blackwell, J. M. 1998. Genetics of host resistance and susceptibility to intramacrophage pathogens: a study of multicase families of tuberculosis, leprosy and leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. Int. J. Parasitol. 28:2128.
30. Bouhnik, Y.,, M. Lemann,, J. Y. Mary,, G. Scemama,, R. Tai,, C. Matuchansky,, R. Modigliani, and, J. C. Rambaud. 1996. Long-term follow-up of patients with Crohn’s disease treated with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine. Lancet 347:215219.
31. Brand, S.,, T. Staudinger,, F. Schnitzler,, S. Pfennig,, K. Hofbauer,, J. Dambacher,, J. Seiderer,, C. Tillack,, A. Konrad,, A. Crispin,, B. Goke,, P. Lohse, and, T. Ochsenkuhn. 2005. The role of Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms and CARD15/NOD2 mutations in the susceptibility and phenotype of Crohn’s disease. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 11:645652.
32. Brennan, P. J. 2003. Structure, function, and biogenesis of the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh) 83:9197.
33. Brennan, P. J.,, and V. D. Vissa. 2001. Genomic evidence for the retention of the essential mycobacterial cell wall in the otherwise defective Mycobacterium leprae. Lepr. Rev. 72:415428.
34. Britton, W. J.,, and D. N. Lockwood. 2004. Leprosy. Lancet 363:12091219.
35. Brosch, R.,, S. V. Gordon,, K. Eiglmeier,, T. Garnier, and, S. T. Cole. 2000. Comparative genomics of the leprosy and tubercle bacilli. Res. Microbiol. 151:135142.
36. Brosch, R.,, S. V. Gordon,, M. Marmiesse,, P. Brodin,, C. Buchrieser,, K. Eiglmeier,, T. Garnier,, C. Gutierrez,, G. Hewinson,, K. Kremer,, L. M. Parsons,, A. S. Pym,, S. Samper,, D. van Soolingen, and, S. T. Cole. 2002. A new evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:36843689.
37. Brown, S. T.,, and P. L. Almenoff. 1992. Pulmonary mycobacterial infections associated with neoplasia. Semin. Respir. Infect. 7:104113.
38. Buergelt, C. D.,, A. W. Layton,, P. E. Ginn,, M. Taylor,, J. M. King,, P. L. Habecker,, E. Mauldin,, R. Whitlock,, C. Rossiter, and, M. T. Collins. 2000. The pathology of spontaneous paratuberculosis in the North American bison (Bison bison). Vet. Pathol. 37:428438.
39. Bull, T. J.,, S. C. Gilbert,, S. Sridhar,, R. Linedale,, N. Dierkes,, K. Sidi-Boumedine, and, J. Hermon-Taylor. 2007. A novel multi-antigen virally vectored vaccine against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. PLoS ONE 2:e1229.
40. Bull, T. J.,, E. J. McMinn,, K. Sidi-Boumedine,, A. Skull,, D. Durkin,, P. Neild,, G. Rhodes,, R. Pickup, and, J. Hermon-Taylor. 2003. Detection and verification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in fresh ileocolonic mucosal biopsy specimens from individuals with and without Crohn’s disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:29152923.
41. Buschman, E.,, S. Vidal, and, E. Skamene. 1997. Nonspecific resistance to Mycobacteria: the role of the Nramp1 gene. Behring Inst. Mitt. (99):5157.
42. Calabresi, P.,, and B. A. Chabner. 1990. Chemotherapy of neoplastic diseases, p. 1202–1208. In L. S. Goodman,, A. Gilman,, T. Rall,, A. S. Nies, and, P. Taylor (ed.), The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed. Pergamon Press, New York, NY.
43. Caprilli, R.,, E. Angelucci,, A. Cocco,, A. Viscido,, V. Annese,, S. Ardizzone,, L. Biancone,, F. Castiglione,, M. Cottone,, G. Meucci,, P. Paoluzi,, C. Papi,, G. C. Sturniolo, and, M. Vecchi. 2005. Appropriateness of immunosuppressive drugs in inflammatory bowel diseases assessed by RAND method: Italian Group for IBD (IG-IBD) position statement. Dig. Liver Dis. 37:407417.
44. Caprilli, R.,, E. Angelucci,, A. Cocco,, A. Viscido, and, M. Zippi. 2004. Efficacy of conventional immunosuppressive drugs in IBD. Dig. Liver Dis. 36:766780.
45. Casali, N.,, A. M. White, and, L. W. Riley. 2006. Regulation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis mce1 operon. J. Bacteriol. 188:441449.
46. Casetta, I.,, G. Iuliano, and, G. Filippini. 2007. Azathioprine for multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. :CD003982.
47. Cavalier-Smith, T. 2006. Origin of mitochondria by intracellular enslavement of a photosynthetic purple bacterium. Proc. Biol. Sci. 273:19431952.
48. CDC. 2002. Tuberculosis outbreak on an American Indian reservation—Montana, 2000–2001. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:232234.
49. CDC. 2005. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Hmong refugees resettling from Thailand into the United States, 2004–2005. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 54:741744.
50. CDC. 2007. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis—United States, 1993–2006. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 56:250253.
51. Chaisson, R. E.,, and N. A. Martinson. 2008. Tuberculosis in Africa-combating an HIV-driven crisis. N. Engl. J. Med. 358:10891092.
52. Chan, J.,, and J. Flynn. 2004. The immunological aspects of latency in tuberculosis. Clin. Immunol. 110:212.
53. Chen, L. H.,, K. Kathaperumal,, C. J. Huang,, S. P. Mc-Donough,, S. Stehman,, B. Akey,, J. Huntley,, J. P. Bannantine,, C. F. Chang, and, Y. F. Chang. 2008. Immune responses in mice to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis following vaccination with a novel 74F recombinant polyprotein. Vaccine 26:12531262.
54. Chiodini, R. J.,, H. J. Van Kruiningen,, R. S. Merkal,, W. R. Thayer, Jr., and, J. A. Coutu. 1984. Characteristics of an unclassified Mycobacterium species isolated from patients with Crohn’s disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:966971.
55. Chiodini, R. J.,, H. J. Van Kruiningen,, W. R. Thayer, Jr., and, J. Coutu. 1986. Spheroplastic phase of mycobacteria isolated from patients with Crohn’s disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24:357363.
56. Chiodini, R. J.,, H. J. Van Kruiningen,, W. R. Thayer,, R. S. Merkal, and, J. A. Coutu. 1984. Possible role of mycobacteria in inflammatory bowel disease. I. An unclassified Mycobacterium species isolated from patients with Crohn’s disease. Dig. Dis. Sci. 29:10731079.
57. Chiplunkar, S.,, G. De Libero, and, S. H. Kaufmann. 1986. Mycobacterium leprae-specific Lyt-2+ T lymphocytes with cytolytic activity. Infect. Immun. 54:793797.
58. Cho, S. N.,, and P. J. Brennan. 2007. Tuberculosis: diagnostics. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh) 87(Suppl. 1):S14S17.
59. Cho, S. N.,, R. V. Cellona,, L. G. Villahermosa,, T. T. Fajardo, Jr.,, M. V. Balagon,, R. M. Abalos,, E. V. Tan,, G. P. Walsh,, J. D. Kim, and, P. J. Brennan. 2001. Detection of phenolic glycolipid I of Mycobacterium leprae in sera from leprosy patients before and after start of multidrug therapy. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8:138142.
60. Cohen, T.,, and M. Murray. 2004. Modeling epidemics of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis of heterogeneous fitness. Nat. Med. 10:11171121.
61. Cohen, T.,, B. Sommers, and, M. Murray. 2003. The effect of drug resistance on the fitness of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lancet Infect. Dis. 3:1321.
62. Cole, S. T. 1998. Comparative mycobacterial genomics. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 1:567571.
63. Cole, S. T.,, R. Brosch,, J. Parkhill,, T. Garnier,, C. Churcher,, D. Harris,, S. V. Gordon,, K. Eiglmeier,, S. Gas,, C. E. Barry,, F. Tekaia,, K. Badcock,, D. Basham,, D. Brown,, T. Chillingworth,, R. Connor,, R. Davies,, K. Devlin,, T. Feltwell,, S. Gentles,, N. Hamlin,, S. Holroyd,, T. Hornsby,, K. Jagels,, A. Krough,, J. McLean,, S. Moule,, L. Murphy,, K. Oliver,, J. Osborne,, M. A. Quail,, M. A. Rajandream,, J. Rogers,, S. Rujtter,, K. Seeger,, J. Skelton,, R. Squares,, S. Squares,, J. E. Sulston,, K. Taylor,, S. Whitehead, and, B. G. Barrell. 1998. Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence. Nature 393:537544.
64. Cole, S. T.,, K. Eiglmeier,, J. Parkhill,, K. D. James,, N. R. Thomson,, P. R. Wheeler,, N. Honore,, T. Garnier,, C. Churcher,, D. Harris,, K. Mungall,, D. Basham,, D. Brown,, T. Chillingworth,, R. Connor,, R. M. Davies,, K. Devlin,, S. Duthoy,, T. Feltwell,, A. Fraser,, N. Hamlin,, S. Holroyd,, T. Hornsby,, K. Jagels,, C. Lacroix,, J. Maclean,, S. Moule,, L. Murphy,, K. Oliver,, M. A. Quail,, M. A. Rajandream,, K. M. Rutherford,, S. Rutter,, K. Seeger,, S. Simon,, M. Simmonds,, J. Skelton,, R. Squares,, S. Squares,, K. Stevens,, K. Taylor,, S. Whitehead,, J. R. Woodward, and, B. G. Barrell. 2001. Massive gene decay in the leprosy bacillus. Nature 409:10071011.
65. Comabella, M.,, L. Altet,, F. Peris,, P. Villoslada,, A. Sanchez, and, X. Montalban. 2004. Genetic analysis of SLC11A1 polymorphisms in multiple sclerosis patients. Mult. Scler. 10:618620.
66. Corbett, E. L.,, T. Bandason,, Y. B. Cheung,, S. Munyati,, P. Godfrey-Faussett,, R. Hayes,, G. Churchyard,, A. Butterworth, and, P. Mason. 2007. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence population provided with enhanced diagnosis of symptomatic disease. PLoS Med. 4:e22.
67. Corbett, E. L.,, and K. M. De Cock. 2001. The clinical significance of interactions between HIV and TB: more questions than answers. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 5:205207.
68. Corbett, E. L.,, C. J. Watt,, N. Walker,, D. Maher,, B. G. Williams,, M. C. Raviglione, and, C. Dye. 2003. The growing burden of tuberculosis: global trends and interactions with the HIV epidemic. Arch. Intern. Med. 163:10091021.
69. Crohn, B. B.,, L. Ginzberg, and, G. D. Oppenheimer. 1932. Regional ileitis. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 99:13231328.
70. Cummings, D. M.,, D. Ristroph,, E. E. Camargo,, S. M. Larson, and, H. N. Wagner, Jr. 1975. Radiometric detection of the metabolic activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Nucl. Med. 16:11891191.
71. Cunha, S. S.,, N. Alexander,, M. L. Barreto,, E. S. Pereira,, I. Dourado,, M. de Fatima Maroja,, Y. Ichihara,, S. Brito,, S. Pereira, and, L. C. Rodrigues. 2008. BCG revaccination does not protect against leprosy in the Brazilian Amazon: a cluster randomised trial. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2:e167.
72. Dalziel, T. K. 1913. Chronic intestinal enteritis. Br. Med. J. ii:10681070.
73. Damato, J. J.,, and M. T. Collins. 1990. Growth of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in radiometric, Middlebrook and egg-based media. Vet. Microbiol. 22:3142.
74. Dasananjali, K.,, P. A. Schreuder, and, C. Pirayavaraporn. 1997. A study on the effectiveness and safety of the WHO/MDT regimen in the northeast of Thailand; a prospective study, 1984–1996. Int. J. Lepr. Other Mycobact. Dis. 65:2836.
75. David, H. L.,, N. Rastogi,, C. Frehel, and, M. Gheorghiu. 1982. Reduction of potassium tellurite and ATP content in Mycobacterium leprae. Ann. Microbiol. (Paris) 133:129139.
76. De Francesco, M. A.,, D. Colombrita,, G. Pinsi,, F. Gargiulo,, S. Caligaris,, D. Bertelli,, F. Martinelli,, J. Gao, and, A. Turano. 1996. Detection and identification of Mycobacterium avium in the blood of AIDS patients by the polymerase chain reaction. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:551555.
77. De Jager, P. L.,, R. Graham,, L. Farwell,, S. Sawcer,, A. Richardson,, T. W. Behrens,, A. Compston,, D. A. Hafler,, J. Kere,, T. J. Vyse, and, J. D. Rioux. 2006. The role of inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility loci in multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Genes Immun. 7:32734.
78. de Oca, J.,, L. Vilar,, J. Castellote,, R. Sanchez Santos,, D. Pares,, S. Biondo,, A. Osorio,, C. del Rio,, E. Jaurrieta, and, J. Marti Rague. 2003. Immunodulation with tacrolimus (FK506): results of a prospective, open-label, non-controlled trial in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Rev. Esp. Enferm. Dig. 95:459464, 465–470.
79. De Sarkar, A.,, I. Kaur,, B. D. Radotra, and, B. Kumar. 2001. Impact of combined Mycobacterium w vaccine and 1 year of MDT on multibacillary leprosy patients. Int. J. Lepr. Other Mycobact. Dis. 69:187194.
80. de Souza, M. V. 2006. Promising drugs against tuberculosis. Recent Patents Anti-Infect. Drug Disc. 1:3344.
81. Dhople, A. M.,, and L. C. Lamoureux. 1991. Factors influencing the in vitro growth of Mycobacterium leprae: effect of sulfhydryl compounds. Microbiol. Immunol. 35:209213.
82. Djonne, B.,, M. R. Jensen,, I. R. Grant, and, G. Holstad. 2003. Detection by immunomagnetic PCR of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk from dairy goats in Norway. Vet. Microbiol. 92:13543.
83. Dow, C. T. 2006. Paratuberculosis and type I diabetes: is this the trigger? Med. Hypotheses 67:782785.
84. Dubaniewicz, A.,, S. E. Jamieson,, M. Dubaniewicz-Wybieralska,, M. Fakiola,, E. Nancy Miller, and, J. M. Blackwell. 2005. Association between SLC11A1 (formerly NRAMP1) and the risk of sarcoidosis in Poland. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 13:82934.
85. Dubnau, E.,, P. Fontan,, R. Manganelli,, S. Soares-Appel, and, I. Smith. 2002. Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes induced during infection of human macrophages. Infect. Immun. 70:27872795.
86. Dubos, R. J.,, and J. Dubos. 1952. The White Plague: Tuberculosis, Man and Society. Little, Brown and Company, Boston, MA.
87. Dye, C.,, S. Scheele,, P. Dolin,, V. Pathania, and, M. C. Raviglione. 1999. Consensus statement. Global burden of tuberculosis: estimated incidence, prevalence, and mortality by country. WHO Global Surveillance and Monitoring Project. JAMA 282:677686.
88. Edlin, B. R.,, J. I. Tokars,, M. H. Grieco,, J. T. Crawford,, J. Williams,, E. M. Sordillo,, K. R. Ong,, J. O. Kilburn,, S. W. Dooley,, K. G. Castro,, W. R. Jarvis, and, S. D. Holmberg. 1992. An outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among hospitalized patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 326:15141521.
89. Ehrenpreis, E. D.,, S. V. Kane,, L. B. Cohen,, R. D. Cohen, and, S. B. Hanauer. 1999. Thalidomide therapy for patients with refractory Crohn’s disease: an open-label trial. Gastroenterology 117:12711277.
90. Eiglmeier, K.,, J. Parkhill,, N. Honore,, T. Garnier,, F. Tekaia,, A. Telenti,, P. Klatser,, K. D. James,, N. R. Thomson,, P. R. Wheeler,, C. Churcher,, D. Harris,, K. Mungall,, B. G. Barrell, and, S. T. Cole. 2001. The decaying genome of Mycobacterium leprae. Lepr. Rev. 72:387398.
91. Ellingson, J. L.,, J. L. Anderson,, J. J. Koziczkowski,, R. P. Radcliff,, S. J. Sloan,, S. E. Allen, and, N. M. Sullivan. 2005. Detection of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in retail pasteurized whole milk by two culture methods and PCR. J. Food Prot. 68:966972.
92. El-Omar, E. M.,, M. T. Ng, and, G. L. Hold. 2008. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor genes and risk of cancer. Oncogene 27:244252.
93. El-Zaatari, F. A.,, D. Y. Graham,, K. Samuelsson, and, L. Engstrand. 1997. Detection of Mycobacterium avium complex in cerebrospinal fluid of a sarcoid patient by specific polymerase chain reaction assays. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 29:202204.
94. El-Zaatari, F. A.,, S. A. Naser,, L. Engstrand,, P. E. Burch,, C. Y. Hachem,, D. L. Whipple, and, D. Y. Graham. 1995. Nucleotide sequence analysis and seroreactivities of the 65K heat shock protein from Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 2:657664.
95. El-Zaatari, F. A.,, S. A. Naser, and, D. Y. Graham. 1997. Characterization of a specific Mycobacterium paratuberculosis recombinant clone expressing 35,000-molecular-weight antigen and reactivity with sera from animals with clinical and subclinical Johne’s disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:17941799.
96. Ernst, J. D.,, G. Trevejo-Nunez, and, N. Banaiee. 2007. Genomics and the evolution, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of tuberculosis. J. Clin. Investig. 117:17381745.
97. Evans, G. M.,, and W. F. Gaisford. 1938. Treatment of pneumonia with 2-(p aminobenzenesulphonamido) pyridine. Lancet ii:1419.
98. Feagan, B. G.,, J. Rochon,, R. N. Fedorak,, E. J. Irvine,, G. Wild,, L. Sutherland,, A. H. Steinhart,, G. R. Greenberg,, R. Gillies,, M. Hopkins, et al. 1995. Methotrexate for the treatment of Crohn’s disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 332:292297.
99. Ferrara, G.,, M. Losi,, R. D’Amico,, P. Roversi,, R. Piro,, M. Meacci,, B. Meccugni,, I. M. Dori,, A. Andreani,, B. M. Bergamini,, C. Mussini,, F. Rumpianesi,, L. M. Fabbri, and, L. Richeldi. 2006. Use in routine clinical practice of two commercial blood tests for diagnosis of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a prospective study. Lancet 367:13281334.
100. Ferreira, F. R.,, L. R. Goulart,, H. D. Silva, and, I. M. Goulart. 2004. Susceptibility to leprosy may be conditioned by an interaction between the NRAMP1 promoter polymorphisms and the lepromin response. Int. J. Lepr. Other Mycobact. Dis. 72:457467.
101. Ferwerda, G.,, S. E. Girardin,, B. J. Kullberg,, L. Le Bourhis,, D. J. de Jong,, D. M. Langenberg,, R. van Crevel,, G. J. Adema,, T. H. Ottenhoff,, J. W. Van der Meer, and, M. G. Netea. 2005. NOD2 and Toll-like receptors are nonredundant recognition systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 1:279285.
102. Findley, R. S.,, and C. L. Fortner. 1996. Methotrexate in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, p. 1509–1513. In E. T. Herfindal and, D. R. Gourley (ed.), Textbook of Therapeutics: Drugs and Disease Management, 6th ed., vol. 1. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
103. Fine, P. E. 1995. Variation in protection by BCG: implications of and for heterologous immunity. Lancet 346:13391345.
104. Flynn, J. L. 2004. Immunology of tuberculosis and implications in vaccine development. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh) 84:93101.
105. Flynn, J. L.,, and J. Chan. 2001. Immunology of tuberculosis. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 19:93129.
106. Foroncewicz, B.,, K. Mucha,, L. Paczek,, A. Chmura, and, W. Rowinski. 2005. Efficacy of rapamycin in patient with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Transpl. Int. 18:366368.
107. Franzblau, S. G. 1988. Oxidation of palmitic acid by Mycobacterium leprae in an axenic medium. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:1821.
108. Franzblau, S. G.,, and E. B. Harris. 1988. Biophysical optima for metabolism of Mycobacterium leprae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:11241129.
109. Franzblau, S. G.,, E. B. Harris, and, R. C. Hastings. 1987. Axenic incorporation of [U-14C]palmitic acid into the phenolic glycolipid-1 of Mycobacterium leprae. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 48:407411.
110. Fraser, A. G.,, T. R. Orchard,, E. M. Robinson, and, D. P. Jewell. 2002. Long-term risk of malignancy after treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with azathioprine. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 16:12251232.
111. Fukata, M.,, and M. T. Abreu. 2008. Role of Toll-like receptors in gastrointestinal malignancies. Oncogene 27:234243.
112. Gabriela, M. G.,, P. Rodrigues,, F. M. Hilker,, N. B. Mantilla-Beniers,, M. Muehlen,, P. A. Cristina, and, G. F. Medley. 2007. Implications of partial immunity on the prospects for tuberculosis control by post-exposure interventions. J. Theor. Biol. 248:608617.
113. Gagneux, S.,, and P. M. Small. 2007. Global phylogeography of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and implications for tuberculosis product development. Lancet Infect. Dis. 7:328337.
114. Goldman, R. C.,, K. V. Plumley, and, B. E. Laughon. 2007. The evolution of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB): history, status and issues for global control. Infect. Disord. Drug Targets 7:7391.
115. Gomez-Valero, L.,, E. P. Rocha,, A. Latorre, and, F. J. Silva. 2007. Reconstructing the ancestor of Mycobacterium leprae: the dynamics of gene loss and genome reduction. Genome Res. 17:11781185.
116. Gonzalez, B.,, S. Moreno,, R. Burdach,, M. T. Valenzuela,, A. Henriquez,, M. I. Ramos, and, R. U. Sorensen. 1989. Clinical presentation of bacillus Calmette-Guerin infections in patients with immunodeficiency syndromes. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 8:201206.
117. Gourevitch, M. N.,, D. Hartel,, P. A. Selwyn,, E. E. Schoenbaum, and, R. S. Klein. 1999. Effectiveness of isoniazid chemoprophylaxis for HIV-infected drug users at high risk for active tuberculosis. AIDS 13:20692074.
118. Grange, J. M. 1990. Drug resistance and tuberculosis elimination. Bull. Int. Union Tuberc. Lung Dis. 65:5759.
119. Grant, I. R. 1998. Does Mycobacterium paratuberculosis survive current pasteurization conditions? Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:27602761.
120. Grant, I. R.,, H. J. Ball, and, M. T. Rowe. 1998. Effect of high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization on milk containing low numbers of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 26:166170.
121. Grant, I. R.,, H. J. Ball, and, M. T. Rowe. 1998. Isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from milk by immunomagnetic separation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:31533158.
122. Grant, I. R.,, E. I. Hitchings,, A. McCartney,, F. Ferguson, and, M. T. Rowe. 2002. Effect of commercial-scale high-temperature, short-time pasteurization on the viability of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in naturally infected cows’ milk. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:602607.
123. Grant, I. R.,, L. M. O’Riordan,, H. J. Ball, and, M. T. Rowe. 2001. Incidence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw sheep and goats’ milk in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Vet. Microbiol. 79:123131.
124. Green, C.,, L. Elliott,, C. Beaudoin, and, C. N. Bernstein. 2006. A population-based ecologic study of inflammatory bowel disease: searching for etiologic clues. Am. J. Epidemiol. 164:615623.
125. Green, J. P. 2004, posting date. Guidance on control of Johne’s disease in dairy herds. Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/diseases/pdf/johnesguidance.pdf.
126. Green, J. R.,, J. A. Gibson,, G. D. Kerr,, E. T. Swarbrick,, A. J. Lobo,, C. D. Holdsworth,, J. P. Crowe,, K. J. Schofield,, M. D. Taylor, et al. 1998. Maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis: a comparison between balsalazide 3 g daily and mesalazine 1.2 g daily over 12 months. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 12:12071216.
127. Green, J. R.,, A. J. Lobo,, C. D. Holdsworth,, R. J. Leicester,, J. A. Gibson,, G. D. Kerr,, H. J. Hodgson,, K. J. Parkins,, M. D. Taylor, et al. 1998. Balsalazide is more effective and better tolerated than mesalamine in the treatment of acute ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 114:1522.
128. Greenstein, A. J.,, G. E. Mullin,, J. A. Strauchen,, T. Heimann,, H. D. Janowitz,, A. H. Aufses, Jr., and, D. B. Sachar. 1992. Lymphoma in inflammatory bowel disease. Cancer 69:11191123.
129. Greenstein, A. J.,, D. Sachar,, A. Pucillo,, I. Kreel,, S. Geller,, H. D. Janowitz, and, A. Aufses, Jr. 1978. Cancer in Crohn’s disease after diversionary surgery. A report of seven carcinomas occurring in excluded bowel. Am. J. Surg. 135:8690.
130. Greenstein, R. J. 2003. Is Crohn’s disease caused by a mycobacterium? Comparisons with leprosy, tuberculosis, and Johne’s disease. Lancet Infect. Dis. 3:507514.
131. Reference deleted.
132. Reference deleted.
133. Greenstein, R. J.,, and M. T. Collins. 2004. Emerging pathogens: is Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis zoonotic? Lancet 364:396397.
134. Greenstein, R. J.,, L. Su,, V. Haroutunian,, A. Shahidi, and, S. T. Brown. 2007. On the action of methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine on M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis. PLoS ONE 2:e161.
135. Greenstein, R. J.,, L. Su,, A. Shahidi, and, S. T. Brown. 2007. On the action of 5-amino-salicylic acid and sulfapyridine on M. avium including subspecies paratuberculosis. PLoS ONE 2:e516.
136. Grzybowski, S.,, E. A. Allen,, W. A. Black,, C. W. Chao,, D. A. Enarson,, J. L. Isaac Renton,, S. H. Peck, and, H. J. Xie. 1987. Inner-city survey for tuberculosis: evaluation of diagnostic methods. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 135:13111315.
137. Gumaste, V.,, D. B. Sachar, and, A. J. Greenstein. 1992. Benign and malignant colorectal strictures in ulcerative colitis. Gut 33:938941.
138. Gumber, S.,, and R. J. Whittington. 2007. Comparison of BACTEC 460 and MGIT 960 systems for the culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis S strain and observations on the effect of inclusion of ampicillin in culture media to reduce contamination. Vet. Microbiol. 119:4252.
139. Guslandi, M.,, and A. Tittobello. 1992. Cyclosporin for Crohn’s disease? Drugs 43:440442.
140. Hagge, D.,, S. O. Robinson,, D. Scollard,, G. McCormick, and, D. L. Williams. 2002. A new model for studying the effects of Mycobacterium leprae on Schwann cell and neuron interactions. J. Infect. Dis. 186:12831296.
141. Hampe, J.,, A. Cuthbert,, P. J. Croucher,, M. M. Mirza,, S. Mascheretti,, S. Fisher,, H. Frenzel,, K. King,, A. Hasselmeyer,, A. J. MacPherson,, S. Bridger,, S. van Deventer,, A. Forbes,, S. Nikolaus,, J. E. Lennard-Jones,, U. R. Foelsch,, M. Krawczak,, C. Lewis,, S. Schreiber, and, C. G. Mathew. 2001. Association between insertion mutation in NOD2 gene and Crohn’s disease in German and British populations. Lancet 357:19251928.
142. Hampshire, T.,, S. Soneji,, J. Bacon,, B. W. James,, J. Hinds,, K. Laing,, R. A. Stabler,, P. D. Marsh, and, P. D. Butcher. 2004. Stationary phase gene expression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis following a progressive nutrient depletion: a model for persistent organisms? Tuberculosis (Edinburgh) 84:228238.
143. Hancock, G. E.,, A. Molloy,, B. K. Ab,, R. Kiessling,, M. Becx-Bleumink,, Z. A. Cohn, and, G. Kaplan. 1991. In vivo administration of low-dose human interleukin-2 induces lymphokine-activated killer cells for enhanced cytolysis in vitro. Cell. Immunol. 132:277284.
144. Hansen, G. A. 1874. Undersogelser angaende spedalskhedens arsager. Norsk Magazin for Laegevidenskaben 4:188.
145. Haslett, P. A.,, P. Roche,, C. R. Butlin,, M. Macdonald,, N. Shrestha,, R. Manandhar,, J. Lemaster,, R. Hawksworth,, M. Shah,, A. S. Lubinsky,, M. Albert,, J. Worley, and, G. Kaplan. 2005. Effective treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum with thalidomide is associated with immune stimulation. J. Infect. Dis. 192:20452053.
146. Hazbon, M. H.,, N. Guarin,, B. E. Ferro,, A. L. Rodriguez,, L. A. Labrada,, R. Tovar,, P. F. Riska, and, W. R. Jacobs, Jr. 2003. Photographic and luminometric detection of luciferase reporter phages for drug susceptibility testing of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:48654869.
147. Hietaharju, A.,, R. Croft,, R. Alam,, P. Birch,, A. Mong, and, M. Haanpaa. 2000. Chronic neuropathic pain in treated leprosy. Lancet 356:10801081.
148. Hill, A. V. 1998. The immunogenetics of human infectious diseases. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 16:593617.
149. Hines, M. E.,, II, S. Stiver,, D. Giri,, L. Whittington,, C. Watson,, J. Johnson,, J. Musgrove,, M. Pence,, D. Hurley,, C. Baldwin,, I. A. Gardner, and, S. Aly. 2007. Efficacy of spheroplastic and cell-wall competent vaccines for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in experimentally-challenged baby goats. Vet. Microbiol. 120:261283.
150. Ho, P.,, I. N. Bruce,, A. Silman,, D. Symmons,, B. Newman,, H. Young,, C. E. Griffiths,, S. John,, J. Worthington, and, A. Barton. 2005. Evidence for common genetic control in pathways of inflammation for Crohn’s disease and psoriatic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 52:35963602.
151. Holm, J. 1959. How can elimination of tuberculosis as a public health problem be achieved. Am. Rev. Tuberc. 79:690694.
152. Howard, T. P.,, and D. A. Solomon. 1988. Reading the tuberculin skin test. Who, when, and how? Arch. Intern. Med. 148:24572459.
153. Huang, J. H.,, P. J. Oefner,, V. Adi,, K. Ratnam,, S. J. Ruoss,, E. Trako, and, P. N. Kao. 1998. Analyses of the NRAMP1 and IFN-yR1 genes in women with Mycobacterium aviumintracellulare pulmonary disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157:377381.
154. Hugot, J. P.,, M. Chamaillard,, H. Zouali,, S. Lesage,, J. P. Cezard,, J. Belaiche,, S. Almer,, C. Tysk,, C. A. O’Morain,, M. Gassull,, V. Binder,, Y. Finkel,, A. Cortot,, R. Modigliani,, P. Laurent-Puig,, C. Gower-Rousseau,, J. Macry,, J. F. Colombel,, M. Sahbatou, and, G. Thomas. 2001. Association of NOD2 leucine-rich repeat variants with susceptibility to Crohn’s disease. Nature 411:599603.
155. Hunger, R. E.,, P. A. Sieling,, M. T. Ochoa,, M. Sugaya,, A. E. Burdick,, T. H. Rea,, P. J. Brennan,, J. T. Belisle,, A. Blauvelt,, S. A. Porcelli, and, R. L. Modlin. 2004. Langerhans cells utilize CD1a and langerin to efficiently present nonpeptide antigens to T cells. J. Clin. Investig. 113:701708.
156. Ikonomopoulos, J. A.,, V. G. Gorgoulis,, N. G. Kastrinakis,, A. A. Galanos,, A. Karameris, and, C. Kittas. 2000. Experimental inoculation of laboratory animals with samples collected from sarcoidal patients and molecular diagnostic evaluation of the results. In Vivo 14:761765.
157. Ivnitski, D.,, D. J. O’Neil,, A. Gattuso,, R. Schlicht,, M. Calidonna, and, R. Fisher. 2003. Nucleic acid approaches for detection and identification of biological warfare and infectious disease agents. Biotechniques 35:862869.
158. Iyer, A.,, M. Hatta,, R. Usman,, S. Luiten,, L. Oskam,, W. Faber,, A. Geluk, and, P. Das. 2007. Serum levels of interferon-gamma, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, soluble interleukin-6R and soluble cell activation markers for monitoring response to treatment of leprosy reactions. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 150:210216.
159. Jenner, E. 1798. An inquiry into the causes and effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, a disease discovered in some of the western counties of England, particularly Gloucestershire, and known by the name of the cow-pox, 1st ed. Sampson Low Berwick St. (printed for the author), London, England.
160. Job, C. K. 1994. Pathology of leprosy, p. 193–224. In R. C. Hastings (ed.), Leprosy, 2nd ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
161. Johne, H. A.,, and L. Frothingham. 1895. Ein eigenthumlicher fall von tuberculose beim rind (A particular case of tuberculosis in a cow). Dtsch. Zeitschr. Tiermed. Vergl. Pathol. 21:438454.
162. Kalis, C. H.,, J. W. Hesselink,, H. W. Barkema, and, M. T. Collins. 2001. Use of long-term vaccination with a killed vaccine to prevent fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in dairy herds. Am. J. Vet. Res. 62:270274.
163. Kaplan, M. H.,, D. Armstrong, and, P. Rosen. 1974. Tuberculosis complicating neoplastic disease: a review of 201 cases. Cancer 33:850858.
164. Kapur, V.,, L. L. Li,, M. R. Hamrick,, B. B. Plikaytis,, T. M. Shinnick,, A. Telenti,, W. R. Jacobs, Jr.,, A. Banerjee,, S. Cole,, K. Y. Yuen,, J. E. Clarridge III,, B. N. Kreiswirth, and, J. M. Musser. 1995. Rapid Mycobacterium species assignment and unambiguous identification of mutations associated with antimicrobial resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by automated DNA sequencing. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 119:131138.
165. Karesh, W. B.,, M. M. Uhart,, E. S. Dierenfeld,, W. E. Braselton,, A. Torres,, C. House,, H. Puche, and, R. A. Cook. 1998. Health evaluation of free-ranging guanaco (Lama guanicoe). J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 29:134141.
166. Karlen, P.,, R. Lofberg,, O. Brostrom,, C. E. Leijonmarck,, G. Hellers, and, P. G. Persson. 1999. Increased risk of cancer in ulcerative colitis: a population-based cohort study. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 94:10471052.
167. Karran, P.,, and N. Attard. 2008. Thiopurines in current medical practice: molecular mechanisms and contributions to therapy-related cancer. Nat. Rev. Cancer 8:2436.
168. Katoch, K. 1996. Immunotherapy of leprosy. Indian J. Lepr. 68:349361.
169. Katoch, K.,, P. Singh,, T. Adhikari,, S. K. Benara,, H. B. Singh,, D. S. Chauhan,, V. D. Sharma,, M. Lavania,, A. S. Sachan, and, V. M. Katoch. 2008. Potential of Mw as a prophylactic vaccine against pulmonary tuberculosis. Vaccine 26:12281234.
170. Katoch, V. M. 1981. A report on the biochemical analysis of Mycobacterium W. Lepr. India 53:385369.
171. Keane, J.,, S. Gershon,, R. P. Wise,, E. Mirabile-Levens,, J. Kasznica,, W. D. Schwieterman,, J. N. Siegel, and, M. M. Braun. 2001. Tuberculosis associated with infliximab, a tumor necrosis factor alpha-neutralizing agent. N. Engl. J. Med. 345:10981104.
172. Kennedy, D. J.,, and G. Benedictus. 2001. Control of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in agricultural species. Rev. Sci. Tech. 20:151179.
173. Khanolkar-Young, S.,, N. Rayment,, P. M. Brickell,, D. R. Katz,, S. Vinayakumar,, M. J. Colston, and, D. N. Lockwood. 1995. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) synthesis is associated with the skin and peripheral nerve pathology of leprosy reversal reactions. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 99:196202.
174. Kino, T.,, H. Hatanaka,, M. Hashimoto,, M. Nishiyama,, T. Goto,, M. Okuhara,, M. Kohsaka,, H. Aoki, and, H. Imanaka. 1987. FK-506, a novel immunosuppressant isolated from a Streptomyces. I. Fermentation, isolation, and physico-chemical and biological characteristics. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 40:12491255.
175. Kirchheimer, W. F.,, and E. E. Storrs. 1971. Attempts to establish the armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus Linn.) as a model for the study of leprosy. I. Report of lepromatoid leprosy in an experimentally infected armadillo. Int. J. Lepr. Other Mycobact. Dis. 39:693702.
176. Kissler, S.,, P. Stern,, K. Takahashi,, K. Hunter,, L. B. Peterson, and, L. S. Wicker. 2006. In vivo RNA interference demonstrates a role for Nramp1 in modifying susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Nat. Genet. 38:479483.
177. Kobayashi, K. S.,, M. Chamaillard,, Y. Ogura,, O. Henegariu,, N. Inohara,, G. Nunez, and, R. A. Flavell. 2005. Nod2-dependent regulation of innate and adaptive immunity in the intestinal tract. Science 307:731734.
178. Kojima, Y.,, Y. Kinouchi,, S. Takahashi,, K. Negoro,, N. Hiwatashi, and, T. Shimosegawa. 2001. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with a novel promoter polymorphism of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) gene. Tissue Antigens 58:379384.
179. Kong, Y.,, M. D. Cave,, L. Zhang,, B. Foxman,, C. F. Marrs,, J. H. Bates, and, Z. H. Yang. 2007. Association between Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing/W lineage strain infection and extrathoracic tuberculosis: insights from epidemiologic and clinical characterization of the three principal genetic groups of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:409414.
180. Krutzik, S. R.,, M. T. Ochoa,, P. A. Sieling,, S. Uematsu,, Y. W. Ng,, A. Legaspi,, P. T. Liu,, S. T. Cole,, P. J. Godowski,, Y. Maeda,, E. N. Sarno,, M. V. Norgard,, P. J. Brennan,, S. Akira,, T. H. Rea, and, R. L. Modlin. 2003. Activation and regulation of Toll-like receptors 2 and 1 in human leprosy. Nat. Med. 9:525532.
181. Krutzik, S. R.,, B. Tan,, H. Li,, M. T. Ochoa,, P. T. Liu,, S. E. Sharfstein,, T. G. Graeber,, P. A. Sieling,, Y. J. Liu,, T. H. Rea,, B. R. Bloom, and, R. L. Modlin. 2005. TLR activation triggers the rapid differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and dendritic cells. Nat. Med. 11:653660.
182. Kusner, D. J. 2005. Mechanisms of mycobacterial persistence in tuberculosis. Clin. Immunol. 114:239247.
183. Law, B. K.,, M. E. Waltner-Law,, A. J. Entingh,, A. Chytil,, M. E. Aakre,, P. Norgaard, and, H. L. Moses. 2000. Salicylate-induced growth arrest is associated with inhibition of p70s6k and down-regulation of c-myc, cyclin D1, cyclin A, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. J. Biol. Chem. 275:3826138267.
184. Lazarevic, V.,, D. Nolt, and, J. L. Flynn. 2005. Long-term control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is mediated by dynamic immune responses. J. Immunol. 175:11071117.
185. Lehmann, J. 1946. Para-aminosalicylic acid in the treatment of tuberculosis. Lancet i:1516.
186. Lennard-Jones, J. E.,, D. M. Melville,, B. C. Morson,, J. K. Ritchie, and, C. B. Williams. 1990. Precancer and cancer in extensive ulcerative colitis: findings among 401 patients over 22 years. Gut 31:800806.
187. Levine, J. S.,, and R. Burakoff. 2007. Chemoprophylaxis of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: current concepts. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 13:12931298.
188. Lewis, J. D.,, J. S. Schwartz, and, G. R. Lichtenstein. 2000. Azathioprine for maintenance of remission in Crohn’s disease: benefits outweigh the risk of lymphoma. Gastroenterology 118:10181024.
189. Li, L.,, J. P. Bannantine,, Q. Zhang,, A. Amonsin,, B. J. May,, D. Alt,, N. Banerji,, S. Kanjilal, and, V. Kapur. 2005. The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1234412349.
190. Lichtiger, S.,, D. H. Present,, A. Kornbluth,, I. Gelernt,, J. Bauer,, G. Galler,, F. Michelassi, and, S. Hanauer. 1994. Cyclosporine in severe ulcerative colitis refractory to steroid therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 330:18411845.
191. Lindler, L. E.,, and W. Fan. 2003. Development of a 5’ nuclease assay to detect ciprofloxacin resistant isolates of the biowarfare agent Yersinia pestis. Mol. Cell. Probes 17:4147.
192. Lucas, S. 1993. Human immunodeficiency virus and leprosy. Lepr. Rev. 64:97103.
193. Maeda, S.,, L. C. Hsu,, H. Liu,, L. A. Bankston,, M. Iimura,, M. F. Kagnoff,, L. Eckmann, and, M. Karin. 2005. Nod2 mutation in Crohn’s disease potentiates NF-κβ activity and IL-1β processing. Science 307:734738.
194. Malen, H.,, F. S. Berven,, K. E. Fladmark, and, H. G. Wiker. 2007. Comprehensive analysis of exported proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Proteomics 7:17021718.
195. Maliarik, M. J.,, K. M. Chen,, R. G. Sheffer,, B. A. Rybicki,, M. L. Major,, J. Popovich, Jr., and, M. C. Iannuzzi. 2000. The natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene in African Americans with sarcoidosis. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 22:672675.
196. Marri, P. R.,, J. P. Bannantine, and, G. B. Golding. 2006. Comparative genomics of metabolic pathways in Mycobacterium species: gene duplication, gene decay and lateral gene transfer. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 30:906925.
197. Marshall, B. J. 1983. Unidentified curved bacilli on gastric epithelium in active chronic gastritis. Lancet i:12731275.
198. Marshall, B. J.,, and J. R. Warren. 1984. Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration. Lancet i:13111315.
199. Matsuda, C.,, T. Ito,, J. Song,, T. Mizushima,, H. Tamagawa,, Y. Kai,, Y. Hamanaka,, M. Inoue,, T. Nishida,, H. Matsuda, and, Y. Sawa. 2007. Therapeutic effect of a new immunosuppressive agent, everolimus, on interleukin-10 genedeficient mice with colitis. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 148:348359.
200. Matula, S.,, V. Croog,, S. Itzkowitz,, N. Harpaz,, C. Bodian,, S. Hossain, and, T. Ullman. 2005. Chemoprevention of colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis: the effect of 6-mercaptopurine. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 3:10151021.
201. McClure, H. M.,, R. J. Chiodini,, D. C. Anderson,, R. B. Swenson,, W. R. Thayer, and, J. A. Coutu. 1987. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in a colony of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides). J. Infect. Dis. 155:10111019.
202. McFadden, J. J.,, and H. M. Fidler. 1996. Mycobacteria as possible causes of sarcoidosis and Crohn’s disease. Soc. Appl. Bacteriol. Symp. Ser. 25:47S52S.
203. Menzies, D.,, M. Pai, and, G. Comstock. 2007. Meta-analysis: new tests for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection: areas of uncertainty and recommendations for research. Ann. Intern. Med. 146:340354.
204. Middlebrook, G.,, Z. Reggiardo, and, W. D. Tigertt. 1977. Automatable radiometric detection of growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in selective media. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 115:10661069.
205. Mira, M. T.,, A. Alcais,, V. T. Nguyen,, M. O. Moraes,, C. Di Flumeri,, H. T. Vu,, C. P. Mai,, T. H. Nguyen,, N. B. Nguyen,, X. K. Pham,, E. N. Sarno,, A. Alter,, A. Montpetit,, M. E. Moraes,, J. R. Moraes,, C. Dore,, C. J. Gallant,, P. Lepage,, A. Verner,, E. Van De Vosse,, T. J. Hudson,, L. Abel, and, E. Schurr. 2004. Susceptibility to leprosy is associated with PARK2 and PACRG. Nature 427:636640.
206. Mishina, D.,, P. Katsel,, S. T. Brown,, E. C. Gilberts, and, R. J. Greenstein. 1996. On the etiology of Crohn disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:98169820.
207. Miyazaki, E.,, R. E. Chaisson, and, W. R. Bishai. 1999. Analysis of rifapentine for preventive therapy in the Cornell mouse model of latent tuberculosis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:21262130.
208. Modlin, R. L.,, J. Melancon-Kaplan,, S. M. M. Young,, C. Pirmez,, H. Kino,, J. Convit,, T. H. Rea, and, B. R. Bloom. 1988. Learning from lesions: patterns of tissue inflammation in leprosy. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 85:12131217.
209. Moraes, M. O.,, E. N. Sarno,, R. M. Teles,, A. S. Almeida,, B. C. Saraiva,, J. A. Nery, and, E. P. Sampaio. 2000. Antiinflammatory drugs block cytokine mRNA accumulation in the skin and improve the clinical condition of reactional leprosy patients. J. Invest. Dermatol. 115:935941.