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Chapter 14 : Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry

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Abstract:

The cell walls of the are composed of different polymers such as glutaminylglycan, heterosaccharide, methanochondroitin, pseudomurein, protein, glycoprotein, or glycocalyx. The S-layer glycoprotein of was the first glycoprotein discovered in bacteria and archaea. Initially, the novel cell wall structures were viewed as curiosities, and their taxonomic significance was not realized until the concept of the was published. At this time, the results of cell wall studies supported the new view of the phylogeny of the and . Many archaea possess proteinaceous surface layers (S layers), which form two-dimensional regular arrays. The chemical structure of archaeal S-layer glycoproteins has been determined in detail for a few archaeal species, e.g., , and , and . The filamentous chains of and (formerly ) are held together by a proteinaceous fibrillary sheath. The majority of bacterial and archaeal exopolymers are polysaccharides, but exopolymers composed of L-or D-glutamate are also formed. The ultrastructure of is similar to many archaea. Future investigations of the unusual symbiosis of these two hyperthermophilic archaea aim at elucidating which proteins of both cell envelopes are directly involved in the physical interaction and in the exchange of metabolites from one cell to the other. The cell envelopes of the are often directly exposed to extreme environmental conditions, and they cannot be stabilized by cellular factors. S layers represent the most common cell surface layer of .

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Cell wall profiles of . CM, cytoplasmic membrane; GC, glycocalyx; GG, glutaminylglycan; H P, heteropolysaccharide; LP, lipoglycan; MC, methanochondroitin; PM, pseudomurein; PS, protein sheath; SL, S layer.

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Scheme showing the arrangement of S-layer subunits. From the left: p2, p3, p4, and p6.

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Phylogenetic tree of . The relative phylogenetic positions of the 16S rDNA sequences of archaea (, and ) discussed in this chapter are depicted in the tree. The arrangement and unit cell dimensions of S-layer subunits are shown.

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Transmission electron micrographs of different (a-c) (d, e) All cells prepared by freeze etching. (a) p3 symmetry; (b) p4 symmetry; (c) p6 symmetry; (d) (e) All bars = 1 μm.

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Image of Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Transmission electron micrographs of species of the (a) (b) freeze-etching. Bar = 0.5 μm.

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Image of Figure 6.
Figure 6.

Comparison of the leader peptides of the S-layer proteins of . ( ) ; ( ) ; ( ) ; ( ) ; ( ) ; ( ) .

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Image of Figure 7.
Figure 7.

Distribution of S-layer protein in cells and in the culture medium during growth of

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Image of Figure 8.
Figure 8.

Immunoblot for glycoprotein detection. M, Marker proteins (negative control); S-layer proteins of ( ) (80 kDa); ( ) (60 kDa); ( ) (80 kDa protein); S-layer proteins were electroeluted from SDS polyacrylamide gels and 5 μg applied to the gel for subsequent immunoblotting.

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Image of Figure 9.
Figure 9.

Ten percent SDS-PAGE of native and recombinant S-layer protein of

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Image of Figure 10.
Figure 10.

Hydropathy profile of the S-layer protein of

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Image of Figure 11.
Figure 11.

SDS-PAGE migration of purified S-layer protein from SDS-PAGE performed after heat treatment at different temperatures for 5 min in denaturating buffer.

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Image of Figure 12.
Figure 12.

Transmission electron micrographs of and prepared by freeze etching. (a) Computed dif-fractogram, or power spectrum, of the image area marked in b. (b) original micrograph of a freeze-etched cell. (c, d) (c) Freeze-etched; (d) ultrathin section. All bars = 0.5 μm.

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Image of Figure 13.
Figure 13.

Proposed structure of the oligosaccharide of the S-layer glycoprotein of . Modified from ( ) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.
Figure 14.

Proposed structure of the three glycan moieties of the S-layer glycoprotein of . The building block composed of five different sugars (glycan I) is linearly repeated 10 to 12 times. Modified from , vol. 2, CRC Press, Inc. ( ), with permission of the publisher.

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Image of Figure 15.
Figure 15.

Proposed structure of the repeating units (regions A to C) of the cell wall polymer of Modified from the ( ) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Characteristic structural features of archaeal S layers

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Putative S-layer glycoproteins and membrane glycoproteins in three species

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Table 3.

S-layer genes from mesophilic and (hyper) thermophilic

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Table 4.

Putative regulatory sequences for S-layer genes ( )

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Table 5.

S-layer proteins from selected mesophilic and (hyper) thermophilic

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Table 6.

Secondary structures

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14
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Table 7.

Sequence homology of selected S-layer proteins

Citation: König H, Rachel R, Claus H. 2007. Proteinaceous Surface Layers of : Ultrastructure and Biochemistry, p 315-340. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch14

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