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Chapter 38 : Invasive Aspergillosis in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients
Category: Clinical Microbiology; Fungi and Fungal Pathogenesis
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This chapter discusses the current status and evolving trends in the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic laboratory assays, and the approach to antifungal prophylaxis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis in Solid Organ Transplant (SOT) recipients. Most invasive fungal infections in these high-risk patients occur within the first month posttransplant; the median time to onset of invasive aspergillosis after renal replacement therapy and retransplantation was 13 and 28 days, respectively, in one study. Other factors associated with invasive aspergillosis in liver transplant recipients include transplantation for fulminate hepatic failure, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, and prolonged intensive care unit stay. A retrospective survey documented invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in 7.5% (19/251) of lung transplant recipients, of whom 47% (9/19) had disseminated aspergillosis. In a survey of antifungal prophylactic strategies in lung transplant units in the United States, aerosolized amphotericin B was the most frequently employed antifungal prophylactic agent. In order of preference, the prophylactic agents used in lung transplant centers in this study were inhaled amphotericin B (61%), itraconazole (46%), parenteral amphotericin formulations (25%), and fluconazole (21%); many centers used more than one agent. Preemptive therapy, where antifungal prophylaxis is directed towards lung transplant recipients colonized with Aspergillus spp. immediately before or within 6 to 9 months after transplantation, is another approach to the prevention of invasive aspergillosis in lung transplant recipients.
Epidemiologic characteristics of invasive aspergillosis in transplant recipients a
Risk factors for invasive aspergillosis in organ transplant recipients a
Performance characteristics of the Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme immunoassay in studies in SOT recipients a
Proposed treatment of invasive aspergillosis in organ transplant recipients a
Outcomes with the newer triazoles, echinocandins, and lipid formulations of amphotericin B as treatment for invasive aspergillosis in organ transplant recipients a