1887

Chapter 4 : a Postgenomic View

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

a Postgenomic View, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815530/9781555814519_Chap04-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815530/9781555814519_Chap04-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter primarily focuses on the studies that have made use of the two published genome sequences. Potential silent cassettes were identified for and , suggesting that the proteins encoded by the expression loci of the genes can undergo antigenic variation by a similar mechanism to . Nitric oxide (NO) is released from macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and it is an intermediate in the denitrification of nitrite to nitrous oxide. Host neutrophils and macrophages commonly use superoxide radicals to eradicate bacteria after invasion of the host. Radicals generate strand breaks in DNA and RNA and affect fatty acid structure in the cell membranes. Three penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) were identified experimentally in the and were considered to be reasonably well established. The genes encoding the RTX-like proteins are scattered across the chromosome and are present in different allelic versions in different strains. One of the most extensively investigated regulatory proteins of the spp. is MtrR, which was first identified as a regulator of the expression of the MtrCDE and Far AB efflux pumps in . Through hybridization of chromosomal DNA, rather than cDNA, the presence of sequences within a strain of interest can be determined.

Citation: Snyder L, Jordan P, Saunders N. 2007. a Postgenomic View, p 90-119. In Pallen M, Nelson K, Preston G (ed), Bacterial Pathogenomics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815530.ch4

Key Concept Ranking

Type V Secretion Systems
0.4015145
0.4015145
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815530.ch04
1. Reference deleted.
2. Ait-Tahar, K.,, K. G. Wooldridge,, D. P. Turner,, M. Atta,, I. Todd, and, D. A. Ala’Aldeen. 2000. Auto-transporter A protein of Neisseria meningitidis: a potent CD4 T-cell and B-cell stimulating antigen detected by expression cloning. Mol. Microbiol. 37:10941105.
3. Ala’Aldeen, D. A.,, H. A. Davies, and, S. P. Borriello. 1994. Vaccine potential of meningococcal FrpB: studies on surface exposure and functional attributes of common epitopes. Vaccine 12:535541.
4. Anjum, M. F.,, T. M. Stevanin,, R. C. Read, and, J. W. B. Moir. 2002. Nitric oxide metabolism in Neisseria meningitidis. J. Bacteriol. 184:29872993.
5. Banerjee, A.,, R. Wang,, S. L. Supernavage,, S. K. Ghosh,, J. Parker,, N. F. Ganesh,, P. G. Wang,, S. Gulati, and, P.A. Rice. 2002. Implications of phase variation of a gene (pgtA) encoding a pilin galactosyl transferase in gonococcal pathogenesis. J. Exp. Med. 196:147162.
6. Barbour, A. G. 1981. Properties of penicillin-binding proteins in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 19:316322.
7. Bernardini, G.,, G. Renzone,, M. Comanducci,, R. Mini,, S. Arena,, C. D’Ambrosio,, S. Bambini,, L. Trabalzini,, G. Grandi,, P. Martelli,, M. Achtman,, A. Scaloni,, G. Ratti, and, A. Santucci. 2004. Proteome analysis of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A. Proteomics 4:28932926.
8. Bille, E.,, J. R. Zahar,, A. Perrin,, S. Morelle,, P. Kriz,, K. A. Jolley,, M. C. J. Maiden,, C. Dervin,, X. Nassif, and, C. R. Tinsley. 2005. A chromosomally integrated bacteriophage in invasive meningococci. J. Exp. Med. 201:19051913.
9. Binet, R.,, S. Letoffe,, J. M. Ghigo,, P. Delepelaire, and, C. Wandersman. 1997. Protein secretion by gram-negative bacterial ABC exporters—a review. Gene 192:711.
10. Black, C. G.,, J. A. Fyfe, and, J. K. Davies. 1995. A promoter associated with the neisserial repeat can be used to transcribe the uvrB gene from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 177:19521958.
11. Blondiau, C.,, P. Lagadec,, P. Lejeune,, N. Onier,, J. M. Cavaillon, and, J. F. Jeannin. 1994. Correlation between the capacity to activate macrophages in vitro and the antitumor activity in vivo of lipopolysaccharides from different bacterial species. Immunobiology 190:243254.
12. Brener, D.,, I. W. DeVoe, and, B. E. Holbein. 1981. Increased virulence of Neisseria meningitidis after in vitro iron-limited growth at low pH. Infect. Immun. 33:5966.
13. Buisine, N.,, C. M. Tang, and, R. Chalmers. 2002. Transposon-like Correia elements: structure, distribution and genetic exchange between pathogenic Neisseria sp. FEBS Lett. 522:5258.
14. Cantalupo, G.,, C. Bucci,, P. Salvatore,, C. Pagliarulo,, V. Roberti,, A. Lavitola,, C. B. Bruni, and, P. Alifano. 2001. Evolution and function of the neisserial dam-replacing gene. FEBS Lett. 495:178183.
15. Carson, S. D.,, P. E. Klebba,, S. M. Newton, and, P. F. Sparling. 1999. Ferric enterobactin binding and utilization by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 181:28952901.
16. Chanto, G.,, A. Occhialini,, N. Gras,, R. A. Alm,, F. Megraud, and, A. Marais. 2002. Identification of strain-specific genes located outside the plasticity zone in nine clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. Microbiology 148:36713680.
17. Comanducci, M.,, S. Bambini,, B. Brunelli,, J. Adu-Bobie,, B. Arico,, B. Capecchi,, M. M. Giuliani,, V. Masignani,, L. Santini,, S. Savino,, D. M. Granoff,, D. A. Caugant,, M. Pizza,, R. Rappuoli, and, M. Mora. 2002. NadA, a novel vaccine candidate of Neisseria meningitidis. J. Exp. Med. 195:14451454.
18. Cornelissen, C. N.,, G. D. Biswas,, J. Tsai,, D. K. Paruchuri,, S. A. Thompson, and, P. F. Sparling. 1992. Gonococcal transferrin-binding protein 1 is required for transferrin utilization and is homologous to TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors. J. Bacteriol. 174:57885797.
19. Correia, F. F.,, S. Inouye, and, M. Inouye. 1986. A 26-base-pair repetitive sequence specific for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis genomic DNA. J. Bacteriol. 167:10091015.
20. Correia, F. F.,, S. Inouye, and, M. Inouye. 1988. A family of small repeated elements with some transposon-like properties in the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Biol. Chem. 263:1219412198.
21. Cox, A. D.,, J. C. Wright,, J. J. Li,, D. W. Hood,, E. R. Moxon, and, J. C. Richards. 2003. Phosphorylation of the lipid a region of meningococcal lipopolysaccharide: identification of a family of transferases that add phosphoethanolamine to lipopolysaccharide. J. Bacteriol. 185:32703277.
22. Davidsen, T.,, E. A. Rodland,, K. Lagesen,, E. Seeberg,, T. Rognes, and, T. Tonjum. 2004. Biased distribution of DNA uptake sequences towards genome maintenance genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 32:10501058.
23. Deghmane, A. E.,, D. Giorgini,, M. Larribe,, J. M. Alonso, and, M. K. Taha. 2002. Down-regulation of pili and capsule of Neisseria meningitidis upon contact with epithelial cells is mediated by CrgA regulatory protein. Mol. Microbiol. 43:15551564.
24. Deghmane, A. E.,, M. Larribe,, D. Giorgini,, D. Sabino, and, M. K. Taha. 2003. Differential expression of genes that harbor a common regulatory element in Neisseria meningitidis upon contact with target cells. Infect. Immun. 71:28972901.
25. De Gregorio, E.,, C. Abrescia,, M. S. Carlo-magno, and, P. P. Di Nocera. 2003. Asymmetrical distribution of Neisseria miniature insertion sequence DNA repeats among pathogenic and nonpathogenic Neisseria strains. Infect. Immun. 71:42174221.
26. De Gregorio, E.,, C. Abrescia,, M. S. Carlo-magno, and, P. P. Di Nocera. 2003. Ribonuclease III–mediated processing of specific Neisseria meningitidis rnRNAs. Biochem. J. 374:799805.
27. Delany, I.,, R. Grifantini,, E. Bartolini,, R. Rappuoli, and, V. Scarlato. 2006. Effect of Neisseria meningitidis fur mutations on global control of gene transcription. J. Bacteriol. 188:24832492.
28. Delany, I.,, R. Rappuoli, and, V. Scarlato. 2004. Fur functions as an activator and as a repressor of putative virulence genes in Neisseria meningitidis. Mol. Microbiol. 52:10811090.
29. Dietrich, G.,, S. Kurz,, C. Hubner,, C. Aepinus,, S. Theiss,, M. Guckenberger,, U. Panzner,, J. Weber, and, M. Frosch. 2003. Transcriptome analysis of Neisseria meningitidis during infection. J. Bacteriol. 185:155164.
30. Dillard, J. P., and, H. S. Seifert. 2001. A variable genetic island specific for Neisseria gonorrhoeae is involved in providing DNA for natural transformation and is found more often in disseminated infection isolates. Mol. Microbiol. 41:263277.
31. Doerrler, W. T.,, M. C. Reedy, and, C. R. Raetz. 2001. An Escherichia coli mutant defective in lipid export. J. Biol. Chem. 276:1146111464.
32. Dorrell, N.,, J. A. Mangan,, K. G. Laing,, J. Hinds,, D. Linton,, H. Al-Ghusein,, B. G. Barrell,, J. Parkhill,, N. G. Stoker,, A. V. Karlyshev,, P. D. Butcher, and, B. W. Wren. 2001. Whole genome comparison of Campylobacter jejuni human isolates using a low-cost microarray reveals extensive genetic diversity. Genome Res. 11:17061715.
33. Dove, J. E.,, K. Yasukawa,, C. R. Tinsley, and, X. Nassif. 2003. Production of the signalling molecule, autoinducer-2, by Neisseria meningitidis: lack of evidence for a concerted transcriptional response. Microbiology 149:18591869.
34. Du, Y.,, J. Lenz, and, C. G. Arvidson. 2005. Global gene expression and the role of sigma factors in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in interactions with epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 73:48344845.
35. Ducey, T. F.,, M. B. Carson,, J. Orvis,, A. P. Stintzi, and, D. W. Dyer. 2005. Identification of the iron-responsive genes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by microarray analysis in defined medium. J. Bacteriol. 187:48654874.
36. Escolar, L.,, V. de Lorenzo, and, J. Perez-Martin. 1997. Metalloregulation in vitro of the aerobactin promoter of Escherichia coli by the Fur (ferric uptake regulation) protein. Mol. Microbiol. 26:799808.
37. Forman, S.,, I. Linhartova,, R. Osicka,, X. Nassif,, P. Sebo, and, V. Pelicic. 2003. Neisseria meningitidis RTX proteins are not required for virulence in infant rats. Infect. Immun. 71:22532257.
38. Francis, F.,, S. Ramirez-Arcos,, H. Salimnia,, C. Victor, and, J. A. R. Dillon. 2000. Organization and transcription of the division cell wall (dcw) cluster in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Gene 251:141151.
39. Gamian, A.,, M. Beurret,, F. Michon,, J. R. Brisson, and, H. J. Jennings. 1992. Structure of the L2 lipopolysaccharide core oligosaccharides of Neisseria meningitidis. J. Biol. Chem. 267:922925.
40. Garcia-Horsman, J. A.,, B. Barquera,, J. Rumbley,, J. Ma, and, R. B. Gennis. 1994. The super-family of heme-copper respiratory oxidases. J. Bacteriol. 176:55875600.
41. Giuliani, M. M.,, L. Santini,, B. Brunelli,, A. Biolchi,, B. Arico,, F. Di Marcello,, E. Cartocci,, M. Comanducci,, V. Masignani,, L. Lozzi,, S. Savino,, M. Scarselli,, R. Rappuoli, and, M. Pizza. 2005. The region comprising amino acids 100 to 255 of Neisseria meningitidis, lipoprotein GNA 1870 elicits bactericidal antibodies. Infect. Immun. 73:11511160.
42. Granoff, D. M.,, G. R. Moe,, M. A. Giuliani,, J. Adu-Bobie,, L. Santini,, B. Brunelli,, F. Piccinetti,, P. Zuno-Mitchell,, S. S. Lee,, P. Neri,, L. Bracci,, L. Lozzi, and, R. Rappuoli. 2001. A novel mimetic antigen eliciting protective antibody to Neisseria meningitidis. J. Immunol. 167:64876496.
43. Grifantini, R.,, E. Bartolini,, A. Muzzi,, M. Draghi,, E. Frigimelica,, J. Berger,, F. Randazzo, and, G. Grandi. 2002. Gene expression profile in Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica upon host-cell contact: from basic research to vaccine development. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 975:202216.
44. Grifantini, R.,, E. Bartolini,, A. Muzzi,, M. Draghi,, E. Frigimelica,, J. Berger,, G. Ratti,, R. Petracca,, G. Galli,, M. Agnusdei,, M. M. Giuliani,, L. Santini,, B. Brunelli,, H. Tettelin,, R. Rappuoli,, F. Randazzo, and, G. Grandi. 2002. Previously unrecognized vaccine candidates against group B meningococcus identified by DNA microarrays. Nat. Biotechnol. 20:914921.
45. Grifantini, R.,, E. Frigimelica,, I. Delany,, E. Bartolini,, S. Giovinazzi,, S. Balloni,, S. Agar-wal,, G. Galli,, C. Genco, and, G. Grandi. 2004. Characterization of a novel Neisseria meningitidis Fur and iron-regulated operon required for protection from oxidative stress: utility of DNA microarray in the assignment of the biological role of hypothetical genes. Mol. Microbiol. 54:962979.
46. Grifantini, R.,, S. Sebastian,, E. Frigimelica,, M. Draghi,, E. Bartolini,, A. Muzzi,, R. Rappuoli,, G. Grandi, and, C. A. Genco. 2003. Identification of iron-activated and -repressed Fur-dependent genes by transcriptome analysis of Neisseria meningitidis group B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:95429547.
47. Guckenberger, M.,, S. Kurz,, C. Aepinus,, S. Theiss,, S. Haller,, T. Leimbach,, U. Panzner,, J. Weber,, H. Paul,, A. Unkmeir,, M. Frosch, and, G. Dietrich. 2002. Analysis of the heat shock response of Neisseria meningitidis with cDNA- and oligonucleotide-based DNA microarrays. J. Bacteriol. 184:25462551.
48. Gunesekere, I. C.,, C. M. Kahler,, D. R. Powell,, L. A. S. Snyder,, N. J. Saunders,, J. I. Rood, and, J. K. Davies. 2006. Comparison of the RpoH-dependent regulon and general stress response in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 188:47694776.
49. Gunesekere, I. C.,, C. M. Kahler,, C. S. Ryan,, L. A. S. Snyder,, N. J. Saunders,, J. I. Rood, and, J. K. Davies. 2006. Ecf, an alternative sigma factor from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, controls expression of msrAB, which encodes methionine sulfoxide reductase. J. Bacteriol. 188:34633469.
50. Haas, R.,, S. Veit, and, T. F. Meyer. 1992. Silent pilin genes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae MS11 and the occurrence of related hypervariant sequences among other gonococcal isolates. Mol. Microbiol. 6:197208.
51. Hadi, H. A.,, K. G. Wooldridge,, K. Robinson, and, D. A. A. Ala’Aldeen. 2001. Identification and characterization of App: an immunogenic autotransporter protein of Neisseria meningitidis. Mol. Microbiol. 41:611623.
52. Hagman, K. E.,, W. Pan,, B. G. Spratt,, J. T. Balthazar,, R. C. Judd, and, W. M. Shafer. 1995. Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antimicrobial hydrophobic agents is modulated by the mtrRCDE efflux system. Microbiology 141(Pt 3):611622.
53. Hagman, K. E., and, W. M. Shafer. 1995. Transcriptional control of the mtr efflux system of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 177:41624165.
54. Hamilton, H. L.,, N. M. Dominguez,, K. J. Schwartz,, K. T. Hackett, and, J. P. Dillard. 2005. Neisseria gonorrhoeae secretes chromosomal DNA via a novel type IV secretion system. Mol. Microbiol. 55:17041721.
55. Henderson, I. R.,, F. Navarro-Garcia,, M. Desvaux,, R. C. Fernandez, and, D. Ala’Aldeen. 2004. Type V protein secretion pathway: the autotransporter story. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68:692744.
56. Herbert, M. A.,, C. J. Beveridge,, D. Mc-Cormick,, E. Aten,, N. Jones,, L. A. Snyder, and, N. J. Saunders. 2005. Genetic islands of Streptococcus agalactiae strains NEM316 and 2603. R and their presence in other group B streptococcal strains. BMC Microbiol. 5:31.
57. Hoang, L. M.,, E. Thomas,, S. Tyler,, A. J. Pollard,, G. Stephens,, L. Gustafson,, A. McNabb,, I. Pocock,, R. Tsang, and, R. Tan. 2005. Rapid and fatal meningococcal disease due to a strain of Neisseria meningitidis containing the capsule null locus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:e38e42.
58. Holbein, B. E.,, K. W. Jericho, and, G. C. Likes. 1979. Neisseria meningitidis infection in mice: influence of iron, variations in virulence among strains, and pathology. Infect. Immun. 24:545551.
59. Howell-Adams, B., and, H. S. Seifert. 1999. Insertion mutations in pilE differentially alter gonococcal pilin antigenic variation. J. Bacteriol. 181:61336141.
60. Howell-Adams, B., and, H. S. Seifert. 2000. Molecular models accounting for the gene conversion reactions mediating gonococcal pilin antigenic variation. Mol. Microbiol. 37:11461158.
61. Ieva, R.,, C. Alaimo,, I. Delany,, G. Spohn,, R. Rappuoli, and, V. Scarlato. 2005. CrgA is an inducible LysR-type regulator of Neisseria meningitidis, acting both as a repressor and as an activator of gene transcription. J. Bacteriol. 187:34213430.
62. Jacobsson, S.,, S. Thulin,, P. Molling,, M. Unemo,, M. Comanducci,, R. Rappuoli, and, P. Olcen. 2006. Sequence constancies and variations in genes encoding three new meningococcal vaccine candidate antigens. Vaccine 24:21612168.
63. Jennings, G. T.,, S. Savino,, E. Marchetti,, B. Arico,, T. Kast,, L. Baldi,, A. Ursinus,, J. V. Holtje,, R. A. Nicholas,, R. Rappuoli, and, G. Grandi. 2002. GNA33 from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B encodes a membrane-bound lytic transglycosylase (MltA). Eur. J. Biochem. 269:37223731.
64. Jonsson, A. B.,, G. Nyberg, and, S. Normark. 1991. Phase variation of gonococcal pili by frameshift mutation in pilC, a novel gene for pilus assembly. EMBO J. 10:477488.
65. Jordan, P.,, L. A. S. Snyder, and, N. J. Saunders. 2003. Diversity in coding tandem repeats in related Neisseria spp. BMC Microbiol. 3:23.
66. Jordan, P. W.,, L. A. S. Snyder, and, N. J. Saunders. 2005. Strain-specific differences in Neisseria gonorrhoeae associated with the phase variable gene repertoire. BMC Microbiol. 5:21.
67. Kahler, C. M.,, E. Blum,, Y. K. Miller,, D. Ryan,, T. Popovic, and, D. S. Stephens. 2001. exl, an exchangeable genetic island in Neisseria meningitidis. Infect. Immun. 69:16871696.
68. Kawai, M.,, I. Uchiyama, and, I. Kobayashi. 2006. Genome comparison in silico in Neisseria suggests integration of filamentous bacteriophages by their own transposase. DNA Res. 12:389401.
69. Klee, S. R.,, X. Nassif,, B. Kusecek,, P. Merker,, J. L. Beretti,, M. Achtman, and, C. R. Tinsley. 2000. Molecular and biological analysis of eight genetic islands that distinguish Neisseria meningitidis from the closely related pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infect. Immun. 68:20822095.
70. Kobayashi, N.,, K. Nishino, and, A. Yamaguchi. 2001. Novel macrolide-specific ABC-type efflux transporter in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 183:56395644.
71. Kogan, G.,, D. Uhrin,, J. R. Brisson, and, H. J. Jennings. 1997. Structural basis of the Neisseria meningitidis immunotypes including the L4 and L7 immunotypes. Carbohydr. Res. 298:191199.
72. Kulshin, V. A.,, U. Zahringer,, B. Lindner,, C. E. Frasch,, C. M. Tsai,, B. A. Dmitriev, and, E. T. Rietschel. 1992. Structural characterization of the lipid A component of pathogenic Neisseria meningitidis. J. Bacteriol. 174:17931800.
73. Kurz, S.,, C. Hubner,, C. Aepinus,, S. Theiss,, M. Guckenberger,, U. Panzner,, J. Weber,, M. Frosch, and, G. Dietrich. 2003. Transcriptome-based antigen identification for Neisseria meningitidis. Vaccine 21:768775.
74. Laskos, L.,, J. P. Dillard,, H. S. Seifert,, J. A. Fyfe, and, J. K. Davies. 1998. The pathogenic neisseriae contain an inactive rpoN gene and do not utilize the pilE sigma54 promoter. Gene 208:95102.
75. Laskos, L.,, C. S. Ryan,, J. A. Fyfe, and, J. K. Davies. 2004. The RpoH-mediated stress response in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is regulated at the level of activity. J. Bacteriol. 186:84438452.
76. Lee, E. H., and, W. M. Shafer. 1999. The farAB-encoded efflux pump mediates resistance of gonococci to long-chained antibacterial fatty acids. Mol. Microbiol. 33:839845.
77. Lee, V. T., and, O. Schneewind. 2001. Protein secretion and the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. Genes Dev. 15:17251752.
78. Lewis, L. A.,, E. Gray,, Y. P. Wang,, B. A. Roe, and, D. W. Dyer. 1997. Molecular characterization of hpuAB, the haemoglobin-haptoglobin-utilization operon of Neisseria meningitidis. Mol. Microbiol. 23:737749.
79. Liao, J.-C.,, C.-C. Li, and, C.-S. Chiou. Use of a multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis method for molecular subtyping and phylogenetic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis isolates. BMC Microbiol. 6:44.
80. Liu, S. V.,, N. J. Saunders,, A. Jeffries, and, R. F. Rest. 2002. Genome analysis and strain comparison of Correia repeats and Correia repeat-enclosed elements in pathogenic Neisseria. J. Bacteriol. 184:61636173.
81. Locht, C.,, P. Bertin,, F. D. Menozzi, and, G. Renauld. 1993. The filamentous haemagglutinin, a multifaceted adhesion produced by virulent Bordetella spp. Mol. Microbiol. 9:653660.
82. Lomovskaya, O., and, K. Lewis. 1992. Emr, an Escherichia coli locus for multidrug resistance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:89388942.
83. Lucas, C. E.,, J. T. Balthazar,, K. E. Hagman, and, W. M. Shafer. 1997. The MtrR repressor binds the DNA sequence between the mtrR and mtrC genes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 179:41234128.
84. Mackinnon, F. G.,, A. D. Cox,, J. S. Plested,, C. M. Tang,, K. Makepeace,, P. A. Coull,, J. C. Wright,, R. Chalmers,, D. W. Hood,, J. C. Richards, and, E. R. Moxon. 2002. Identification of a gene (lpt-3) required for the addition of phosphoethanolamine to the lipopolysaccharide inner core of Neisseria meningitidis and its role in mediating susceptibility to bactericidal killing and opsonophagocytosis. Mol. Microbiol. 43:931943.
85. Mackman, N.,, J. M. Nicaud,, L. Gray, and, I. B. Holland. 1985. Genetical and functional organisation of the Escherichia coli haemolysin determinant 2001. Mol. Gen. Genet. 201:282288.
86. Maier, T. W.,, L. Zubrzycki,, M. B. Coyle,, M. Chila, and, P. Warner. 1975. Genetic analysis of drug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: production of increased resistance by the combination of two antibiotic resistance loci. J. Bacteriol. 124:834842.
87. Marrs, C. F.,, F. W. Rozsa,, M. Hackel,, S. P. Stevens, and, A. C. Glasgow. 1990. Identification, cloning, and sequencing of piv, a new gene involved in inverting the pilin genes of Moraxella lacunata. J. Bacteriol. 172:43704377.
88. Martin, D.,, N. Cadieux,, J. Hamel, and, B. R. Brodeur. 1997. Highly conserved Neisseria meningitidis surface protein confers protection against experimental infection. J. Exp. Med. 185:11731183.
89. Martin, P.,, K. Makepeace,, S. A. Hill,, D. W. Hood, and, E. R. Moxon. 2005. Microsatellite instability regulates transcription factor binding and gene expression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:38003804.
90. Martin, P.,, T. van de Ven,, N. Mouchel,, A. C. Jeffries,, D.W. Hood, and, E. R. Moxon. 2003. Experimentally revised repertoire of putative contingency loci in Neisseria meningitidis strain MC58: evidence for a novel mechanism of phase variation. Mol. Microbiol. 50:245257.
91. Masignani, V.,, E. Balducci,, F. Di Marcello,, S. Savino,, D. Serruto,, D. Veggi,, S. Bambini,, M. Scarselli,, B. Arico,, M. Comanducci,, J. Adu-Bobie,, M. M. Giuliani,, R. Rappuoli, and, M. Pizza. 2003. NarE: a novel ADP-ribosyltransferase from Neisseria meningitidis. Mol. Microbiol. 50:10551067.
92. Masignani, V.,, M. Comanducci,, M. M. Giuliani,, S. Bambini,, J. Adu-Bobie,, B. Arico,, B. Brunelli,, A. Pieri,, L. Santini,, S. Savino,, D. Serruto,, D. Litt,, S. Kroll,, J. A. Welsch,, D. M. Granoff,, R. Rappuoli, and, M. Pizza. 2003. Vaccination against Neisseria meningitidis using three variants of the lipoprotein GNA1870. J. Exp. Med. 197:789799.
93. Masignani, V.,, M. M. Giuliani,, H. Tettelin,, M. Comanducci,, R. Rappuoli, and, V. Scar-lato. 2001. Mu-like prophage in serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis coding for surface-exposed antigens. Infect. Immun. 69:25802588.
94. Masson, L., and, B. E. Holbein. 1985. Influence of nutrient limitation and low pH on serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide levels: correlation with virulence for mice. Infect. Immun. 47:465471.
95. Mazzone, M.,, E. De Gregorio,, A. Lavitola,, C. Pagliarulo,, P. Alifano, and, P. P. Di Nocera. 2001. Whole-genome organization and functional properties of miniature DNA insertion sequences conserved in pathogenic Neisseriae. Gene 278:211222.
96. McFarland, L.,, T. A. Mietzner,, J. S. Knapp,, E. Sandstrom,, K. K. Holmes, and, S. A. Morse. 1983. Gonococcal sensitivity to fecal lipids can be mediated by an Mtr-independent mechanism. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:121127.
97. Mekalanos, J. J.,, D. J. Swartz,, G. D. Pearson,, N. Harford,, F. Groyne, and, M. de Wilde. 1983. Cholera toxin genes: nucleotide sequence, deletion analysis and vaccine development. Nature 306:551557.
98. Meyer, T. F.,, E. Billyard,, R. Haas,, S. Storzbach, and, M. So. 1984. Pilus genes of Neisseria gonorrheae: chromosomal organization and DNA sequence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:61106114.
99. Mignogna, G.,, A. Giorgi,, P. Stefanelli,, A. Neri,, G. Colotti,, B. Maras, and, M. E. Schinina. 2005. Inventory of the proteins in Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B strain MC58. J. Proteome Res. 4:13611370.
100. Morelle, S.,, E. Carbonnelle, and, X. Nassif. 2003. The REP2 repeats of the genome of Neisseria meningitidis are associated with genes coordinately regulated during bacterial cell interaction. J. Bacteriol. 185:26182627.
101. Morita, Y.,, K. Kodama,, S. Shiota,, T. Mine,, A. Kataoka,, T. Mizushima, and, T. Tsuchiya. 1998. NorM, a putative multidrug efflux protein, of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and its homolog in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:17781782.
102. Morse, S. A.,, P. G. Lysko,, L. McFarland,, J. S. Knapp,, E. Sandstrom,, C. Critchlow, and, K. K. Holmes. 1982. Gonococcal strains from homosexual men have outer membranes with reduced permeability to hydrophobic molecules. Infect. Immun. 37:432438.
103. Nassif, X.,, J. L. Beretti,, J. Lowy,, P. Stenberg,, P. O’Gaora,, J. Pfeifer,, S. Normark, and, M. So. 1994. Roles of pilin and PilC in adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis to human epithelial and endothelial cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:37693773.
104. Newbury, S. F.,, N. H. Smith,, E. C. Robinson,, I. D. Hiles, and, C. F. Higgins. 1987. Stabilization of translationally active mRNA by prokaryotic REP sequences. Cell 48:297310.
105. Newcombe, J.,, J. C. Jeynes,, E. Mendoza,, J. Hinds,, G. L. Marsden,, R. A. Stabler,, M. Marti, and, J. J. McFadden. 2005. Phenotypic and transcriptional characterization of the meningococcal PhoPQ system, a magnesium-sensing two-component regulatory system that controls genes involved in remodeling the meningococcal cell surface. J. Bacteriol. 187:49674975.
106. Osicka, R.,, J. Kalmusova,, P. Krizova, and, P. Sebo. 2001. Neisseria meningitidis RTX protein FrpC induces high levels of serum antibodies during invasive disease: polymorphism of frpC alleles and purification of recombinant FrpC. Infect. Immun. 69:55095519.
107. Pan, W., and, B. G. Spratt. 1994. Regulation of the permeability of the gonococcal cell envelope by the mtr system. Mol. Microbiol. 11:769775.
108. Parkhill, J.,, M. Achtman,, K. D. James,, S. D. Bentley,, C. Churcher,, S. R. Klee,, G. Morelli,, D. Basham,, D. Brown,, T. Chillingworth,, R. M. Davies,, P. Davis,, K. Devlin,, T. Feltwell,, N. Hamlin,, S. Holroyd,, K. Jagels,, S. Leather,, S. Moule,, K. Mungall,, M. A. Quail,, M. A. Rajandream,, K. M. Rutherford,, M. Simmonds,, J. Skelton,, S. White-head,, B. G. Spratt, and, B. G. Barrell. 2000. Complete DNA sequence of a serogroup A strain of Neisseria meningitidis Z2491. Nature 404:502506.
109. Peak, I. R.,, M. P. Jennings,, D. W. Hood, and, E. R. Moxon. 1999. Tetranucleotide repeats identify novel virulence determinant homo-logues in Neisseria meningitidis. Microb. Pathog. 26:1323.
110. Peak, I. R.,, Y. Srikhanta,, M. Dieckelmann,, E. R. Moxon, and, M. P. Jennings. 2000. Identification and characterisation of a novel conserved outer membrane protein from Neisseria meningitidis. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 28:329334.
111. Permina, E. A., and, M. S. Gelfand. 2003. Heat shock (sigma32 and HrcA/CIRCE) regulons in beta-, gamma- and epsilon-proteobacteria. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 6:174181.
112. Perrin, A.,, S. Bonacorsi,, E. Carbonnelle,, D. Talibi,, P. Dessen,, X. Nassif, and, C. Tinsley. 2002. Comparative genomics identifies the genetic islands that distinguish Neisseria meningitidis, the agent of cerebrospinal meningitis, from other Neisseria species. Infect. Immun. 70:70637072.
113. Pettersson, A.,, V. Klarenbeek,, J. van Deurzen,, J. T. Poolman, and, J. Tommassen. 1994. Molecular characterization of the structural gene for the lactoferrin receptor of the meningococcal strain H44/76. Microb. Pathog. 17:395408.
114. Pizza, M.,, V. Scarlato,, V. Masignani,, M. M. Giuliani,, B. Arico,, M. Comanducci,, G. T. Jennings,, L. Baldi,, E. Bartolini,, B. Capecchi,, C. L. Galeotti,, E. Luzzi,, R. Manetti,, E. Marchetti,, M. Mora,, S. Nuti,, G. Ratti,, L. Santini,, S. Savino,, M. Scarselli,, E. Storni,, P. J. Zuo,, M. Broeker,, E. Hundt,, B. Knapp,, E. Blair,, T. Mason,, H. Tettelin,, D. W. Hood,, A. C. Jeffries,, N. J. Saunders,, D. M. Granoff,, J. C. Venter,, E. R. Moxon,, G. Grandi, and, R. Rappuoli. 2000. Identification of vaccine candidates against serogroup B meningococcus by whole-genome sequencing. Science 287:18161820.
115. Pohlner, J.,, R. Halter,, K. Beyreuther, and, T. F. Meyer. 1987. Gene structure and extracellular secretion of Neisseria gonorrhoeae IgA pro-tease. Nature 325:458462.
116. Powell, B. S.,, D. L. Court,, T. Inada,, Y. Nakamura,, V. Michotey,, X. Cui,, A. Reizer,, M. H. Saier, Jr., and, J. Reizer. 1995. Novel proteins of the phosphotransferase system encoded within the rpoN operon of Escherichia coli. Enzyme IIANtr affects growth on organic nitrogen and the conditional lethality of an erats mutant. J. Biol. Chem. 270:48224839.
117. Pujol, C.,, E. Eugene,, M. Marceau, and, X. Nassif. 1999. The meningococcal PilT protein is required for induction of intimate attachment to epithelial cells following pilus-mediated adhesion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:40174022.
118. Ren, J. S.,, S. Sainsbury,, N. S. Berrow,, D. Alderton,, J. E. Nettleship,, D. K. Stammers,, N. J. Saunders, and, R. J. Owens. 2005. Crystal structure of nitrogen regulatory protein IIA(Ntr) from Neisseria meningitidis. BMC Struct. Biol. 5:13.
119. Rouquette-Loughlin, C.,, S. A. Dunham,, M. Kuhn,, J. T. Balthazar, and, W. M. Shafer. 2003. The NorM efflux pump of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis recognizes antimicrobial cationic compounds. J. Bacteriol. 185:11011106.
120. Rouquette-Loughlin, C. E.,, J. T. Balthazar,, S. A. Hill, and, W. M. Shafer. 2004. Modulation of the mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump gene complex of Neisseria meningitidis due to a Correia element insertion sequence. Mol. Microbiol. 54:731741.
121. Rouquette-Loughlin, C. E.,, J. T. Balthazar, and, W. M. Shafer. 2005. Characterization of the MacA-MacB efflux system in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 56:856860.
122. Rudel, T.,, J. P. van Putten,, C. P. Gibbs,, R. Haas, and, T. F. Meyer. 1992. Interaction of two variable proteins (PilE and PilC) required for pilus-mediated adherence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to human epithelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 6:34393450.
123. Saunders, N. J.,, A. C. Jeffries,, P. F. Peden,, D. W. Hood,, H. Tettelin,, R. Rappuoli, and, E. R. Moxon. 2000. Repeat-associated phase variable genes in the complete genome sequence of Neisseria meningitidis strain MC58. Mol. Microbiol. 37:207215.
124. Saunders, N. J., and, L. A. S. Snyder. 2002. The minimal mobile element. Microbiology 148:37563760.
125. Reference deleted.
126. Schauder, S.,, L. Penna,, A. Ritton,, C. Manin,, F. Parker, and, G. Renauld-Mongenie. 2005. Proteomics analysis by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis reveals the lack of a broad response of Neisseria meningitidis to in vitro– produced AI-2. J. Bacteriol. 187:392395.
127. Segal, E.,, E. Billyard,, M. So,, S. Storzbach, and, T. F. Meyer. 1985. Role of chromosomal rearrangement in N. gonorrhoeae pilus phase variation. Cell 40:293300.
128. Seib, K. L.,, M. P. Jennings, and, A. G. McEwan. 2003. A Sco homologue plays a role in defence against oxidative stress in pathogenic Neisseria. FEBS Lett. 546:411415.
129. Seiler, A.,, R. Reinhardt,, J. Sarkari,, D. A. Caugant, and, M. Achtman. 1996. Allelic polymorphism and site-specific recombination in the opc locus of Neisseria meningitidis. Mol. Microbiol. 19:841856.
130. Sekizaki, T.,, D. Takamatsu,, M. Osaki, and, Y. Shimoji. 2005. Different foreign genes incidentally integrated into the same locus of the Streptococcus suis genome. J. Bacteriol. 187:872883.
131. Shafer, W. M.,, X. Qu,, A. J. Waring, and, R. I. Lehrer. 1998. Modulation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae susceptibility to vertebrate antibacterial peptides due to a member of the resistance/nodulation/division efflux pump family. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:18291833.
132. Sibley, M. H., and, E. A. Raleigh. 2004. Cassette-like variation of restriction enzyme genes in Escherichia coli C and relatives. Nucleic Acids Res. 32:522534.
133. Skaar, E. P.,, B. LeCuyer,, A. G. Lenich,, M. P. Lazio,, D. Perkins-Balding,, H. S. Seifert, and, A. C. Karls. 2005. Analysis of the piv recombinase-related gene family of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 187:12761286.
134. Snyder, L. A., and, N. J. Saunders. 2006. The majority of genes in the pathogenic Neisseria species are present in non-pathogenic Neisseria lactamica, including those designated as “virulence genes.” BMC Genomics 7:128.
135. Reference deleted.
136. Snyder, L. A. S.,, S. A. Butcher, and, N. J. Saunders. 2001. Comparative wholegenome analyses reveal over 100 putative phase-variable genes in the pathogenic Neisseria spp. Microbiology 147:23212332.
137. Snyder, L. A. S.,, J. K. Davies,, C. S. Ryan, and, N. J. Saunders. 2005. Comparative overview of the genomic and genetic differences between the pathogenic Neisseria strains and species. Plasmid 54:191218.
138. Snyder, L. A. S.,, J. K. Davies, and, N. J. Saunders. 2004. Microarray genomotyping of key experimental strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae reveals gene complement diversity and five new neisserial genes associated with minimal mobile elements. BMC Genomics 5:23.
139. Snyder, L. A. S.,, S. A. Jarvis, and, N. J. Saunders. 2005. Complete and variant forms of the “gonococcal genetic island” in Neisseria meningitidis. Microbiology 151:40054013.
140. Snyder, L. A. S.,, N. J. Saunders, and, W. M. Shafer. 2001. A putatively phase variable gene (dca) required for natural competence in Neisseria gonorrhoeae but not Neisseria meningitidis is located within the division cell wall (dcw) gene cluster. J. Bacteriol. 183:12331241.
141. Snyder, L. A. S.,, W. M. Shafer, and, N. J. Saunders. 2003. Divergence and transcriptional analysis of the division cell wall (dcw) gene cluster in Neisseria spp. Mol. Microbiol. 47:431441.
142. Spratt, B. G.,, Q. Y. Zhang,, D. M. Jones,, A. Hutchison,, J. A. Brannigan, and, C. G. Dowson. 1989. Recruitment of a penicillin-binding protein gene from Neisseria flavescens during the emergence of penicillin resistance in Neisseria meningitidis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:89888992.
143. Stabler, R. A.,, G. L. Marsden,, A. A. Witney,, Y. M. Li,, S. D. Bentley,, C. M. Tang, and, J. Hinds. 2005. Identification of pathogen-specific genes through microarray analysis of pathogenic and commensal Neisseria species. Microbiology 151:29072922.
144. Stefanova, M. E.,, J. Tomberg,, C. Davies,, R. A. Nicholas, and, W. G. Gutheil. 2004. Overexpression and enzymatic characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae penicillin-binding protein 4. Eur. J. Biochem. 271:2332.
145. Steller, S.,, P. Angenendt,, D. J. Cahill,, S. Heuberger,, H. Lehrach, and, J. Kreutzberger. 2005. Bacterial protein microarrays for identification of new potential diagnostic markers for Neisseria meningitidis infections. Proteomics 5:20482055.
146. Stohl, E. A.,, A. K. Criss, and, H. S. Seifert. 2005. The transcriptome response of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to hydrogen peroxide reveals genes with previously uncharacterized roles in oxidative damage protection. Mol. Microbiol. 58:520532.
147. Stojiljkovic, I.,, V. Hwa,, L. de Saint Martin,, P. O’Gaora,, X. Nassif,, F. Heffron, and, M. So. 1995. The Neisseria meningitidis haemoglobin receptor: its role in iron utilization and virulence. Mol. Microbiol. 15:531541.
148. Sun, Y. H.,, S. Bakshi,, R. Chalmers, and, C. M. Tang. 2000. Functional genomics of Neisseria meningitidis pathogenesis. Nat. Med. 6:12691273.
149. Takahashi, H.,, K. Hirose, and, H. Watanabe. 2004. Necessity of meningococcal gamma-glutamyl aminopeptidase for Neisseria meningitidis growth in rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and CSF-like medium. J. Bacteriol. 186:244247.
150. Tauschek, M.,, C. W. Hamilton,, L. A. Hall,, C. Chomvarin,, J. A. Fyfe, and, J. K. Davies. 1997. Transcriptional analysis of the groESL operon of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Gene 189:107112.
151. Tefsen, B.,, M. P. Bos,, F. Beckers,, J. Tommassen, and, H. de Cock. 2005. MsbA is not required for phospholipid transport in Neisseria meningitidis. J. Biol. Chem. 280:3596135966.
152. Tettelin, H.,, N. J. Saunders,, J. Heidelberg,, A. C. Jeffries,, K. E. Nelson,, J. A. Eisen,, K. A. Ketchum,, D. W. Hood,, J. F. Peden,, R. J. Dodson,, W. C. Nelson,, M. L. Gwinn,, R. DeBoy,, J. D. Peterson,, E. K. Hickey,, D. H. Haft,, S. L. Salzberg,, O. White,, R. D. Fleischmann,, B. A. Dougherty,, T. Mason,, A. Ciecko,, D. S. Parksey,, E. Blair,, H. Cittone,, E. B. Clark,, M. D. Cotton,, T. R. Utterback,, H. Khouri,, H. Qin,, J. Vamathevan,, J. Gill,, V. Scarlato,, V. Masignani,, M. Pizza,, G. Grandi,, L. Sun,, H. O. Smith,, C. M. Fraser,, E. R. Moxon,, R. Rappuoli, and, J. C. Venter. 2000. Complete genome sequence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B strain MC58. Science 287:18091815.
153. Turner, D. P. J.,, K. G. Wooldridge, and, D. A. A. Ala’Aldeen. 2002. Autotransported serine protease A of Neisseria meningitidis: an immunogenic, surface-exposed outer membrane, and secreted protein. Infect. Immun. 70:44474461.
154. Turner, P. C.,, C. E. Thomas,, I. Stojiljkovic,, C. Elkins,, G. Kizel,, D. A. A. Ala’Aldeen, and, P. F. Sparling. 2001. Neisserial TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins: detection, regulation and distribution of three putative candidates identified from the genome sequences. Microbiology 147:12771290.
155. Tzeng, Y. L.,, K. D. Ambrose,, S. Zughaier,, X. L. Zhou,, Y. K. Miller,, W. M. Shafer, and, D. S. Stephens. 2005. Cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance in Neisseria meningitidis. J. Bacteriol. 187:53875396.
156. van Ulsen, P.,, L. van Alphen,, C. T. P. Hopman,, A. van der Ende, and, J. Tommassen. 2001. In vivo expression of Neisseria meningitidis proteins homologous to the Haemophilus influenzae Hap and Hia autotransporters. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 32:5364.
157. van Ulsen, P.,, L. van Alphen,, J. ten Hove,, F. Fransen,, P. van der Ley, and, J. Tommassen. 2003. A neisserial autotransporter NaIP modulating the processing of other autotransporters. Mol. Microbiol. 50:10171030.
158. Warren, M. J., and, M. P. Jennings. 2003. Identification and characterization of pptA: a gene involved in the phase-variable expression of phosphorylcholine on pili of Neisseria meningitidis. Infect. Immun. 71:68926898.
159. Welsch, J. A.,, G. R. Moe,, R. Rossi,, J. Adu-Bobie,, R. Rappuoli, and, D. M. Granoff. 2003. Antibody to genome-derived neisserial antigen 2132, a Neisseria meningitidis candidate vaccine, confers protection against bacteremia in the absence of complement-mediated bactericidal activity. J. Infect. Dis. 188:17301740.
160. Winther-Larsen, H. C.,, F. T. Hegge,, M. Wolfgang,, S. F. Hayes,, J. P. M. van Putten, and, M. Koomey. 2001. Neisseria gonorrhoeae PilV, a type IV pilus-associated protein essential to human epithelial cell adherence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:1527615281.
161. Winther-Larsen, H. C.,, M. Wolfgang,, S. Dunham,, J. P. M. van Putten,, D. Dorward,, C. Lovold,, F. E. Aas, and, M. Koomey. 2005. A conserved set of pilin-like molecules controls type IV pilus dynamics and organelle-associated functions in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Mol. Microbiol. 56:903917.
162. Wolfgang, M.,, J. P. van Putten,, S. F. Hayes, and, M. Koomey. 1999. The comP locus of Neisseria gonorrhoeae encodes a type IV prepilin that is dispensable for pilus biogenesis but essential for natural transformation. Mol. Microbiol. 31:13451357.
163. Wooldridge, K. G.,, M. Kizil,, D. B. Wells, and, D. A. A. Ala’Aldeen. 2005. Unusual genetic organization of a functional type I protein secretion system in Neisseria meningitidis. Infect. Immun. 73:55545567.
164. Yasukawa, K.,, P. Martin,, C. R. Tinsley, and, X. Nassif. 2006. Pilus-mediated adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis is negatively controlled by the pilus-retraction machinery. Mol. Microbiol. 59:579589.
165. Yazdankhah, S. P.,, K. Kesanopoulos,, G. Tzanakaki,, J. Kremastinou, and, D. A. Caugant. 2005. Variable-number tandem repeat analysis of meningococcal isolates belonging to the sequence type 162 complex. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:48654867.
166. Yazdankhah, S. P.,, B. A. Lindstedt, and, D.A. Caugant. 2005. Use of variable-number tandem repeats to examine genetic diversity of Neisseria meningitidis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:16991705.
167. Zhu, P. X.,, M. J. Klutch,, J. P. Derrick,, S. M. Prince,, R. S. W. Tsng, and, C. M. Tsai. 2003. Identification of opcA gene in Neisseria polysaccharea: interspecies diversity of Opc protein family. Gene 307:3140.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error