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Chapter 25 : Infection with , a Potential Risk Factor for Chronic Systemic Disease

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Abstract:

In this chapter, periodontal disease will be used as an example of a polymicrobial disease that represents a potential risk factor for chronic systemic diseases. The chapter focuses on , a predominant periodontopathogenic bacterium that can leave the oral cavity, enter the circulatory system, and invade the vascular endothelium and cardiac tissues. Periodontal disease has a polymicrobial etiology. An extensive combination of bacteria, fungi, and even viruses has been reported to be present simultaneously within infected periodontal sites. Periodontal disease induces chronic inflammation in the oral cavity, and chronic inflammation from various sources is linked with increased cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular diseases include atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease. Periodontitis may exacerbate preexisting chronic conditions, like rheumatoid arthritis, renal disease, and diabetes mellitus. can be actively transported across inflamed gingival tissues, and this may occur during infection. The most convincing evidence of as a potential risk factor for chronic systemic diseases is its ability to invade vascular endothelial and coronary artery cells. and its extracellular products induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines in epithelial cells and induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and inflammatory genes in endothelial cells. The variability of virulent properties among strains may reflect the extreme adaptability of and the ability to specialize in the function of the tissue, thereby becoming a catalyst to the development of chronic systemic diseases.

Citation: Joly S, BÉlanger M, Johnson G, Progulske-Fox A, Brogden K. 2009. Infection with , a Potential Risk Factor for Chronic Systemic Disease, p 443-457. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch25

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Bacterial Proteins
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Coronary Artery Disease
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Cardiovascular Diseases
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Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway
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Viruses
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Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Polymicrobial biofilm in the oral cavity showing microorganisms, inflammatory cells, and erythrocytes in human plaque. Bar, 5 μm. (Micrograph by Janet M. Guthmiller and John Laffoon, courtesy of ASM Press.)

Citation: Joly S, BÉlanger M, Johnson G, Progulske-Fox A, Brogden K. 2009. Infection with , a Potential Risk Factor for Chronic Systemic Disease, p 443-457. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch25
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Scanning electron micrograph of HCAE cells infected with 381 for 30 minutes. Bar, 2.3 μm. (Micrograph by A. Progulske-Fox.)

Citation: Joly S, BÉlanger M, Johnson G, Progulske-Fox A, Brogden K. 2009. Infection with , a Potential Risk Factor for Chronic Systemic Disease, p 443-457. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch25
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Transmission electron micrograph of HCAE cells infected with W83. After 3 hours of infection, W83 was found in vacuoles that either contained (black arrow) or lacked (white arrow) acid phosphatase. Nascent autophagosomes (AP) that had not yet acquired acid phosphatase and mature autolysosomes (AL) that contained acid phosphatase were observed in infected cells. The presence of autophagic vacuoles and autolysosomes in the infected HCAE cells suggests that is capable of promoting autophagy. W83 is localized predominantly in vacuoles which contained multiple bacteria but lacked lysosomal acid phosphatase. Bar, 1 μm. (Micrograph by M. Bélanger, W. A. Dunn, Jr., and A. Progulske-Fox.)

Citation: Joly S, BÉlanger M, Johnson G, Progulske-Fox A, Brogden K. 2009. Infection with , a Potential Risk Factor for Chronic Systemic Disease, p 443-457. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch25
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Studies suggesting an association between periodontal disease and long-term chronic systemic disease

Citation: Joly S, BÉlanger M, Johnson G, Progulske-Fox A, Brogden K. 2009. Infection with , a Potential Risk Factor for Chronic Systemic Disease, p 443-457. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch25
Generic image for table
Table 2.

General virulence factors used by to attach, infect, colonize, and activate cardiovascular tissues

Citation: Joly S, BÉlanger M, Johnson G, Progulske-Fox A, Brogden K. 2009. Infection with , a Potential Risk Factor for Chronic Systemic Disease, p 443-457. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch25

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