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Chapter 14 : Cell Wall of : a Dynamic Structure

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Abstract:

The cell wall is an essential extracellular organelle that accounts for 20 to 40% of the cellular dry weight of most fungi. Due to the pathogenicity of , cell wall composition and chemical organization have been studied to identify fungal molecules involved in host-pathogen interactions, resistance to microbial killing mechanisms, and immune defenses. Polysaccharide composition of the mycelium and conidial cell wall are listed in this chapter. The alkali-soluble fraction of cell wall polysaccharides is mainly composed of α-1,3-glucan. The majority of antigenic proteins are secreted proteins transiently found in the cell wall before they are secreted in the extracellular environment. A thin layer of regularly arranged rodlets covers the surface of aerial fungal conidia. The number of genes encoding α-1,3-glucan synthases and the essentiality of each individual gene vary according to the fungal species. Analysis of the common domains among the eight chitin synthases of has shown two clusters of three and four genes and a singleton which are associated with chitin synthesis. The fungal cell wall of is a complex organization of macromolecules resulting from several biosynthetic pathways: protein synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), biosynthesis of mannan and glycans in the ER and Golgi complex, and synthesis of homopolysaccharide at the plasma membrane. Molecular biology methods and biochemical approaches have allowed researchers to identify genes and proteins involved in polysaccharide synthesis.

Citation: Mouyna I, Fontaine T. 2009. Cell Wall of : a Dynamic Structure, p 169-183. In Latgé J, Steinbach W (ed), and Aspergillosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815523.ch14
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Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Cell cycle of . Transmission electron micrographs show resting conidia, swelling conidia, and a germ tube of .

Citation: Mouyna I, Fontaine T. 2009. Cell Wall of : a Dynamic Structure, p 169-183. In Latgé J, Steinbach W (ed), and Aspergillosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815523.ch14
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Schematic representation of alkali-insoluble and alkali-soluble polymers of the mycelial cell wall of

Citation: Mouyna I, Fontaine T. 2009. Cell Wall of : a Dynamic Structure, p 169-183. In Latgé J, Steinbach W (ed), and Aspergillosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815523.ch14
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Structure of the repeating unit of the galactomannan produced by (Latgé et al., 1994).

Citation: Mouyna I, Fontaine T. 2009. Cell Wall of : a Dynamic Structure, p 169-183. In Latgé J, Steinbach W (ed), and Aspergillosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815523.ch14
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Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Schematic melanin biosynthetic pathway in (modified from Tsai et al., 1998, 1999, 2001; Langfelder et al., 2003). YWA1, heptaketide naphthopyrone; 1,3,6,8-THN, 1,3,6,8-tetrahydronaphtalene; 1,3,8-THN, 1,3,8-trihydronaphthalene; 1,8-DHN, 1,8-dihydronaphthalene; [O], oxidation step.

Citation: Mouyna I, Fontaine T. 2009. Cell Wall of : a Dynamic Structure, p 169-183. In Latgé J, Steinbach W (ed), and Aspergillosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815523.ch14
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Image of Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Temporal events in the biosynthesis of the structural β-1,3-glucan-chitin core. For simplification, only glucan synthase is represented, but chitin synthase is active at the same time and at the same location as glucan synthase. Linear chains of glucan are modified by both branching and cross-linking enzymes.

Citation: Mouyna I, Fontaine T. 2009. Cell Wall of : a Dynamic Structure, p 169-183. In Latgé J, Steinbach W (ed), and Aspergillosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815523.ch14
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Polysaccharidic composition of the mycelium and conidial cell wall

Citation: Mouyna I, Fontaine T. 2009. Cell Wall of : a Dynamic Structure, p 169-183. In Latgé J, Steinbach W (ed), and Aspergillosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815523.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Enzymes associated with synthesis of the mycelium and conidial cell wall in

Citation: Mouyna I, Fontaine T. 2009. Cell Wall of : a Dynamic Structure, p 169-183. In Latgé J, Steinbach W (ed), and Aspergillosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815523.ch14

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