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Chapter 21 : Molecular Genetics of

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Molecular Genetics of , Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter discusses molecular genetics of . Gene transfer systems currently exist for species within all three physiological groups of archaea, halophiles, methanogens, and nonmethanogenic hyperthermophiles. The chapter reviews the development of these systems. Colonization of methanogenic and nonmethanogenic hyperthermophiles on solidified medium is equally problematic, as agar is rapidly dehydrated at high temperatures, especially at the concentrations required for it to remain solidified. Therefore, gellan gum (Gelrite) is used as the solidifying agent for growth of thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, which are incubated in a plastic bag or anaerobe jar to minimize dehydration. Haloarchaea are transformed via polyethylene glycol (PEG) mediated transformation, which was first described in . Gene disruption is required to identify and confirm the function of genes within the archaea. Random mutagenesis using chemical and UV radiation has been successfully used for , , , and . Progress in the development of methodologies for archaeal genetics has rapidly accelerated in the past decade. Additional methods are currently under development for all three archaeal phyla, including additional systems for markerless exchange, gene expression, topological mapping, protein tagging and expression, as well as others. The choice of archaeal genomes for sequencing is now largely driven by the availability of genetic systems, which at present include complete genomes of the halophiles and sp.

Citation: Sowers K, Anderson K. 2007. Molecular Genetics of , p 463-477. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch21

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Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Recombinant plasmid showing construction typical for an archaeal shuttle vector. The construct includes the dependent R6K for replication of the plasmid in the gene for selection of transformants with ampicillin, pC2A and for replication in spp., and under transcriptional control of the archaeal gene for selection of methanosarcinal recombinants on puromycin. pC2A, autonomously replicating plasmid pC2A from puromycin -acetyltransferase flanked by the methylCoM reduc-tase archaeal promoter (pmcr) and terminator (tmcr); oriR6K, dependent R6K origin of replication; β-lactamase; mcs, multiple cloning site in the gene encoding β-galactosidase for blue-white screening of DNA insertion.

Citation: Sowers K, Anderson K. 2007. Molecular Genetics of , p 463-477. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch21
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Gene disruption methods that are used in archaeal genetics. (a) Direct replacement of a gene with a selectable marker occurs by recombination between linear DNA flanked by regions of the target gene and the wild-type chromosomal gene. (b) The “pop-in pop-out” method uses circular DNA and selection for transformation to uracil prototrophy using a strain ( ). Recombinants that have lost the plasmid are counter-selected using 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), which inhibits growth of cells. Deletion mutants must be screened by Southern hybridization. (c) A variant of the “pop-in pop-out” method for gene deletion utilizes a genetic marker for gene disruption that allows direct selection ( ). (d) Another variant used for generating point mutations employs gene replacement with a marker and subsequent replacement of the disrupted target gene with a gene containing the desired point mutation ( ). Mutants with the desired point mutation are counter-selected with 5-FOA. Reprinted from ( ) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Sowers K, Anderson K. 2007. Molecular Genetics of , p 463-477. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch21
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Markerless disruption method that employs Flp recombinase. An artificial operon that expresses puromycin -acetyl-transferase and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase is flanked by Flp recombinase recognition sites (RP1 and RP2) and regions homologous to the target gene. The linear DNA is transformed into an Δhpt strain that is resistant to 8-aza-2,6-diamino-purine (8-ADP). The target gene is replaced by homologous recombination, and recombinants are selected by resistance to puromycin. The deletion mutant is subsequently transformed with the nonreplicating plasmid pMR55 encoding Flp recombinase, which removes the operon by site-specific recombination between RP1 and RP2. Reprinted from ( ) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Sowers K, Anderson K. 2007. Molecular Genetics of , p 463-477. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch21
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Physiological characteristics and growth efficiency of archaea on solidified medium

Citation: Sowers K, Anderson K. 2007. Molecular Genetics of , p 463-477. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Gene transfer methods for archaea

Citation: Sowers K, Anderson K. 2007. Molecular Genetics of , p 463-477. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Shuttle vectors for use in archaea and

Citation: Sowers K, Anderson K. 2007. Molecular Genetics of , p 463-477. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch21

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