1887

Chapter 13 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815486/9781555814304_Chap13-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815486/9781555814304_Chap13-2.gif

Abstract:

is the parasite that causes human and swine cysticercosis. Currently, the most frequently used techniques for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) are enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. cysticerci in humans develop mainly in the central nervous system, the eye, and striated and heart muscle and subcutaneous tissue. Most cysticerci lodge in the cerebral parenchyma and in the subarachnoidal space of the sulci (80%), followed by the meninges (18%) and other locations (around 2% of cases), such as the ventricles and spinal cord. Approximately 80 to 90% of patients with NCC have parasites lodged in brain parenchyma. When parasites are located in the subarachnoidal space at the base of the brain or in the ventricles, the main pathologic mechanism involved in the long-term consequences and sequelae are inflammation of the arachnoids or of the ependymal lining that accompanies the parasite and its destruction. The most frequent are lacunar infarctions found in the lenticulostriate branches of the anterior or middle cerebral artery, which result from occlusive endarteritis secondary to the inflammatory reaction within the subarachnoid space, triggered by meningeal cysticerci. Cysticercosis is a chronic disease that involves mainly the central nervous system, where macroscopic parasites lodge in different numbers and sites, survive for different periods of time, and generate different types and degrees of inflammatory and immune responses. Understanding better the immunological cascade that accompanies NCC will permit finding more specific anti-inflammatory molecules that would allow the reduction of longterm complications in these patients.

Citation: Fleury A, Flisser A, Flores-Rivera J, Corona T. 2009. , p 229-243. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch13

Key Concept Ranking

Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
0.48579618
0.48579618
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Drawing of the three life stages of : adult parasite showing the scolex, immature, mature, and gravid proglottids; microscopic eggs; and vesicular cysticercus.

Citation: Fleury A, Flisser A, Flores-Rivera J, Corona T. 2009. , p 229-243. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch13
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Images of NCC. (A) Sagittal T1-weighted magnetic resonance image showing a vesicular cysticercus in the IV ventricle (arrow). Ventricular cysticerci usually cause hydrocephalus and ependymitis. (B) Axial T1-weighted magnetic resonance image showing multiple racemose parasites located in basal cisterns. Subarachnoidal cysticerci usually cause arachnoiditis and hydrocephalus. (C) Computerized axial tomography showing multiple small and round calcified lesions in brain parenchyma associated with ventricular dilatation (arrow). This image is typical of chronic NCC.

Citation: Fleury A, Flisser A, Flores-Rivera J, Corona T. 2009. , p 229-243. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch13
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815486.ch13
1. Aditya, G. S.,, A. Mahadevan,, V. Santosh,, Y. T. Chickabasaviah,, C. B. Ashwathnarayanarao, and, S. S. Krishna. 2004. Cysticercal chronic basal arachnoiditis with infarcts, mimicking tuberculous pathology in endemic areas. Neuropathology 24:320325.
2. Aguilar-Robolledo, F.,, R. Cedillo-Rivera,, P. Llaguno-Violante,, J. Torres-López,, O. Muñoz-Hernandez, and, J. A. Enciso-Moreno. 2001. Interleukin levels in cerebrospinal fluid from children with neurocysticercosis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 64:3540.
3. Alarcón. F.,, F. Hidalgo,, J. Moncayo,, I. Viñán, and, G. Dueñas. 1992. Cerebral cysticercosis and stroke. Stroke 23:224228.
4. Aluja, A. S.,, D. González,, J. Rodríguez-Carbajal, and, A. Flisser. 1989. Histological description of tomographic images of Taenia solium cysticerci in pig brains. Clin. Imaging 13:292298.
5. Aluja, A. S.,, J. J. Martinez, and, A. N. M. Villalobos. 1998. Taenia solium cysticercosis in young pigs: age of first infection, histological characteristics of the infection and antibody response. Vet. Parasitol. 76:7179.
6. Aluja, A. S.,, and G. Vargas. 1988. The histopathology of porcine cysticercosis. Vet. Parasitol. 28:6577.
7. Amara, L.,, R. Maschietto-Maschietto,, R. Cury,, N. F. Ferreira,, R. Mendoza, and, S. S. Lima. 2003. Unusual manifestations of neurocysticercosis in MR imaging: analysis of 172 cases. Arq. Neuropsiquiatr. 61:533541.
8. Ambrosio, J.,, A. Landa,, M. T. Merchant, and, J. P. Laclette. 1994. Protein uptake by cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps. Arch. Med. Res. 25:325330
9. Andreassen, J. 1998. Intestinal tapeworms, p. 521–537. In F. E. G. Cox,, J. P. Kreier, and, D. Wakelin (ed.), Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 9th ed., vol. 5. Hodder Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
10. Aoyama, Y.,, Y. Kinoshita,, A. Yokota, and, T. Hamada. 2006. Neuronal damage in hydrocephalus and its restoration by shunt insertion in experimental hydrocephalus: a study involving the neurofilament-immunostaining method. J. Neurosurg. 104:S332S339.
11. Arechavaleta, F.,, J. L. Molinari, and, P. Tato. 1998. A Taenia solium metacestode factor non-specifically inhibits cytokine production. Parasitol. Res. 84:117122.
12. Arriada, M. N.,, L. M. Celis,, C. J. Higuera, and, T. Corona. 2003. Imaging features of sellar cysticercosis. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 24:13861389.
13. Avila, G.,, L. Aguilar,, S. Benitez,, L. Yepez-Mulia,, I. Lavenat, and, A. Flisser. 2002. Inflammatory response in the intestinal mucosa of gerbils and hamsters experimentally infected with the adult stage of Taenia solium. Intl. J. Parasitol. 32:13011308.
14. Avila, G.,, M. Benítez,, L. Aguilar, and, A. Flisser. 2003. Kinetics of Taenia solium antibodies and antigens in experimental taeniosis. Parasitol. Res. 89:284289.
15. Avila, G.,, N. Teran,, L. Aguilar,, P. Maravilla,, P. Mata, and, A. Flisser. 2006. Laboratory animal models for human Taenia solium. Parasitol. Intl. 55(Suppl.):S99S103.
16. Barinagarrementeria, F.,, and C. Cantú. 1998. Frequency of cerebral arthritis in subarachnoid cysticercosis: an angiographic study. Stroke 29:123125.
17. Barinagarrementeria, F.,, and O. H. Del Brutto. 1988. Neurocysticercosis and pure motor hemiparesis. Stroke 19:11561158.
18. Barinagarrementeria, F.,, and O. H. Del Brutto. 1989. Lacunar syndrome due to neurocysticercosis. Arch. Neurol. 46:415417.
19. Berman, J. D.,, P. C. Beaver,, A. W. Cheever, and, E. A. Quindlen. 1981. Cysticercosis of 60 millilitre volume in human brain. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 30:616619.
20. Brown, S. 2006. Deterioration. Epilepsia 47(Suppl. 2):1923.
21. Cantú, C.,, and F. Barinagarrementeria. 1996. Cerebrovascular complications of neurocysticercosis. Clinical and neuroimaging spectrum. Arch. Neurol. 53:233239.
22. Cantú, C.,, J. Villarreal,, J. L. Soto, and, F. Barinagarrementeria. 1998. Cerebral cysticercotic arthritis: detection and follow-up by transcranial Doppler. Cerebrovasc. Dis. 8:27.
23. Cardenas, F.,, H. Quiroz,, A. Plancarte,, A. Meza,, A. Dalma, and, A. Flisser. 1992. Taenia solium ocular cysticercosis: findings in 30 cases. Ann. Ophthalmol. 24:2528.
24. Carpio, A.,, and W. A. Hauser. 2002. Prognosis for seizure recurrence in patients with newly diagnosed neurocysticercosis. Neurology 59:17301734.
25. Chang, G. Y.,, and J. R. Keane. 2001. Visual loss in cysticercosis: analysis of 23 patients. Neurology 57:545548.
26. Chavarria, A.,, A. Fleury,, E. Garcia,, C. Marquez,, G. Fragoso, and, E. Sciutto. 2005. Relationship between the clinical heterogeneity of neurocysticercosis and the immune-inflammatory profiles. Clin. Immunol. 116:271278.
27. Colli, B. O.,, J. A. Assirati, Jr.,, H. R. Machado,, F. dos Santos, and, O. M. Takayanagui. 1994. Cysticercosis of the central nervous system. II. Spinal cysticercosis. Arq. Neuropsiquiat. 52:187199.
28. Colli, B. O.,, C. G. Carlotti, Jr.,, J. A. Assirati, Jr.,, H. R. Machado,, M. M. Valença, and, M. C. Amato. 2002. Surgical treatment of cerebral cysticercosis: long-term results and prognostic factors. Neurosurg. Focus 12:e3.
29. Colli, B. O.,, N. Martelli,, J. A. Assirati, Jr.,, H. R. Machado,, C. P. Salvarani,, V. P. Sassoli, and, S. V. Forjaz. 1994. Cysticercosis of the central nervous system. I. Surgical treatment of cerebral cysticercosis: a 23 years experience in the Hospital das Clínicas of Ribeirão Preto Medical School. Arq. Neuropsiquiat. 52:166186.
30. Colli, B. O.,, M. M. Valença,, C. G. Carlotti, Jr.,, H. R. Machado, and, J. A. Assirati, Jr. 2002. Spinal cord cysticercosis: neurosurgical aspects. Neurosurg. Focus 12:e9.
31. Correa, D.,, and E. Medina-Escutia. 1999. Host-parasite immune relationship in Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis, p. 15–24. In H. H. Garcia and, S. M. Martinez (ed.), Taenia solium Taeniasis/Cisticercosis, 2nd ed. Editorial Universo, Lima, Peru.
32. Correa, D.,, A. Plancarte,, M. A. Sandoval,, E. Rodriguezdel Rosal,, A. Meza, and, A. Flisser. 1989. Immunodiagnosis of human and porcine cysticercosis: detection of antibodies and parasite products. Acta Leidensia 57:93100.
33. Cruz-Revilla, C.,, G. Rosas,, G. Fragoso,, G., F. Lopez-Casillas,, A. Toledo,, C. Larralde, and, E. Sciutto. 2000. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis: protective effect and immune response elicited by DNA immunization. J. Parasitol. 86:6774.
34. Curran, T.,, and A. E. Lang. 1994. Parkinsonian syndromes associated with hydrocephalus: case reports, a review of the literature, and pathophysiological hypotheses. Mov. Disord. 9:508520.
35. DeGiorgio, C. M.,, I. Houston,, S. Oviedo, and, F. Sorvillo. 2002. Deaths associated with cysticercosis. Report of three cases and review of the literature. Neurosurg. Focus 12:e2.
36. Del Bigio, M. R.,, M. J. Wilson, and, T. Enno. 2003. Chronic hydrocephalus in rats and humans: white matter loss and behavior changes. Ann. Neurol. 53:337346.
37. Del Brutto, O. H. 1992. Cysticercosis and cerebrovascular disease: a review. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 55:252254.
38. Del Brutto, O. H. 1997. Clues to prevent cerebrovascular hazards of cysticidal drug therapy. Stroke 28:1088.
39. Del Brutto, O. H. 2005. Neurocysticercosis. Semin. Neurol. 25:243251.
40. Del Brutto, O. H.,, V. Rajshekhar,, A. C. White, Jr.,, V. C. W. Tsang,, T. E. Nash,, O. M. Takayanagui,, P. M. Schantz,, C. A. W. Evans,, A. Flisser,, D. Correa,, D. Botero,, J. C. Allan,, E. Sarti,, A. E. Gonzalez,, R. H. Gilman, and, H. H. Garcia. 2001. Proposed diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis. Neurology 57:177183.
41. Del Brutto, O. H.,, R. Santibañez,, C. A. Nobo,, R. Aguirre,, E. Díaz, and, T. A. Alarcón. 1992. Epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis: analysis of 203 patients. Neurology 42:389392.
42. Del Brutto, O. H.,, and J. Sotelo. 1989. Some unusual manifestations of neurocysticercosis. Rev. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 29:2326.
43. Del Brutto, O. H.,, J. Sotelo, and, C. G. Roman. 1998. Neuropathology, p. 37–46. In O. H. Del Brutto,, J. Sotelo, and, G. C. Roman (ed.), Neurocysticercosis, a Clinical Handbook. Swets and Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands.
44. Ding, Y.,, J. P. McAllister II,, B. Yao,, N. Yan, and, A. I. Canady. 2001. Axonal damage associated with enlargement of ventricles during hydrocephalus: a silver impregnation study. Neurol. Res. 23:581587.
45. Ding, Y.,, J. P. McAllister II,, B. Yao,, N. Yan, and, A. I. Canady. 2001. Neuron tolerance during hydrocephalus. Neuroscience 106:659667.
46. Egawa, T.,, K. Mishima,, N. Egashira,, M. Fukuzawa,, K. Abe,, T. Yae,, K. Iwasaki, and, M. Fujiwara. 2002. Impairment of spatial memory in kaolin-induced hydrocephalic rats is associated with changes in the hippocampal cholinergic and noradrenergic contents. Behav. Brain Res. 129:3139.
47. Escobar, A. 1983. The pathology of neurocysticercosis, p. 27–54. In E. Palacios,, J. Rodriguez-Carbajal, and, J. M. Taveras (ed.), Cysticercosis of the Central Nervous System. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL.
48. Estañol, B.,, T. Corona, and, P. Abad. 1986. A prognostic classification of cerebral cysticercosis: therapeutic implications. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 49:11311134.
49. Estañol, B.,, E. Kleriga,, M. Loyo,, H. Mateos,, L. Lombardo,, F. Gordon, and, A. F. Saguchi. 1983. Mechanisms of hydrocephalus in cerebral cysticercosis: implications for therapy. Neurosurgery 13:119123.
50. Evans, C. A. W.,, H. H. García,, A. Hartnell,, R. H. Gilman,, P. J. Jose,, M. Martinez,, D. G. Remick,, T. J. Williams, and, J. S. Friedland. 1998. Elevated concentration of eotaxin and interleukin-5 in human neurocysticercosis. Infect. Immun. 66:45224525.
51. Fleury, A.,, A. Dessein,, M. Dumas,, P. M. Preux,, G. Tapia,, C. Larralde, and, E. Sciutto. 2004. Symptomatic neurocysticercosis: host and exposure factors relating with disease heterogeneity. J. Neurol. 251:830837.
52. Flisser, A. 1989. Taenia solium cysticercosis: some mechanisms of parasite survival in immunocompetent hosts. Acta Leidensia 57:259263.
53. Flisser, A. 1994. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium, p. 77–116. In T. Sun. (ed.), Progress in Clinical Parasitology, vol. 4. CRC, Boca Raton, FL.
54. Flisser, A.,, D. Correa,, G. Avila, and, P. Maravilla. 2005. Biology of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia saginata asiatica, p. 1–9. In K. D. Murrell (ed.), Manual on Taeniosis and Cysticercosis in Man and Animals: Detection, Treatment and Prevention. WHO/FAO, OIE, Paris, France.
55. Flisser, A.,, D. Correa, and, C. A. W. Evans. 2002. Taenia solium cysticercosis: new and revisited immunological aspects, p. 15–24. In G. Singh, and, S. Prabhakar (ed.), Taenia solium Cysticercosis: from Basic to Clinical Science. CABI Publishing, Oxon, United Kingdom.
56. Flisser, A.,, and P. S. Craig. 2005. Larval cestodes, p. 677–712. In F. E. G. Cox,, D. Wakelin,, S. H. Gillespie, and, D. D. Despommier (ed.), Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 10th ed., vol 5. Hodder Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
57. Flisser, A.,, D. Gonzalez,, A. Plancarte,, P. Ostrosky,, R. Montero,, A. Stephano, and, D. Correa. 1990. Praziquantel treatment of brain and muscle porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. 2. Immunological and cytogenetic studies. Parasitol. Res. 76:640642.
58. Flisser, A.,, D. Gonzalez,, J. Rodriguez-Carbajal,, M. Shkurovich,, D. Correa,, S. Cohen,, M. Collado,, I. Madrazo,, E. Rodríguez-del Rosal,, B. Fernández,, F. Fernandez, and, A. S. Aluja. 1990. Praziquantel treatment of porcine brain and muscle Taenia solium cisticercosis. 1. Radiological, physiological and histopathological studies. Parasitol. Res. 76:263269.
59. Flisser, A.,, and T. Gyorkos. 2007. Contribution of immunodiagnostic tests to epidemiological/intervention studies of cysticercosis/taeniasis in Mexico. Par. Immunol. 29:637649.
60. Flisser, A.,, R. Perez-Montfort, and, C. Larralde. 1979. The immunology of human and animal cysticercosis. A review. Bull. W. H. O. 57:839856.
61. Flisser, A.,, A. Plancarte, and, D. Correa. 1991. Taenia solium cysticercosis: a review. Res. Rev. Parasitol. 51:1723.
62. Flisser, A.,, A. Vázquez-Mendoza,, J. Martínez-Ocaña,, E. Gómez-Colín,, R. Sánchez Leyva, and, R. Medina-Santillán. 2005. Evaluation of a self-detection tool for tapeworm carriers for use in public health. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 72:510512.
63. Flisser, A.,, A. E. Viniegra,, L. Aguilar-Vega,, A. Garza-Rodriguez,, P. Maravilla,, G. Avila. 2004. Portrait of human tapeworms. J. Parasitol. 80:914916.
64. Forlenza, O. V.,, A. H. Filho,, J. P. Nobrega,, L. dos Ramos Machado,, N. G. de Barros,, C. H. de Camargo, and, M. F. da Silva. 1997. Psychiatric manifestations of neurocysticercosis: a study of 38 patients from a neurology clinic in Brazil. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 62:612616.
65. Garcia, H. H.,, C. A. W. Evans,, T. E. Nash,, O. M. Takayanagui,, A. C. White, Jr.,, D. Botero,, V. Rajshekhar,, V. C. W. Tsang,, P. M. Schantz,, J. C. Allan,, A. Flisser,, D. Correa,, E. Sarti,, J. S. Friedland,, M. Martinez,, A. E. Gonzalez,, R. H. Gilman, and, O. H. Del Brutto. 2002 Current consensus guidelines for treatment of neurocysticercosis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 15:747756.
66. Garcia, H. H.,, A. E. Gonzalez,, C. A. W. Evans, and, R. H. Gilman. 2003. Taenia solium cysticercosis. Lancet 362:547556.
67. Garcia, H. H.,, A. E. Gonzalez,, R. H. Gilman,, L. G. Palacios,, I. Jimenez,, S. Rodriguez,, M. Verastegui,, P. Wilkins,, V. W. C. Tsang, and the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. 2001. Short report: transient antibody response in Taenia solium infection in field conditions—a major contribution to high seroprevalence. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 65:3132.
68. Gilman, R. H.,, O. H. Del Brutto,, H. H. Garcia,, M. Martinez, and the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. 2000. Prevalence of taeniosis among patients with neurocysticercosis is related to severity of infection. Neurology 55:1062.
69. Ginier, B. L.,, and V. Poirier. 1992. MR imaging of intraventricular cysticercosis. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 13:1247.
70. Gonzalez, D.,, J. Rodríguez-Carbajal,, A. Aluja, and, A. Flisser. 1987. Cerebral cysticercosis in pigs studied by computed tomography and necropsy. Vet. Parasitol. 26:5569.
71. Helmstaedter, C. 2007. Cognitive outcome of status epilepticus in adults. Epilepsia 48(Suppl. 8):8590.
72. Ito, A.,, M. I. Putra,, R. Subahar,, M. O. Sato,, M. Okamoto,, Y. Sako,, M. Nakao,, H. Yamasaki,, K. Nakaya,, P. S. Craig, and, S. S. Margono. 2002. Dogs as alternative intermediate hosts of Taenia solium in Papua (Irian Jaya), Indonesia confirmed by highly specific ELISA and immunoblot using native and recombinant antigens and mitochondrial DNA analysis. J. Helminthol. 76:311314.
73. Jeri, C.,, R. H. Gilman,, A. G. Lescano,, H. Mayta,, M. E. Ramirez,, A. E. Gonzalez,, R. Nazerali, and, H. H. Garcia. 2004. Species identification after treatment for human taeniasis. Res. Lett. Lancet 363:949950.
74. Joshi, B. P.,, and C. G. Gupta. 1970. A case of pressure syndrome due to Cysticercus cellulosae in the brain of the dog. Ind. Vet. J. 47:366367.
75. Joubert, J. 1990. Cysticercal meningitis, a pernicious form of neurocysticercosis, which responds poorly to praziquantel. S. Afr. Med. J. 77:528530.
76. Jung, H.,, G. Cardenas,, E. Sciutto, and, A. Fleury. 2008. Medical treatment for neurocysticercosis: drugs, indications and perspectives. Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 8:424433.
77. Jung, R. C.,, M. A. Rodriguez,, P. C. Beaver,, J. E. Schenthal, and, R. W. Levy. 1981. Racemose cysticercus in human brain, a case report. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 30:620624.
78. Kanner, A. M. 2007. Epilepsy and mood disorders. Epilepsia 48(Suppl. 9):2022.
79. Keane, J. R. 1990. The pretectal syndrome: 206 patients. Neurology 40:684690.
80. Keane, J. R. 1995. Tremor as the result of shunt obstruction: four patients with cysticercosis and secondary parkinsonism: report of four cases. Neurosurgery 37:520522.
81. Kelley, R.,, D. H. Duong, and, G. E. Locke. 2002. Characteristics of ventricular shunt malfunctions among patients with neurocysticercosis. Neurosurgery 50:757761.
82. Kim, I. Y.,, T. S. Kim,, J. H. Lee,, M. C. Lee,, J. K. Lee, and, S. Jung. 2005. Inflammatory aneurysm due to neurocysticercosis. J. Clin. Neurosci. 12:585588.
83. Laclette, J. P.,, Y. Ornelas,, M. T. Merchant, and, K. Willms. 1982. Ultrastructure of the surrounding envelopes of Taenia solium eggs, p. 375–387. In A. Flisser,, K. Willms., J. P. Laclette,, C. Larralde,, C. Ridaura, and, F. Beltrán (ed.), Cysticercosis. Present State of Knowledge and Perspectives. Academic Press, New York, NY.
84. Laclette, J. P.,, C. Shoemaker,, D. Richter,, D., L. Arcos,, N. Pante,, C. Cohen,, D. Bing, and, A. Nicholson-Weller. 1992. Paramyosin inhibits complement C1. J. Immunol. 148:124128.
85. Levy, A. S.,, K. O. Lillehei,, D. Rubinstein, and, J. C. Stears. 1995. Subarachnoid neurocysticercosis with occlusion of major intracranial vessels: case report. Neurosurgery 36:183188.
86. Luciano, M. G.,, D. J. Skarupa,, A. M. Booth,, A. S. Wood,, C. L. Brant, and, M. J. Gdowski. 2001. Cerebrovascular adaptation in chronic hydrocephalus. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21:285294.
87. Madiqubba, S.,, K. Vishwanath,, G. Reddy, and, G. K. Vemuqanti. 2007. Changing trends in ocular cysticercosis over two decades: an analysis of 118 surgically excised cysts. Ind. J. Med. Microbiol. 25:214219.
88. Madrazo, I.,, and A. Flisser. 1992. Cysticercosis, p. 1419–1430. In M. L. J. Apuzzo (ed.), Brain Surgery: Complication Avoidance and Management. Churchill Livingstone, New York, NY.
89. Maravilla, J. P.,, G. Avila,, V. Cabrera,, L. Aguilar, and, A. Flisser. 1998. Comparative development of Taenia solium in experimental models. J. Parasitol. 84:882886.
90. Medina-Escutia, E.,, Z. Morales-Lopez,, J. V. Proano,, J. Vazquez,, V. Bermudez,, V. O. Navarrete,, V. Madrid-Marina,, J. P. Laclette, and, D. Correa. 2001. Cellular immune response and Th1/Th2 cytokines in human neurocysticercosis: lack of immune suppression. Parasitology 87:587590.
91. Merchant, M. T.,, L. Aguilar,, G. Avila,, L. Robert,, A, Flisser, and, K. Willms. 1998. Taenia solium description of the intestinal implantation sites in experimental hamster infections. J. Parasitol. 84:681685.
92. Meza-Lucas, A.,, L. Carmona-Miranda,, R. C. Garcia-Jeronimo,, A. Torrero-Miranda,, G. Gonzalez-Hidalgo,, G. Lopez-Castellanos, and, D. Correa. 2003. Limited and short-lasting humoral response in Taenia solium: seropositive households compared with patients with neurocysticercosis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 69:223227.
93. Mitchell, G. F. 1982. Genetic variation in resistance of mice to Taenia taeniaeformis: analysis of host-protective immunity and immune evasion, p. 575–584. In A. Flisser,, K. Willms., J. P. Laclette,, C. Larralde,, C. Ridaura, and, F. Beltran (ed.), Cysticercosis. Present State of Knowledge and Perspectives. Academic Press, New York, NY.
94. Molinari, J. L.,, R. Meza,, B. Suarez,, S. Palacios,, P. Tato, and, A. Retana. 1983. Taenia solium: immunity in hogs to the cysticercus. Exp. Parasitol. 55:340357.
95. Molinari, J. L.,, P. Tato,, O. A. Reynoso, and, J. M. Cazares. 1990. Depressive effect of a Taenia solium cysticercus factor on cultured human lymphocytes stimulated with phytohemaglutinin. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 84:205208.
96. Monteiro, L.,, J. Almeida-Pinto,, I. Leite,, J. Xavier, and, M. Correia. 1994. Cerebral cysticercus arteritis: five angiographic cases. Cerebrovasc. Dis. 4:125133.
97. Nash, T. E.,, O. Del Brutto,, J. A. Butman,, T. Corona,, A. Delgado-Escueta,, R. M. Duron,, C. A. W. Evans,, R. H. Gilman,, A. E. Gonzalez,, J. A. Loeb,, M. T. Medina,, S. Pietsch-Escueta,, E. J. Pretell,, O. M. Takayanagui,, W. Theodore,, V. C. W. Tsang, and, H. H. Garcia. 2004. Calcified neurocysticercosis and epileptogenesis. Neurology 62:19341938.
98. Oka, Y.,, K. Fukui,, D. Shoda,, T. Abe,, Y. Kumon,, S. Sakaki, and, M. Torii. 1996. Cerebral cysticercosis manifesting as hydrocephalus, case report. Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo). 36:654658.
99. Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.,, E. Garcia-Mendoza,, C. Ríos, and, J. Sotelo. 1996. Humoral and cellular immune response within the subarachnoid space of patients with neurocysticercosis. Arch. Med. Res. 27:513517.
100. Perrine, K.,, and S. Congett. 1994. Neurobehavioral problems in epilepsy. Neurol. Clin. 12:129152.
101. Pradhan, S.,, M. K. Kathuria, and, R. K. Gupta. 2000. Perilesional gliosis and seizure outcome: a study based on magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging in patients with neurocysticercosis. Ann. Neurol. 48:181187.
102. Proaño-Narvaez, J. V.,, A. Meza-Lucas,, O. Mata-Ruiz,, R. C. Garcia-Jeronimo, and, D. Correa. 2002. Laboratory diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis: double blind comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electroimmunotransfer blot assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:21152118.
103. Rabiela, M. T.,, Y. Ornelas,, C. Garcia-Allan,, E. Rodriguez del Rosal, and, A. Flisser. 2000. Evagination of Taenia solium cysticerci: a histologic and electron microscopy study. Arch. Med. Res. 31:605607.
104. Rabiela, M. T.,, A. Rivas,, S. Castillo, and, F. Cancino. 1982. Anatomopathologial aspects of human brain cysticercosis, p. 179–200. In A. Flisser,, K. Willms., J. P. Laclette,, C. Larralde,, C. Ridaura, and, F. Beltran (ed.), Cysticercosis. Present State of Knowledge and Perspectives. Academic Press, New York, NY.
105. Rabiela, M. T.,, A. Rivas, and, A. Flisser. 1989. Morphological types of Taenia solium cysticerci. Parasitol. Today 5:357.
106. Racette, B. A.,, G. J. Esper,, J. Antenor,, K. J. Black,, A. Burkey,, S. M. Moerlein,, T. O. Videen,, V. Kotagal,, J. G. Ojemann, and, J. S. Perlmutter. 2004. Pathophysiology of parkinsonism due to hydrocephalus. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 75:16171619.
107. Rajshekhar, V. 1991. Etiology and management of single small CT lesions in patients with seizures. Understanding a controversy. Acta Neurol. Scand. 84:465470.
108. Ramirez-Bermudez, J.,, J. Higuera,, A. L. Sosa,, E. Lopez-Meza,, M. Lopez-Gomez, and, T. Corona. 2005. Is dementia reversible in patients with neurocysticercosis? J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 76:11641166.
109. Restrepo, B. I.,, J. I. Alvarez,, L. F. Castano,, L. F. Arias,, M. Restrepo,, J. Trujillo,, C. H. Colegial, and, J. M. Teale. 2001. Brain granulomas in neurocysticercosis are associated with a Th1 and Th2 profile. Infect. Immunol. 69:45544560.
110. Restrepo, B.,, P. Llaguno,, P., M. A. Sandoval,, M. A.,, J. A. Enciso, and, J. M. Teale. 1998. Analysis of immune lesions in neurocysticercosis patients: central nervous system response to helminth appears Th1-like instead of Th2. J. Neuroimmunol. 89:6472.
111. Rodriguez-Carbajal, J.,, O. H. Del Brutto,, P. Penagos,, J. Huebe, and, A. Escobar. 1989. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery due to cysticercotic angiitis. Stroke 20:10951098.
112. Saenz, B.,, M. Ruiz-Garcia,, E. Jimenez,, J. Hernandez-Aguilar,, R. Suastegui,, C. Larralde,, E. Sciutto, and, A. Fleury. 2006. Neurocysticercosis: clinical, radiologic, and inflammatory differences between children and adults. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 25:801803.
113. Salgado, P.,, R. Rojas, and, J. Sotelo. 1997. Cysticercosis: clinical classification based on imaging studies. Arch. Intern. Med. 157:191.
114. Salpekar, J. A.,, and D. W. Dunn. 2007. Psychiatric and psychosocial consequences of pediatric epilepsy. Semin. Pediatr. Neurol. 14:181188.
115. Santo, A. H. 2007. Cysticercosis-related mortality in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, 1985-2004: a study using multiple causes of death. Cad. Saude Publ. 23:29172927.
116. Sasaki, O.,, H. Suguya,, K. Ishida, and, K. Yoshimura. 1993. Ablation of eosinophils with anti IL-5 antibody enhances the survival of intracranial worms of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the mouse. Parasite Immunol. 15:349354.
117. Sawhney, I. M.,, G. Singh,, O. P. Lekhra,, S. N. Mathuriya,, P. S. Parihar, and, S. Prabhakar. 1998. Uncommon presentations of neurocysticercosis. J. Neurol. Sci. 154:94100.
118. Schantz, P. M.,, P. P. Wilkins, and, V. C. W. Tsang. 1998. Immigrants, imaging and immunoblots: the emergence of neurocysticercosis as a significant public health problem, p. 213–242. In W. M. Scheld,, W. A. Craig, and, J. M. Hughes (ed.) Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
119. Sciutto, E.,, A. Chavarria,, G. Fragoso,, A. Fleury, and, C. Larralde. 2007. The immune response in Taenia solium cysticercosis: protection and injury. Parasite Immunol. 29:621636.
120. Sciutto, E.,, G. Fragoso,, M. Baca,, V. De la Cruz,, L. Lemus,, E. Lamoyi. 1995. Depressed T-cell proliferation associated with susceptibility to experimental infection with Taenia crassiceps infection. Infect. Immun. 63:22772281.
121. Sciutto, E.,, G. Fragoso,, A. Fleury,, J. P. Laclette,, J. Sotelo,, A. Aluja,, L. Vargas, and, C. Larralde. 2000. Taenia solium disease in humans and pigs: an ancient parasitosis disease rooted in developing countries and emerging as a major health problem of global dimensions. Microb. Infect. 2:18751890.
122. Solano, S.,, I. M. Cortes,, N. I. Copitin,, P. Tato, and, J. L. Molinari. 2006. Lymphocyte apoptosis in the inflammatory reaction around Taenia solium metacestodes in porcine cysticercosis. Vet. Parasitol. 140:171176.
123. Sotelo, J.,, and C. Marin. 1987. Hydrocephalus secondary to cysticercotic arachnoiditis. J. Neurosurg. 66:686689.
124. Sotelo, J.,, and O. H. Del Brutto. 2000. Brain cysticercosis. Arch. Med. Res. 31:314.
125. Sotelo, J.,, and O. H. Del Brutto. 2002. Review of neurocysticercosis. Neurosurg. Focus 12:e1.
126. Sotelo, J.,, V. Guerrero, and, F. Rubio. 1985. Neurocysticercosis: a new classification based on active and inactive forms. A study of 753 cases. Arch. Intern. Med. 145:442445.
127. Soto-Hernandez, J. L.,, S. Gomez-Llata,, L. A. Rojas-Echeverri,, F. Texeira, and, V. Romero. 1996. Subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured inflammatory aneurysm: a possible manifestation of neurocysticercosis: case report. Neurosurgery 38:197199.
128. Stanbury, R. M.,, and E. M. Graham. 1998. Systemic corticosteroid therapy—side effects and their management. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82:704708.
129. Suastegui-Roman, R. A.,, J. L. Soto-Hernandez, and, J. Sotelo. 1996. Effects of prednisone on ventriculoperitoneal shunt function in hydrocephalus secondary to cysticercosis: a preliminary study. J. Neurosurg. 84:629633.
130. Tashiro, Y.,, and J. M. Drake. 1998. Reversibility of functionally injured neurotransmitter systems with shunt placement in hydrocephalic rats: implications for intellectual impairment in hydrocephalus. J. Neurosurg. 88:709717.
131. Tellez-Zenteno, J. F.,, O. Negrete-Pulido,, C. Cantú,, C. Márquez,, F. Vega-Boada, and, G. García-Ramos G. 2003. Hemorrhagic stroke associated to neurocysticercosis. Neurologia 18:272275.
132. Thornton, H. 1979. Give yourself a tapeworm. Vet. Rec. 104:287.
133. Velasquez-Perez, L.,, and M. E. Jimenez-Marcial. 2004. Hospital mortality at the Manuel Velasco Suarez National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery (1995-2001). Gac. Med. Mex. 140:289294.
134. Verma, A.,, and S. Misra. 2006. Outcome of short-term antiepileptic treatment in patients with solitary cerebral cysticercus granuloma. Acta Neurol. Scand. 113:174177.
135. Wadia, N.,, S. Desai, and, M. Bhatt. 1988. Disseminated cysticercosis: new observations, including CT scan findings and experience with treatment by praziquantel. Brain 111:597614.
136. Watson, N. F.,, M. J. Doherty, and, J. R. Zunt. 2005 Secondary narcolepsy following neurocysticercosis infection. J. Clin. Sleep Med. 15:4142.
137. Weller, R. O.,, and J. Mitchell. 1980. Cerebrospinal fluid edema and its sequelae in hydrocephalus. Adv. Neurol. 28:111123.
138. White, A. C., Jr. 2000. Neurocysticercosis: updates on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Ann. Rev. Med. 51:187206.
139. White, A. C., Jr.,, P. Robinson, and, R. Kuhn. 1997. Taenia solium cysticercosis: host-parasite interaction and the immune response. Chem. Immunol. 66:209230.
140. Willms, K.,, and M. T. Merchant. 1980. The inflammatory reaction surrounding Taenia solium larvae in pig muscle: ultrastructural and light microscopic observations. Parasite Immunol. 2:261275.
141. Wirrell, E. C. 2006. Epilepsy-related injuries. Epilepsia 47(Suppl. 1):7986.
142. Xie, S.,, G. Wei, and, L. Zhao. 1996. Intellectual status of patents cerebral cysticercosis. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 76:440442.
143. Yoshino, K. 1933. Studies on the post-embryonal development of Taenia solium. Part I. On the hatching of the egg of Taenia solium. J. Med. Assoc. Formosa 32:139141.
144. Yoshino, K. 1933. Studies on the post-embryonal development of Taenia solium. Part II. On the migration course of the oncosphere of Taenia solium within the intermediate host. J. Med. Assoc. Formosa 32:155158.
145. Yoshino, K. 1933. Studies on the post-embryonal development of Taenia solium. Part III. On the development of cysticercus cellulosae within the definite intermediate host. J. Med. Assoc. Formosa 32:166169.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Characteristics of neurocysticercosis

Citation: Fleury A, Flisser A, Flores-Rivera J, Corona T. 2009. , p 229-243. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch13

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error