Chapter 21 : Slow Viral Infections

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There are many viruses that are not cleared from the body after they infect an individual. These include the herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis B, and five other viruses that are discussed in this chapter. The viruses are presented in chronologic fashion based on discovery, focusing on the possible sequelae that chronic infection with these viruses can cause. Adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATLL), an aggressive leukemia/lymphoma, remains a difficult disease to treat. A section reviews the natural course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the infected individual and follows it with an in-depth review of the major sequelae, listed by organ system. The immune system takes the brunt of the effects of HIV since these cells are the target of the virus. As an individual becomes infected, HIV quickly decimates the immune system. The chapter focuses first on the effect of HIV itself and only briefly mentions the infections that can affect the nervous system. Peripheral neuropathies have become the most common neurologic complication in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. They have been classified as inflammatory demyelination polyradiculoneuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex or radiculopathy, distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP), and toxic neuropathy from antiretroviral therapy. Although pulmonary hypertension (PAH) may be associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), HIV has been associated with pulmonary hypertension when no other organisms have been identified.

Citation: Samuel R, Bettiker R. 2009. Slow Viral Infections, p 389-406. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch21

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Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
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