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Chapter 17 : Parasitic Helminths

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Abstract:

The helminthic parasites of humans are multicellular (metazoan) animal species that survive only by spending part of their lives infecting organ tissues or digestive spaces within the human body. In countries with high prevalence rates of helminth infection, consideration is now being given to the comorbid effects of parasitic helminths with infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria, and tuberculosis in addressing the local and regional burden of disease. In this chapter, parasite life cycles and vector ecology are touched briefly. Collectively, the three filarial organisms that include are known to be the most common etiologic agents of lymphatic filariasis (LF). During chronic LF, there is a complex regulation of immune responses to and , with reduced responsiveness of T cells to antigens produced by microfilariae and decreased production of gamma interferon. Dracunculiasis is a significantly disabling disease with great impact on childhood development and personal performance status. Trichinellosis is caused by larval infection and tissue encystment by larvae of the animal nematode . The two species of greatest medical interest in human disease are and . Food-borne trematodes of helminthic infections includes the “lung fluke,” , and the “oriental liver fluke,” , as well as other liver (, species), intestinal ( species, species), and tissue ( species) flukes that infect humans.

Citation: Bustinduy A, King C. 2009. Parasitic Helminths, p 291-329. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch17

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Infectious Diseases
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Parasitic Diseases
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Urinary Tract Infections
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Latex Agglutination Test
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Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

River blindness caused by . (Credit: World Health Organization.)

Citation: Bustinduy A, King C. 2009. Parasitic Helminths, p 291-329. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch17
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Leopard skin due to chronic onchocerciasis. (Credit: , 6th ed., Elsevier.)

Citation: Bustinduy A, King C. 2009. Parasitic Helminths, p 291-329. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch17
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

. (Credit: , American Society of Clinical Pathologists.)

Citation: Bustinduy A, King C. 2009. Parasitic Helminths, p 291-329. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch17
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Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Elephantiasis from infection. (Credit: , 6th ed., Elsevier.)

Citation: Bustinduy A, King C. 2009. Parasitic Helminths, p 291-329. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch17
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Image of Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Eye worm of chronic infection. (Credit: , 6th ed., Elsevier.)

Citation: Bustinduy A, King C. 2009. Parasitic Helminths, p 291-329. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch17
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Image of Figure 6.
Figure 6.

Dracunculiasis (guinea worm infection). (Credit: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/quicksearch.asp.)

Citation: Bustinduy A, King C. 2009. Parasitic Helminths, p 291-329. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch17
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Image of Figure 7.
Figure 7.

Heavy infection with expelled worm ball. (Credit: , 6th ed., Elsevier.)

Citation: Bustinduy A, King C. 2009. Parasitic Helminths, p 291-329. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch17
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Image of Figure 8.
Figure 8.

Alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. (Credit: , Elsevier.)

Citation: Bustinduy A, King C. 2009. Parasitic Helminths, p 291-329. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch17
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Image of Figure 9.
Figure 9.

International classification of ultrasound images in cystic echinococcosis for application in clinical and field epidemiological settings. (Credit: World Health Organization.)

Citation: Bustinduy A, King C. 2009. Parasitic Helminths, p 291-329. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch17
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Image of Figure 10.
Figure 10.

Proglottids of the fish tapeworm . (Credit: , American Society of Clinical Pathologists.)

Citation: Bustinduy A, King C. 2009. Parasitic Helminths, p 291-329. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch17
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Image of Figure 11.
Figure 11.

Growth retardation by chronic infection with . A combination of undernutrition and chronic infection with , especially around the time of puberty, can lead to significant retardation of growth. The boys seen here in the northeast of Brazil are (left to right) 14, 13, and 12 years old. The two on the right with hepatomegaly have schistosomiasis. Similar changes are seen in children infected with . (Credit: , 6th ed., Elsevier.)

Citation: Bustinduy A, King C. 2009. Parasitic Helminths, p 291-329. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch17
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Tables

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Table 1.

Summary of clinically important helminths

Citation: Bustinduy A, King C. 2009. Parasitic Helminths, p 291-329. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch17
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Lesser-known chronic manifestations of parasitic infections

Citation: Bustinduy A, King C. 2009. Parasitic Helminths, p 291-329. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch17
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Chronic helminth-related syndromes by organ system

Citation: Bustinduy A, King C. 2009. Parasitic Helminths, p 291-329. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch17
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Geographic distribution

Citation: Bustinduy A, King C. 2009. Parasitic Helminths, p 291-329. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch17

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