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is the parasite that causes human and swine cysticercosis. Currently, the most frequently used techniques for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) are enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. cysticerci in humans develop mainly in the central nervous system, the eye, and striated and heart muscle and subcutaneous tissue. Most cysticerci lodge in the cerebral parenchyma and in the subarachnoidal space of the sulci (80%), followed by the meninges (18%) and other locations (around 2% of cases), such as the ventricles and spinal cord. Approximately 80 to 90% of patients with NCC have parasites lodged in brain parenchyma. When parasites are located in the subarachnoidal space at the base of the brain or in the ventricles, the main pathologic mechanism involved in the long-term consequences and sequelae are inflammation of the arachnoids or of the ependymal lining that accompanies the parasite and its destruction. The most frequent are lacunar infarctions found in the lenticulostriate branches of the anterior or middle cerebral artery, which result from occlusive endarteritis secondary to the inflammatory reaction within the subarachnoid space, triggered by meningeal cysticerci. Cysticercosis is a chronic disease that involves mainly the central nervous system, where macroscopic parasites lodge in different numbers and sites, survive for different periods of time, and generate different types and degrees of inflammatory and immune responses. Understanding better the immunological cascade that accompanies NCC will permit finding more specific anti-inflammatory molecules that would allow the reduction of longterm complications in these patients.

Citation: Fleury A, Flisser A, Flores-Rivera J, Corona T. 2009. , p 229-243. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch13

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Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Drawing of the three life stages of : adult parasite showing the scolex, immature, mature, and gravid proglottids; microscopic eggs; and vesicular cysticercus.

Citation: Fleury A, Flisser A, Flores-Rivera J, Corona T. 2009. , p 229-243. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch13
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Images of NCC. (A) Sagittal T1-weighted magnetic resonance image showing a vesicular cysticercus in the IV ventricle (arrow). Ventricular cysticerci usually cause hydrocephalus and ependymitis. (B) Axial T1-weighted magnetic resonance image showing multiple racemose parasites located in basal cisterns. Subarachnoidal cysticerci usually cause arachnoiditis and hydrocephalus. (C) Computerized axial tomography showing multiple small and round calcified lesions in brain parenchyma associated with ventricular dilatation (arrow). This image is typical of chronic NCC.

Citation: Fleury A, Flisser A, Flores-Rivera J, Corona T. 2009. , p 229-243. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch13
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Table 1.

Characteristics of neurocysticercosis

Citation: Fleury A, Flisser A, Flores-Rivera J, Corona T. 2009. , p 229-243. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch13

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