Chapter 3 : The Mycobacteria: a Postgenomic View

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

The Mycobacteria: a Postgenomic View, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815530/9781555814519_Chap03-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815530/9781555814519_Chap03-2.gif


This chapter focuses on insights gained from genome exploration and functional analyses. It provides an overview of the evolution and of the infection strategies used by pathogenic mycobacteria and how this information may be useful for developing new insights into disease control. The importance of molecular characterization of strains was also shown in a recent microarray analysis of a large number of epidemiologically well-defined isolates from San Francisco. One of the key findings of the sequence analysis was that differs radically from other bacteria in that approximately 10% of its coding capacity is dedicated to genes encoding proteins that are involved in lipid metabolism, both biosynthetic activities and lipolytic functions. The genes encoding the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters occupy about 2.5% of the genome of . These multi-subunit permeases, which transport various molecules like ions, amino acids, peptides, antibiotics, polysaccharides, and proteins across biological membranes, are classified as importers and exporters. The current bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is efficient in the protection against tuberculosis (TB) meningitis, but it often provides only minor protection against pulmonary TB, the prevalent form in adults. The availability of genome sequences from several mycobacterial species provides the principal resource for researchers to explore their pathogenic life cycle and evolution.

Citation: de Jonge M, Stinear T, Cole S, Brosch R. 2007. The Mycobacteria: a Postgenomic View, p 49-89. In Pallen M, Nelson K, Preston G (ed), Bacterial Pathogenomics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815530.ch3

Key Concept Ranking

Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

DNA sequence comparison of K-10 H37Rv M, and Agy99 using the Artemis Comparison Tool (ACT) ( ). Regions shown in light gray indicate similar genomic organization, whereas regions shown in dark gray represent genomic inversions.

Citation: de Jonge M, Stinear T, Cole S, Brosch R. 2007. The Mycobacteria: a Postgenomic View, p 49-89. In Pallen M, Nelson K, Preston G (ed), Bacterial Pathogenomics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815530.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Bacterial factors described in this chapter that contribute to the pathogenicity of

Citation: de Jonge M, Stinear T, Cole S, Brosch R. 2007. The Mycobacteria: a Postgenomic View, p 49-89. In Pallen M, Nelson K, Preston G (ed), Bacterial Pathogenomics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815530.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Ahmad, S.,, S. El-Shazly,, A. S. Mustafa, and, R. Al-Attiyah. 2004. Mammalian cell-entry proteins encoded by the mce3 operon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are expressed during natural infection in humans. Scand. J. Immunol. 60:382391.
2. Alcais, A.,, C. Fieschi,, L. Abel, and, J. L. Casanova. 2005. Tuberculosis in children and adults: two distinct genetic diseases. J. Exp. Med. 202:16171621.
3. Alderwick, L. J.,, V. Molle,, L. Kremer,, A. J. Cozzone,, T. R. Dafforn,, G. S. Besra, and, K. Futterer. 2006. Molecular structure of EmbR, a response element of Ser/Thr kinase signaling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:25582563.
4. Alzari, P. M. 2004. First structural glimpse at a bacterial Ser/Thr protein phosphatase. Structure 12:19231924.
5. Andersen, P.,, M. E. Munk,, J. M. Pollock, and, T. M. Doherty. 2000. Specific immune-based diagnosis of tuberculosis. Lancet 356:10991104.
6. Andries, K.,, P. Verhasselt,, J. Guillemont,, H. W. Gohlmann,, J. M. Neefs,, H. Winkler,, J. Van Gestel,, P. Timmerman,, M. Zhu,, E. Lee,, P. Williams,, D. de Chaffoy,, E. Huitric,, S. Hoffner,, E. Cambau,, C. Truffot-Pernot,, N. Lounis, and, V. Jarlier. 2005. A diarylquinoline drug active on the ATP synthase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Science 307:223227.
7. Anonymous. 1998. Elimination of leprosy as a public health problem (update). Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 73:308312.
8. Anonymous. 1998. Proceedings of the International Conference on Buruli Ulcer Control and Research. Yamoussoukro, Cote d’Ivoire.
9. Arruda, S.,, G. Bomfim,, R. Knights,, T. Huima-Byron, and, L.W. Riley. 1993. Cloning of an M. tuberculosis DNA fragment associated with entry and survival inside cells. Science 261:14541457.
10. Astarie-Dequeker, C.,, E. N. N’Diaye,, V. Le Cabec,, M. G. Rittig,, J. Prandi, and, I. Maridonneau-Parini. 1999. The mannose receptor mediates uptake of pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria and bypasses bactericidal responses in human macrophages. Infect. Immun. 67:469477.
11. Av-Gay, Y., and, M. Everett. 2000. The eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr protein kinases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Trends Microbiol. 8:238244.
12. Banu, S.,, S. V. Gordon,, S. Palmer,, R. Islam,, S. Ahmed,, K. M. Alam,, S. T. Cole, and, R. Brosch. 2004. Genotypic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bangladesh and prevalence of the Beijing strain. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:674682.
13. Banu, S.,, N. Honore,, B. Saint-Joanis,, D. Philpott,, M. C. Prevost, and, S.T. Cole. 2002. Are the PE-PGRS proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis variable surface antigens? Mol. Microbiol. 44:919.
14. Batoni, G.,, D. Bottai,, G. Maisetta,, M. Pardini,, A. Boschi,, W. Florio,, S. Esin, and, M. Campa. 2001. Involvement of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis secreted antigen SA-5K in intracellular survival of recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 205:125129.
15. Benowitz, A. B.,, S. Fidanze,, P. L. Small, and, Y. Kishi. 2001. Stereochemistry of the core structure of the mycolactones. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123:51285129.
16. Berks, B. C.,, F. Sargent, and, T. Palmer. 2000. The Tat protein export pathway. Mol. Microbiol. 35:260274.
17. Bermudez, L. E., and, J. Goodman. 1996. Mycobacterium tuberculosis invades and replicates within type II alveolar cells. Infect. Immun. 64:14001406.
18. Berthet, F. X.,, M. Lagranderie,, P. Gounon,, C. Laurent-Winter,, D. Ensergueix,, P. Chavarot,, F. Thouron,, E. Maranghi,, V. Pelicic,, D. Portnoi,, G. Marchal, and, B. Gicquel. 1998. Attenuation of virulence by disruption of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis erp gene. Science 282:759762.
19. Boitel, B.,, M. Ortiz-Lombardia,, R. Duran,, F. Pompeo,, S. T. Cole,, C. Cervenansky, and, P. M. Alzari. 2003. PknB kinase activity is regulated by phosphorylation in two Thr residues and dephosphorylation by PstP, the cognate phosphoSer/Thr phosphatase, in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mol. Microbiol. 49:14931508.
20. Bottai, D.,, S. Esin,, G. Batoni,, M. Pardini,, G. Maisetta,, V. Donati,, F. Favilli,, W. Florio, and, M. Campa. 2005. Disruption of the gene encoding for secretion antigen SA5K affects growth of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin in human macrophages and in mice. Res. Microbiol. 156:393402.
21. Braden, C. R.,, G. P. Morlock,, C. L. Woodley,, K. R. Johnson,, A. C. Colombel,, M. D. Cave,, Z. Yang,, S. E. Valway,, I. M. Onorato, and, J.T. Crawford. 2001. Simultaneous infection with multiple strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:e42e47.
22. Braibant, M.,, P. Gilot, and, J. Content. 2000. The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 24:449467.
23. Brandt, L.,, Y. A. Skeiky,, M. R. Alderson,, Y. Lobet,, W. Dalemans,, O. C. Turner,, R. J. Basaraba,, A. A. Izzo,, T. M. Lasco,, P. L. Chapman,, S. G. Reed, and, I. M. Orme. 2004. The protective effect of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine is increased by coadministration with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 72-kilodalton fusion polyprotein Mtb72F in M. tuberculosis–infected guinea pigs. Infect. Immun. 72:66226632.
24. Braunstein, M.,, S. S. Bardarov, and, W. R. Jacobs, Jr. 2002. Genetic methods for deciphering virulence determinants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods Enzymol. 358:6799.
25. Braunstein, M.,, A. M. Brown,, S. Kurtz, and, W. R. Jacobs, Jr. 2001. Two nonredundant SecA homologues function in mycobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 183:69796990.
26. Braunstein, M.,, B. J. Espinosa,, J. Chan,, J. T. Belisle, and, W. R. Jacobs, Jr. 2003. SecA2 functions in the secretion of superoxide dismutase A and in the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mol. Microbiol. 48:453464.
27. Brennan, M. J., and, G. Delogu. 2002. The PE multigene family: a “molecular mantra” for mycobacteria. Trends Microbiol. 10:246249.
28. Brennan, M. J.,, G. Delogu,, Y. Chen,, S. Bardarov,, J. Kriakov,, M. Alavi, and, W. R. Jacobs, Jr. 2001. Evidence that mycobacterial PE_PGRS proteins are cell surface constituents that influence interactions with other cells. Infect. Immun. 69:73267333.
29. Brodin, P.,, M. I. de Jonge,, L. Majlessi,, C. Leclerc,, M. Nilges,, S. T. Cole, and, R. Brosch. 2005. Functional analysis of early secreted antigenic target-6, the dominant T-cell antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, reveals key residues involved in secretion, complex formation, virulence, and immunogenicity. J. Biol. Chem. 280:3395333959.
30. Brodin, P.,, K. Eiglmeier,, M. Marmiesse,, A. Billault,, T. Garnier,, S. Niemann,, S. T. Cole, and, R. Brosch. 2002. Bacterial artificial chromosome-based comparative genomic analysis identifies Mycobacterium microti as a natural ESAT-6 deletion mutant. Infect. Immun. 70:55685578.
31. Brodin, P.,, L. Majlessi,, L. Marsollier,, M. I. de Jonge,, D. Bottai,, C. Demangel,, J. Hinds,, O. Neyrolles,, P. D. Butcher,, C. Leclerc,, S. T. Cole, and, R. Brosch. 2006. Dissection of ESAT-6 system 1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and impact on immunogenicity and virulence. Infect. Immun. 74:8898.
32. Brodin, P.,, I. Rosenkrands,, P. Andersen,, S. T. Cole, and, R. Brosch. 2004. ESAT-6 proteins: protective antigens and virulence factors? Trends Microbiol. 12:500508.
33. Brosch, R.,, S. V. Gordon,, K. Eiglmeier,, T. Garnier, and, S.T. Cole. 2000. Comparative genomics of the leprosy and tubercle bacilli. Res. Microbiol. 151:135142.
34. Brosch, R.,, S. V. Gordon,, M. Marmiesse,, P. Brodin,, C. Buchrieser,, K. Eiglmeier,, T. Garnier,, C. Gutierrez,, G. Hewinson,, K. Kremer,, L. M. Parsons,, A. S. Pym,, S. Samper,, D. van Soolingen, and, S. T. Cole. 2002. A new evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:36843689.
35. Brosch, R.,, S. V. Gordon,, A. Pym,, K. Eiglmeier,, T. Garnier, and, S. T. Cole. 2000. Comparative genomics of the mycobacteria. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 290:143152.
36. Brown, G. D.,, J. A. Dave,, N. C. Gey van Pittius,, L. Stevens,, M. R. Ehlers, and, A. D. Beyers. 2000. The mycosins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv: a family of subtilisin-like serine proteases. Gene 254:147155.
37. Bryk, R.,, C. D. Lima,, H. Erdjument-Bromage,, P. Tempst, and, C. Nathan. 2002. Metabolic enzymes of mycobacteria linked to antioxidant defense by a thioredoxin-like protein. Science 295:10731077.
38. Camacho, L. R.,, D. Ensergueix,, E. Perez,, B. Gicquel, and, C. Guilhot. 1999. Identification of a virulence gene cluster of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis. Mol. Microbiol. 34:257267.
39. Cameron, R. M.,, K. Stevenson,, N. F. Inglis,, J. Klausen, and, J. M. Sharp. 1994. Identification and characterization of a putative serine protease expressed in vivo by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Microbiology 140:19771982.
40. Camus, J. C.,, M. J. Pryor,, C. Medigue, and, S. T. Cole. 2002. Re-annotation of the genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Microbiology 148:29672973.
41. Canneva, F.,, M. Branzoni,, G. Riccardi,, R. Provvedi, and, A. Milano. 2005. Rv2358 and FurB: two transcriptional regulators from Mycobacterium tuberculosis which respond to zinc. J. Bacteriol. 187:58375840.
42. Card, G. L.,, N. A. Peterson,, C. A. Smith,, B. Rupp,, B. M. Schick, and, E. N. Baker. 2005. The crystal structure of Rv1347c, a putative antibiotic resistance protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, reveals a GCN5-related fold and suggests an alternative function in siderophore biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 280:1397813986.
43. Carver, T. J.,, K. M. Rutherford,, M. Berriman,, M. A. Rajandream,, B. G. Barrell, and, J. Parkhill. 2005. ACT: the Artemis Comparison Tool. Bioinformatics 21:34223423.
44. Cazalet, C.,, C. Rusniok,, H. Bruggemann,, N. Zidane,, A. Magnier,, L. Ma,, M. Tichit,, S. Jarraud,, C. Bouchier,, F. Vandenesch,, F. Kunst,, J. Etienne,, P. Glaser, and, C. Buchrieser. 2004. Evidence in the Legionella pneumophila genome for exploitation of host cell functions and high genome plasticity. Nat. Genet. 36:11651173.
45. Chan, E. D.,, J. Chan, and, N. W. Schluger. 2001. What is the role of nitric oxide in murine and human host defense against tuberculosis? Current knowledge. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 25:606612.
46. Chen, L.,, Q. W. Xie, and, C. Nathan. 1998. Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C (AhpC) protects bacterial and human cells against reactive nitrogen intermediates. Mol. Cell 1:795805.
47. Chitale, S.,, S. Ehrt,, I. Kawamura,, T. Fujimura,, N. Shimono,, N. Anand,, S. Lu,, L. Cohen-Gould, and, L.W. Riley. 2001. Recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein associated with mammalian cell entry. Cell Microbiol. 3:247254.
48. Chopra, P.,, B. Singh,, R. Singh,, R. Vohra,, A. Koul,, L. S. Meena,, H. Koduri,, M. Ghildiyal,, P. Deol,, T. K. Das,, A. K. Tyagi, and, Y. Singh. 2003. Phosphoprotein phosphatase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis dephosphorylates serine-threo-nine kinases PknA and PknB. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 311:112120.
49. Cociorva, O. M.,, S. S. Gurcha,, G. S. Besra, and, T. L. Lowary. 2005. Oligosaccharides as inhibitors of mycobacterial arabinosyltransferases. Di- and trisaccharides containing C-3 modified arabinofuranosyl residues. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 13:13691379.
50. Cole, S. T.,, R. Brosch,, J. Parkhill,, T. Garnier,, C. Churcher,, D. Harris,, S. V. Gordon,, K. Eiglmeier,, S. Gas,, C. E. Barry III,, F. Tekaia,, K. Badcock,, D. Basham,, D. Brown,, T. Chill-ingworth,, R. Connor,, R. Davies,, K. Devlin,, T. Feltwell,, S. Gentles,, N. Hamlin,, S. Holroyd,, T. Hornsby,, K. Jagels,, A. Krogh,, A. McLean,, S. Moule,, L. Murphy,, K. Oliver,, J. Osborne,, M. A. Quail,, M.-A. Rajandream,, J. Rogers,, S. Rutter,, K. Seeger,, J. Skelton,, R. Squares,, S. Squares,, J. E. Sulston,, K. Taylor,, S. Whitehead, and, B. G. Barrell. 1998. Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence. Nature 393:537544.
51. Cole, S. T.,, K. Eiglmeier,, J. Parkhill,, K. D. James,, N. R. Thomson,, P. R. Wheeler,, N. Honore,, T. Garnier,, C. Churcher,, D. Harris,, K. Mungall,, D. Basham,, D. Brown,, T. Chill-ingworth,, R. Connor,, R. M. Davies,, K. Devlin,, S. Duthoy,, T. Feltwell,, A. Fraser,, N. Hamlin,, S. Holroyd,, T. Hornsby,, K. Jagels,, C. Lacroix,, J. Maclean,, S. Moule,, L. Murphy,, K. Oliver,, M. A. Quail,, M. A. Rajandream,, K. M. Rutherford,, S. Rutter,, K. Seeger,, S. Simon,, M. Simmonds,, J. Skelton,, R. Squares,, S. Squares,, K. Stevens,, K. Taylor,, S. White-head,, J. R. Woodward, and, B. G. Barrell. 2001. Massive gene decay in the leprosy bacillus. Nature 409:10071011.
52. Constant, P.,, E. Perez,, W. Malaga,, M. A. Laneelle,, O. Saurel,, M. Daffe, and, C. Guilhot. 2002. Role of the pks15/1 gene in the biosynthesis of phenolglycolipids in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Evidence that all strains synthesize glycosylated p-hydroxybenzoic methyl esters and that strains devoid of phenolglycolipids harbor a frameshift mutation in the pks15/1 gene. J. Biol. Chem. 277:3814838158.
53. Converse, S. E., and, J. S. Cox. 2005. A protein secretion pathway critical for Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence is conserved and functional in Mycobacterium smegmatis. J. Bacteriol. 187:12381245.
54. Cooper, J. B.,, K. McIntyre,, M. O. Badasso,, S. P. Wood,, Y. Zhang,, T. R. Garbe, and, D. Young. 1995. X-ray structure analysis of the iron-dependent superoxide dismutase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis at 2.0 Angstroms resolution reveals novel dimer-dimer interactions. J. Mol. Biol. 246:531544.
55. Coutanceau, E.,, L. Marsollier,, R. Brosch,, E. Perret,, P. Goossens,, M. Tanguy,, S. T. Cole,, P. L. Small, and, C. Demangel. 2005. Modulation of the host immune response by a transient intracellular stage of Mycobacterium ulcerans: the contribution of endogenous mycolactone toxin. Cell Microbiol. 7:11871196.
56. Cox, J. S.,, B. Chen,, M. McNeil, and, W. R. Jacobs, Jr. 1999. Complex lipid determines tissue-specific replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice. Nature 402:7983.
57. Curry, J. M.,, R. Whalan,, D. M. Hunt,, K. Gohil,, M. Strom,, L. Rickman,, M. J. Colston,, S. J. Smerdon, and, R. S. Buxton. 2005. An ABC transporter containing a forkhead-associated domain interacts with a serine-threonine protein kinase and is required for growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice. Infect. Immun. 73:44714477.
58. Daffe, M. 2000. The mycobacterial antigens 85 complex—from structure to function and beyond. Trends Microbiol. 8:438440.
59. Darwin, K. H.,, S. Ehrt,, J. C. Gutierrez-Ramos,, N. Weich, and, C. F. Nathan. 2003. The proteasome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is required for resistance to nitric oxide. Science 302:19631966.
60. Darwin, K. H.,, G. Lin,, Z. Chen,, H. Li, and, C. F. Nathan. 2005. Characterization of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteasomal ATPase homo-logue. Mol. Microbiol. 55:561571.
61. Das, A. K.,, N. R. Helps,, P. T. Cohen, and, D. Barford. 1996. Crystal structure of the protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2C at 2.0 A resolution. EMBO J. 15:67986809.
62. Das, S.,, S. L. Chan,, B. W. Allen,, D. A. Mitchison, and, D. B. Lowrie. 1993. Application of DNA fingerprinting with IS986 to sequential mycobacterial isolates obtained from pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Hong-Kong before, during and after short-course chemotherapy. Tuber. Lung Dis. 74:4751.
63. Dasgupta, N.,, V. Kapur,, K. K. Singh,, T. K. Das,, S. Sachdeva,, K. Jyothisri, and, J. S. Tyagi. 2000. Characterization of a two-component system, devR-devS, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuber. Lung Dis. 80:141159.
64. Dave, J. A.,, N. C. Gey van Pittius,, A. D. Beyers,, M. R. Ehlers, and, G. D. Brown. 2002. Mycosin-1, a subtilisin-like serine protease of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is cell wall–associated and expressed during infection of macrophages. BMC Microbiol. 2:30.
65. De Voss, J. J.,, K. Rutter,, B. G. Schroeder,, H. Su,, Y. Zhu, and, C. E. Barry III. 2000. The salicylate-derived mycobactin siderophores of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are essential for growth in macrophages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:12521257.
66. Delogu, G., and, M. J. Brennan. 1999. Functional domains present in the mycobacterial hemagglutinin, HBHA. J. Bacteriol. 181:74647469.
67. DeRiemer, K.,, L. Garcia-Garcia,, M. Bobadilla-del-Valle,, M. Palacios-Martinez,, A. Martinez-Gamboa,, P. M. Small,, J. Sifuentes-Osornio, and, A. Ponce-de-Leon. 2005. Does DOTS work in populations with drug-resistant tuberculosis? Lancet 365:12391245.
68. Dilks, K.,, R. W. Rose,, E. Hartmann, and, M. Pohlschroder. 2003. Prokaryotic utilization of the twin-arginine translocation pathway: a genomic survey. J. Bacteriol. 185:14781483.
69. Doherty, T. M.,, A. Demissie,, J. Olobo,, D. Wolday,, S. Britton,, T. Eguale,, P. Ravn, and, P. Andersen. 2002. Immune responses to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis–specific antigen ESAT-6 signal subclinical infection among contacts of tuberculosis patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:704706.
70. Doherty, T. M.,, A. W. Olsen,, J. Weischenfeldt,, K. Huygen,, S. D’Souza,, T. K. Kondratieva,, V. V. Yeremeev,, A. S. Apt,, B. Raupach,, L. Grode,, S. Kaufmann, and, P. Andersen. 2004. Comparative analysis of different vaccine constructs expressing defined antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Infect. Dis. 190:21462153.
71. Domenech, P.,, M. B. Reed, and, C. E. Barry III. 2005. Contribution of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis MmpL protein family to virulence and drug resistance. Infect. Immun. 73:34923501.
72. Donoghue, H. D.,, M. Spigelman,, C. L. Greenblatt,, G. Lev-Maor,, G. K. Bar-Gal,, C. Matheson,, K. Vernon,, A. G. Nerlich, and, A. R. Zink. 2004. Tuberculosis: from prehistory to Robert Koch, as revealed by ancient DNA. Lancet Infect. Dis. 4:584592.
73. Drobniewski, F. A.,, M. Caws,, A. Gibson, and, D. Young. 2003. Modern laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis. Lancet Infect. Dis. 3:141147.
74. Dussurget, O.,, G. Stewart,, O. Neyrolles,, P. Pescher,, D. Young, and, G. Marchal. 2001. Role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis copper-zinc superoxide dismutase. Infect. Immun. 69:529533.
75. Dye, C. 2006. Global epidemiology of tuberculosis. Lancet 367:938940.
76. Edwards, K. M.,, M. H. Cynamon,, R. K. Voladri,, C. C. Hager,, M. S. DeStefano,, K. T. Tham,, D. L. Lakey,, M. R. Bochan, and, D. S. Kernodle. 2001. Iron-cofactored superoxide dismutase inhibits host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 164:22132219.
77. Espitia, C.,, J. P. Laclette,, M. Mondragon-Palomino,, A. Amador,, J. Campuzano,, A. Martens,, M. Singh,, R. Cicero,, Y. Zhang, and, C. Moreno. 1999. The PE-PGRS glycine-rich proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a new family of fibronectin-binding proteins? Microbiology 145:34873495.
78. Ewann, F.,, C. Locht, and, P. Supply. 2004. Intracellular autoregulation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PrrA response regulator. Microbiology 150:241246.
79. Fabre, M.,, J. L. Koeck,, P. Le Fleche,, F. Simon,, V. Herve,, G. Vergnaud, and, C. Pourcel. 2004. High genetic diversity revealed by variable-number tandem repeat genotyping and analysis of hsp65 gene polymorphism in a large collection of “Mycobacterium canettii” strains indicates that the M. tuberculosis complex is a recently emerged clone of “M. canettii.” J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:32483255.
80. Ferreras, J. A.,, J. S. Ryu,, F. Di Lello,, D. S. Tan, and, L. E. Quadri. 2005. Small-molecule inhibition of siderophore biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. Nat. Chem. Biol. 1:2932.
81. Fetherston, J. D.,, V. J. Bertolino, and, R. D. Perry. 1999. YbtP and YbtQ: two ABC transporters required for iron uptake in Yersinia pestis. Mol. Microbiol. 32:289299.
82. Filliol, I.,, J. R. Driscoll,, D. Van Soolingen,, B. N. Kreiswirth,, K. Kremer,, G. Valetudie,, D. D. Anh,, R. Barlow,, D. Banerjee,, P. J. Bifani,, K. Brudey,, A. Cataldi,, R. C. Cooksey,, D. V. Cousins,, J. W. Dale,, O. A. Dellagostin,, F. Drobniewski,, G. Engelmann,, S. Ferdinand,, D. Gascoyne-Binzi,, M. Gordon,, M. C. Gutierrez,, W. H. Haas,, H. Heersma,, G. Kallenius,, E. Kassa-Kelembho,, T. Koivula,, H. M. Ly,, A. Makristathis,, C. Mammina,, G. Martin,, P. Mostrom,, I. Mokrousov,, V. Narbonne,, O. Narvskaya,, A. Nastasi,, S. N. Niobe-Eyangoh,, J. W. Pape,, V. Rasolofo-Razanamparany,, M. Ridell,, M. L. Rossetti,, F. Stauffer,, P. N. Suffys,, H. Takiff,, J. Texier-Maugein,, V. Vincent,, J. H. De Waard,, C. Sola, and, N. Rastogi. 2002. Global distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis spoligotypes. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:13471349.
83. Filliol, I.,, A. S. Motiwala,, M. Cavatore,, W. Qi,, M. H. Hazbon,, M. Bobadilla del Valle,, J. Fyfe,, L. Garcia-Garcia,, N. Rastogi,, C. Sola,, T. Zozio,, M. I. Guerrero,, C. I. Leon,, J. Crabtree,, S. Angiuoli,, K. D. Eisenach,, R. Durmaz,, M. L. Joloba,, A. Rendon,, J. Sifuentes-Osornio,, A. Ponce de Leon,, M. D. Cave,, R. Fleischmann,, T. S. Whittam, and, D. Alland. 2006. Global phylogeny of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis: insights into tuberculosis evolution, phylogenetic accuracy of other DNA finger-printing systems, and recommendations for a minimal standard SNP set. J. Bacteriol. 188:759772.
84. Fine, P. E. M.,, I. A. M. Carneiro,, J. B. Milstein, and, C. J. Clements. 1999. Issues Relating to the Use of BCG in Immunization Programmes. A Discussion Document. Department of Vaccines and Biologicals. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
85. Fiss, E. H.,, S. Yu, and, W. R. Jacobs, Jr. 1994. Identification of genes involved in the sequestration of iron in mycobacteria: the ferric exochelin biosynthetic and uptake pathways. Mol. Microbiol. 14:557569.
86. Fleischmann, R. D.,, D. Alland,, J. A. Eisen,, L. Carpenter,, O. White,, J. Peterson,, R. DeBoy,, R. Dodson,, M. Gwinn,, D. Haft,, E. Hickey,, J. F. Kolonay,, W. C. Nelson,, L. A. Umayam,, M. Ermolaeva,, S. L. Salzberg,, A. Delcher,, T. Utterback,, J. Weidman,, H. Khouri,, J. Gill,, A. Mikula,, W. Bishai,, W. R. Jacobs,, Jr, J. C. Venter, and, C. M. Fraser. 2002. Whole-genome comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical and laboratory strains. J. Bacteriol. 184:54795490.
87. Flint, J. L.,, J. C. Kowalski,, P. K. Karnati, and, K. M. Derbyshire. 2004. The RD1 virulence locus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulates DNA transfer in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:1259812603.
88. Fortune, S. M.,, A. Jaeger,, D. A. Sarracino,, M. R. Chase,, C. M. Sassetti,, D. R. Sherman,, B. R. Bloom, and, E. J. Rubin. 2005. Mutually dependent secretion of proteins required for mycobacterial virulence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1067610681.
89. Gagneux, S.,, K. Deriemer,, T. Van,, M. Kato-Maeda,, B. C. de Jong,, S. Narayanan,, M. Nicol,, S. Niemann,, K. Kremer,, M. C. Gutierrez,, M. Hilty,, P. C. Hopewell, and, P. M. Small. 2006. Variable host-pathogen compatibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:28692873.
90. Gao, L. Y.,, S. Guo,, B. McLaughlin,, H. Morisaki,, J. N. Engel, and, E. J. Brown. 2004. A mycobacterial virulence gene cluster extending RD1 is required for cytolysis, bacterial spreading and ESAT-6 secretion. Mol. Microbiol. 53:16771693.
91. Garnier, T.,, K. Eiglmeier,, J. C. Camus,, N. Medina,, H. Mansoor,, M. Pryor,, S. Duthoy,, S. Grondin,, C. Lacroix,, C. Monsempe,, S. Simon,, B. Harris,, R. Atkin,, J. Doggett,, R. Mayes,, L. Keating,, P. R. Wheeler,, J. Parkhill,, B. G. Barrell,, S. T. Cole,, S. V. Gordon, and, R. G. Hewinson. 2003. The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:78777882.
92. Geijtenbeek, T. B.,, S. J. Van Vliet,, E. A. Koppel,, M. Sanchez-Hernandez,, C. M. Vanden-broucke-Grauls,, B. Appelmelk, and, Y. Van Kooyk. 2003. Mycobacteria target DC-SIGN to suppress dendritic cell function. J. Exp. Med. 197:717.
93. George, K. M.,, D. Chatterjee,, G. Gunawar-dana,, D. Welty,, J. Hayman,, R. Lee, and, P. L. Small. 1999. Mycolactone: a polyketide toxin from Mycobacterium ulcerans required for virulence. Science 283:854857.
94. Glickman, M. S.,, J. S. Cox, and, W. R. Jacobs, Jr. 2000. A novel mycolic acid cyclopropane synthetase is required for cording, persistence, and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mol. Cell 5:717727.
95. Gold, B.,, G. M. Rodriguez,, S. A. Marras,, M. Pentecost, and, I. Smith. 2001. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis IdeR is a dual functional regulator that controls transcription of genes involved in iron acquisition, iron storage and survival in macrophages. Mol. Microbiol. 42:851865.
96. Gonzalo Asensio, J.,, C. Maia,, N. L. Ferrer,, N. Barilone,, F. Laval,, C. Y. Soto,, N. Winter,, M. Daffe,, B. Gicquel,, C. Martin, and, M. Jackson. 2006. The virulence-associated two-component PhoP-PhoR system controls the biosynthesis of polyketide-derived lipids in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Biol. Chem. 281:13131316.
97. Good, M. C.,, A. E. Greenstein,, T. A. Young,, H. L. Ng, and, T. Alber. 2004. Sensor domain of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis receptor Ser/Thr protein kinase, PknD, forms a highly symmetric beta propeller. J. Mol. Biol. 339:459469.
98. Gordon, S. V.,, R. Brosch,, A. Billault,, T. Garnier,, K. Eiglmeier, and, S.T. Cole. 1999. Identification of variable regions in the genomes of tubercle bacilli using bacterial artificial chromo-some arrays. Mol. Microbiol. 32:643656.
99. Gordon, S. V.,, R. Brosch,, K. Eiglmeier,, T. Garnier,, R. G. Hewinson, and, S. T. Cole. 2002. Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Meeting at Manson House, London, 18th January 2001. Pathogen genomes and human health. Mycobacterial genomics. Trans R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 96:16.
100. Grode, L.,, P. Seiler,, S. Baumann,, J. Hess,, V. Brinkmann,, A. Nasser Eddine,, P. Mann,, C. Goosmann,, S. Bandermann,, D. Smith,, G. J. Bancroft,, J. M. Reyrat,, D. van Soolingen,, B. Raupach, and, S. H. Kaufmann. 2005. Increased vaccine efficacy against tuberculosis of recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin mutants that secrete listeriolysin. J. Clin. Invest. 115:24722479.
101. Group, K. P. T. 1996. Randomised controlled trial of single BCG, repeated BCG, or combined BCG and killed Mycobacterium leprae vaccine for prevention of leprosy and tuberculosis in Malawi. Karonga Prevention Trial Group. Lancet 348:1724.
102. Grundner, C.,, L. M. Gay, and, T. Alber. 2005. Mycobacterium tuberculosis serine/threonine kinases PknB, PknD, PknE, and PknF phosphory-late multiple FHA domains. Protein Sci. 14:19181921.
103. Guerin, M. E.,, A. Buschiazzo,, J. Kordulakova,, M. Jackson, and, P. M. Alzari. 2005. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of PimA, an essential mannosyltransferase from Mycobacterium smegmatis. Acta Crystal-lograph. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 61:518520.
104. Guimaraes, B. G.,, H. Souchon,, N. Honore,, B. Saint-Joanis,, R. Brosch,, W. Shepard,, S. T. Cole, and, P. M. Alzari. 2005. Structure and mechanism of the alkyl hydroperoxidase AhpC, a key element of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis defense system against oxidative stress. J. Biol. Chem. 280:2573525742.
105. Guinn, K. I.,, M. J. Hickey,, S. K. Mathur,, K. L. Zakel,, J. E. Grotzke,, D. M. Lewin-sohn,, S. Smith, and, D. R. Sherman. 2004. Individual RD1-region genes are required for export of ESAT-6/CFP-10 and for virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mol. Microbiol. 51:359370.
106. Gutierrez, M. C.,, S. Brisse,, R. Brosch,, M. Fabre,, B. Omais,, M. Marmiesse,, P. Supply, and, V. Vincent. 2005. Ancient origin and gene mosaicism of the progenitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 1:e5.
107. Haile, Y.,, D. A. Caugant,, G. Bjune, and, H. G. Wiker. 2002. Mycobacterium tuberculosis mammalian cell entry operon (mce) homologs in Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis (MOTT). FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 33:125132.
108. Harth, G.,, B. Y. Lee,, J. Wang,, D. L. Clemens, and, M. A. Horwitz. 1996. Novel insights into the genetics, biochemistry, and immunocyto-chemistry of the 30-kilodalton major extracellular protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect. Immun. 64:30383047.
109. Haworth, R.,, N. Platt,, S. Keshav,, D. Hughes,, E. Darley,, H. Suzuki,, Y. Kurihara,, T. Kodama, and, S. Gordon. 1997. The macrophage scavenger receptor type A is expressed by activated macrophages and protects the host against lethal endotoxic shock. J. Exp. Med. 186:14311439.
110. He, H.,, R. Hovey,, J. Kane,, V. Singh, and, T. C. Zahrt. 2006. MprAB is a stress-responsive two-component system that directly regulates expression of sigma factors SigB and SigE in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Bacteriol. 188:21342143.
111. He, H., and, T. C. Zahrt. 2005. Identification and characterization of a regulatory sequence recognized by Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence regulator MprA. J. Bacteriol. 187:202212.
112. Hensel, M.,, J. E. Shea,, C. Gleeson,, M. D. Jones,, E. Dalton, and, D. W. Holden. 1995. Simultaneous identification of bacterial virulence genes by negative selection. Science 269:400403.
113. Herrmann, J. L.,, P. O’Gaora,, A. Gallagher,, J. E. Thole, and, D. B. Young. 1996. Bacterial glycoproteins: a link between glycosylation and proteolytic cleavage of a 19 kDa antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. EMBO J. 15:35473554.
114. Heym, B.,, B. Saint-Joanis, and, S. T. Cole. 1999. The molecular basis of isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuber. Lung Dis. 79:267271.
115. Heym, B.,, E. Stavropoulos,, N. Honore,, P. Domenech,, B. Saint-Joanis,, T. M. Wilson,, D. M. Collins,, M. J. Colston, and, S.T. Cole. 1997. Effects of overexpression of the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase AhpC on the virulence and isoniazid resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect. Immun. 65:13951401.
116. Heym, B.,, Y. Zhang,, S. Poulet,, D. Young, and, S. T. Cole. 1993. Characterization of the katG gene encoding a catalase-peroxidase required for the isoniazid susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Bacteriol. 175:42554259.
117. Hirsh, A. E.,, A. G. Tsolaki,, K. DeRiemer,, M. W. Feldman, and, P. M. Small. 2004. Stable association between strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their human host populations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:48714876.
118. Hong, H.,, P. J. Gates,, J. Staunton,, T. Stinear,, S. T. Cole,, P. F. Leadlay, and, J. B. Spencer. 2003. Identification using LC-MSn of co-metabolites in the biosynthesis of the polyke-tide toxin mycolactone by a clinical isolate of Mycobacterium ulcerans. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 21 Nov:28222823.
119. Hong, H.,, J. B. Spencer,, J. L. Porter,, P. F. Leadlay, and, T. Stinear. 2005. A novel mycolactone from a clinical isolate of Mycobacterium ulcerans provides evidence for additional toxin heterogeneity as a result of specific changes in the modular polyketide synthase. Chembiochem 6:643648.
120. Horwitz, M. A., and, G. Harth. 2003. A new vaccine against tuberculosis affords greater survival after challenge than the current vaccine in the guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis. Infect. Immun. 71:16721679.
121. Hsu, T.,, S. M. Hingley-Wilson,, B. Chen,, M. Chen,, A. Z. Dai,, P. M. Morin,, C. B. Marks,, J. Padiyar,, C. Goulding,, M. Gingery,, D. Eisenberg,, R. G. Russell,, S. C. Derrick,, F. M. Collins,, S. L. Morris,, C. H. King, and, W. R. Jacobs, Jr. 2003. The primary mechanism of attenuation of bacillus Calmette-Guerin is a loss of secreted lytic function required for invasion of lung interstitial tissue. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:1242012425.
122. Hughes, A. L.,, R. Friedman, and, M. Murray. 2002. Genomewide pattern of synonymous nucleotide substitution in two complete genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:13421346.
123. Jacobs, W. R., Jr.,, G.V. Kalpana,, J. D. Cirillo,, L. Pascopella,, S. B. Snapper,, R. A. Udani,, W. Jones,, R. G. Barletta, and, B. R. Bloom. 1991. Genetic systems for mycobacteria. Methods Enzymol. 204:537555.
124. Jain, M., and, J. S. Cox. 2005. Interaction between polyketide synthase and transporter suggests coupled synthesis and export of virulence lipid in M. tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 1:e2.
125. Jeffers, S. A.,, S. M. Tusell,, L. Gillim-Ross,, E. M. Hemmila,, J. E. Achenbach,, G. J. Babcock,, W. D. Thomas, Jr.,, L. B. Thackray,, M. D. Young,, R. J. Mason,, D. M. Ambrosino,, D. E. Wentworth,, J. C. Demartini, and, K.V. Holmes. 2004. CD209L (L-SIGN) is a receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:1574815753.
126. Johansen, K. A.,, R. E. Gill, and, M. L. Vasil. 1996. Biochemical and molecular analysis of phospholipase C and phospholipase D activity in mycobacteria. Infect. Immun. 64:32593266.
127. Johnson, P. D.,, T. Stinear,, P. L. Small,, G. Pluschke,, R. W. Merritt,, F. Portaels,, K. Huygen,, J. A. Hayman, and, K. Asiedu. 2005. Buruli ulcer (M. ulcerans infection): new insights, new hope for disease control. PLoS Med. 2:e108.
128. Kamerbeek, J.,, L. Schouls,, A. Kolk,, M. van Agterveld,, D. van Soolingen,, S. Kuijper,, A. Bunschoten,, H. Molhuizen,, R. Shaw,, M. Goyal, and, J. van Embden. 1997. Simultaneous detection and strain differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for diagnosis and epidemiology. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:907914.
129. Kang, C. M.,, D. W. Abbott,, S. T. Park,, C. C. Dascher,, L. C. Cantley, and, R. N. Husson. 2005. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis serine/threonine kinases PknA and PknB: substrate identification and regulation of cell shape. Genes Dev. 19:16921704.
130. Kaufmann, S. H. 2001. How can immunology contribute to the control of tuberculosis? Nat. Rev. Immunol. 1:2030.
131. Keane, J. 2005. TNF-blocking agents and tuberculosis: new drugs illuminate an old topic. Rheumatology (Oxford) 44:714720.
132. Kong, Y.,, M. D. Cave,, D. Yang,, L. Zhang,, C. F. Marrs,, B. Foxman,, J. H. Bates,, F. Wilson,, L. N. Mukasa, and, Z. H. Yang. 2005. Distribution of insertion- and deletion-associated genetic polymorphisms among four Mycobacterium tuberculosis phospholipase C genes and associations with extrathoracic tuberculosis: a population-based study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:60486053.
133. Koppel, E. A.,, K. P. van Gisbergen,, T. B. Geijtenbeek, and, Y. van Kooyk. 2005. Distinct functions of DC-SIGN and its homologues L-SIGN (DC-SIGNR) and mSIGNR1 in pathogen recognition and immune regulation. Cell. Microbiol. 7:157165.
134. Kordulakova, J.,, M. Gilleron,, K. Mikusova,, G. Puzo,, P. J. Brennan,, B. Gicquel, and, M. Jackson. 2002. Definition of the first mannosylation step in phosphatidylinositol mannoside synthesis. PimA is essential for growth of mycobacteria. J. Biol. Chem. 277:3133531344.
135. Koshkin, A.,, X. T. Zhou,, C. N. Kraus,, J. M. Brenner,, P. Bandyopadhyay,, I. D. Kuntz,, C. E. Barry III, and, P. R. Ortiz de Montellano. 2004. Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis AhpD, an element of the peroxiredoxin defense against oxidative stress. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:24242430.
136. Koul, A.,, A. Choidas,, M. Treder,, A. K. Tyagi,, K. Drlica,, Y. Singh, and, A. Ullrich. 2000. Cloning and characterization of secretory tyro-sine phosphatases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Bacteriol. 182:54255432.
137. Krithika, R.,, U. Marathe,, P. Saxena,, M. Z. Ansari,, D. Mohanty, and, R. S. Gokhale. 2006. A genetic locus required for iron acquisition in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:20692074.
138. Kumar, A.,, M. Bose, and, V. Brahmachari. 2003. Analysis of expression profile of mammalian cell entry (mce) operons of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect. Immun. 71:60836087.
139. Kusunose, E.,, K. Ichihara,, Y. Noda, and, M. Kusunose. 1976. Superoxide dismutase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 80:13431352.
140. Lalvani, A.,, A. A. Pathan,, H. Durkan,, K. A. Wilkinson,, A. Whelan,, J. J. Deeks,, W. H. Reece,, M. Latif,, G. Pasvol, and, A. V. Hill. 2001. Enhanced contact tracing and spatial tracking of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by enumeration of antigen-specific T cells. Lancet 357:20172021.
141. Lamichhane, G.,, M. Zignol,, N. J. Blades,, D. E. Geiman,, A. Dougherty,, J. Grosset,, K. W. Broman, and, W. R. Bishai. 2003. A postgenomic method for predicting essential genes at subsaturation levels of mutagenesis: application to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:72137218.
142. Lewis, K. N.,, R. Liao,, K. M. Guinn,, M. J. Hickey,, S. Smith,, M. A. Behr, and, D. R. Sherman. 2003. Deletion of RD1 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis mimics bacille Calmette-Guerin attenuation. J. Infect. Dis. 187:117123.
143. Li, L.,, J. P. Bannantine,, Q. Zhang,, A. Amonsin,, B. J. May,, D. Alt,, N. Banerji,, S. Kanjilal, and, V. Kapur. 2005. The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium sub-species paratuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1234412349.
144. Li, Z.,, C. Kelley,, F. Collins,, D. Rouse, and, S. Morris. 1998. Expression of katG in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is associated with its growth and persistence in mice and guinea pigs. J. Infect. Dis. 177:10301035.
145. Lin, T. W.,, M. M. Melgar,, D. Kurth,, S. J. Swamidass,, J. Purdon,, T. Tseng,, G. Gago,, P. Baldi,, H. Gramajo, and, S. C. Tsai. 2006. Structure-based inhibitor design of AccD5, an essential acyl-CoA carboxylase carboxyltransferase domain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:30723077.
146. Locht, C.,, J. M. Hougardy,, C. Rouanet,, S. Place, and, F. Mascart. 2006. Heparin-binding hemagglutinin, from an extrapulmonary dissemination factor to a powerful diagnostic and protective antigen against tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb.) 86:303309.
147. Lopez, B.,, D. Aguilar,, H. Orozco,, M. Burger,, C. Espitia,, V. Ritacco,, L. Barrera,, K. Kremer,, R. Hernandez-Pando,, K. Huygen, and, D. van Soolingen. 2003. A marked difference in pathogenesis and immune response induced by different Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 133:3037.
148. Luo, M.,, E. A. Fadeev, and, J. T. Groves. 2005. Mycobactin-mediated iron acquisition within macrophages. Nat. Chem. Biol. 1:149153.
149. MacCallum, P.,, J. Tolhurst,, G. Buckle, and, S. H. 1948. A new mycobacterial infection in man. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 60:93122.
150. MacGurn, J. A.,, S. Raghavan,, S. A. Stanley, and, J. S. Cox. 2005. A non-RD1 gene cluster is required for Snm secretion in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mol. Microbiol. 57:16531663.
151. MacMicking, J. D.,, R. J. North,, R. La-Course,, J. S. Mudgett,, S. K. Shah, and, C. F. Nathan. 1997. Identification of nitric oxide synthase as a protective locus against tuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:52435248.
152. Mahairas, G. G.,, P. J. Sabo,, M. J. Hickey,, D. C. Singh, and, C. K. Stover. 1996. Molecular analysis of genetic differences between Mycobacterium bovis BCG and virulent M. bovis. J. Bacteriol. 178:12741282.
153. Makinoshima, H., and, M. S. Glickman. 2005. Regulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell envelope composition and virulence by intramembrane proteolysis. Nature 436:406409.
154. Malaga, W.,, E. Perez, and, C. Guilhot. 2003. Production of unmarked mutations in mycobacteria using site-specific recombination. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 219:261268.
155. Manca, C.,, L. Tsenova,, A. Bergtold,, S. Freeman,, M. Tovey,, J. M. Musser,, C. E. Barry III,, V. H. Freedman, and, G. Kaplan. 2001. Virulence of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolate in mice is determined by failure to induce Th1 type immunity and is associated with induction of IFN-alpha/beta. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:57525757.
156. Manger, M.,, M. Scheck,, H. Prinz,, J. P. von Kries,, T. Langer,, K. Saxena,, H. Schwalbe,, A. Furstner,, J. Rademann, and, H. Waldmann. 2005. Discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase A (MptpA) inhibitors based on natural products and a fragment-based approach. Chembiochem 6:17491753.
157. Marmiesse, M.,, P. Brodin,, C. Buchrieser,, C. Gutierrez,, N. Simoes,, V. Vincent,, P. Glaser,, S. T. Cole, and, R. Brosch. 2004. Macro-array and bioinformatic analyses reveal mycobacterial “core” genes, variation in the ESAT-6 gene family and new phylogenetic markers for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Microbiology 150:483496.
158. Marsollier, L.,, J. Aubry,, E. Coutanceau,, J. P. Andre,, P. L. Small,, G. Milon,, P. Legras,, S. Guadagnini,, B. Carbonnelle, and, S.T. Cole. 2005. Colonization of the salivary glands of Naucoris cimicoides by Mycobacterium ulcerans requires host plasmatocytes and a macrolide toxin, mycolactone. Cell. Microbiol. 7:935943.
159. Marsollier, L.,, R. Robert,, J. Aubry,, J. P. Saint Andre,, H. Kouakou,, P. Legras,, A. L. Manceau,, C. Mahaza, and, B. Carbonnelle. 2002. Aquatic insects as a vector for Mycobacterium ulcerans. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:46234628.
160. Martin, C.,, A. Williams,, R. Hernandez-Pando,, P. J. Cardona,, E. Gormley,, Y. Bordat,, C. Y. Soto,, S. O. Clark,, G. J. Hatch,, D. Aguilar,, V. Ausina, and, B. Gicquel. 2006. The live Mycobacterium tuberculosis phoP mutant strain is more attenuated than BCG and confers protective immunity against tuberculosis in mice and guinea pigs. Vaccine 24:34083419.
161. Master, S. S.,, B. Springer,, P. Sander,, E. C. Boettger,, V. Deretic, and, G. S. Timmins. 2002. Oxidative stress response genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: role of ahpC in resistance to peroxynitrite and stage-specific survival in macrophages. Microbiology 148:31393144.
162. Matthysse, A. G.,, H. A. Yarnall, and, N. Young. 1996. Requirement for genes with homology to ABC transport systems for attachment and virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 178:53025308.
163. McCarthy, T. R.,, J. B. Torrelles,, A. S. MacFarlane,, M. Katawczik,, B. Kutzbach,, L. E. Desjardin,, S. Clegg,, J. B. Goldberg, and, L. S. Schlesinger. 2005. Overexpression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis manB, a phosphomannomutase that increases phosphatidylinositol mannoside biosynthesis in Mycobacterium smegmatis and mycobacterial association with human macrophages. Mol. Microbiol. 58:774790.
164. McDonough, J. A.,, K. E. Hacker,, A. R. Flores,, M. S. Pavelka, Jr., and, M. Braunstein. 2005. The twin-arginine translocation pathway of Mycobacterium smegmatis is functional and required for the export of mycobacterial beta-lactamases. J. Bacteriol. 187:76677679.
165. McKinney, J. D.,, K. Honer zu Bentrup,, E. J. Munoz-Elias,, A. Miczak,, B. Chen,, W. T. Chan,, D. Swenson,, J. C. Sacchettini,, W. R. Jacobs, Jr., and, D. G. Russell. 2000. Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages and mice requires the glyoxylate shunt enzyme isocitrate lyase. Nature 406:735738.
166. McShane, H. 2004. Developing an improved vaccine against tuberculosis. Expert Rev. Vaccines 3:299306.
167. McShane, H., and, A. Hill. 2005. Prime-boost immunisation strategies for tuberculosis. Microbes Infect. 7:962967.
168. Meher, A. K.,, N. C. Bal,, K. V. Chary, and, A. Arora. 2006. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ESAT-6-CFP-10 complex formation confers thermodynamic and biochemical stability. FEBS J. 273:14451462.
169. Mehta, P. K.,, C. H. King,, E. H. White,, J. J. Murtagh, Jr., and, F. D. Quinn. 1996. Comparison of in vitro models for the study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis invasion and intracellular replication. Infect. Immun. 64:26732679.
170. Menozzi, F. D.,, R. Bischoff,, E. Fort,, M. J. Brennan, and, C. Locht. 1998. Molecular characterization of the mycobacterial heparin-binding hemagglutinin, a mycobacterial adhesin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:1262512630.
171. Menozzi, F. D.,, V. M. Reddy,, D. Cayet,, D. Raze,, A. S. Debrie,, M. P. Dehouck,, R. Cecchelli, and, C. Locht. 2006. Mycobacterium tuberculosis heparin-binding haemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) triggers receptor-mediated transcytosis without altering the integrity of tight junctions. Microbes Infect. 8:19.
172. Menozzi, F. D.,, J. H. Rouse,, M. Alavi,, M. Laude-Sharp,, J. Muller,, R. Bischoff,, M. J. Brennan, and, C. Locht. 1996. Identification of a heparin-binding hemagglutinin present in mycobacteria. J. Exp. Med. 184:9931001.
173. Misra, N.,, S. Habib,, A. Ranjan,, S. E. Hasnain, and, I. Nath. 1996. Expression and functional characterisation of the clpC gene of Mycobacterium leprae: ClpC protein elicits human antibody response. Gene 172:99104.
174. Monot, M.,, N. Honore,, T. Garnier,, R. Araoz,, J. Y. Coppee,, C. Lacroix,, S. Sow,, J. S. Spencer,, R. W. Truman,, D. L. Williams,, R. Gelber,, M. Virmond,, B. Flageul,, S. N. Cho,, B. Ji,, A. Paniz-Mondolfi,, J. Convit,, S. Young,, P. E. Fine,, V. Rasolofo,, P. J. Brennan, and, S. T. Cole. 2005. On the origin of leprosy. Science 308:10401042.
175. Mostowy, S.,, D. Cousins, and, M. A. Behr. 2004. Genomic interrogation of the dassie bacillus reveals it as a unique RD1 mutant within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. J. Bacteriol. 186:104109.
176. Mostowy, S.,, D. Cousins,, J. Brinkman,, A. Aranaz, and, M. A. Behr. 2002. Genomic deletions suggest a phylogeny for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. J. Infect. Dis. 186:7480.
177. Ng, V. H.,, J. S. Cox,, A. O. Sousa,, J. D. MacMicking, and, J. D. McKinney. 2004. Role of KatG catalase-peroxidase in mycobacterial pathogenesis: countering the phagocyte oxidative burst. Mol. Microbiol. 52:12911302.
178. Nigou, J.,, A. Vercellone, and, G. Puzo. 2000. New structural insights into the molecular deciphering of mycobacterial lipoglycan binding to C-type lectins: lipoarabinomannan glycoform characterization and quantification by capillary electrophoresis at the subnanomole level. J. Mol. Biol. 299:13531362.
179. Ohno, S. 1995. Active sites of ligands and their receptors are made of common peptides that are also found elsewhere. J. Mol. Evol. 40:102106.
180. Ortiz-Lombardia, M.,, F. Pompeo,, B. Boitel, and, P. M. Alzari. 2003. Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of the PknB serine/threo-nine kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Biol. Chem. 278:1309413100.
181. Pai, M.,, L. W. Riley, and, J. M. Colford, Jr. 2004. Interferon-gamma assays in the immuno-diagnosis of tuberculosis: a systematic review. Lancet Infect. Dis. 4:761776.
182. Palomino, J. C. 2005. Nonconventional and new methods in the diagnosis of tuberculosis: feasibility and applicability in the field. Eur. Respir. J. 26:339350.
183. Parish, T.,, D. A. Smith,, G. Roberts,, J. Betts, and, N. G. Stoker. 2003. The senX3-regX3 two-component regulatory system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is required for virulence. Micro-biology 149:14231435.
184. Parish, T., and, N. G. Stoker. 2000. Use of a flexible cassette method to generate a double unmarked Mycobacterium tuberculosis tlyA plcABC mutant by gene replacement. Microbiology 146:19691975.
185. Pavlic, M.,, F. Allerberger,, M. P. Dierich, and, W. M. Prodinger. 1999. Simultaneous infection with two drug-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in an immunocompetent host. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:41564157.
186. Pelicic, V.,, M. Jackson,, J. M.