1887

Chapter 12 : What Genomics Has Taught Us about Gram-Positive Protein Secretion and Targeting

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

What Genomics Has Taught Us about Gram-Positive Protein Secretion and Targeting, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815530/9781555814519_Chap12-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815530/9781555814519_Chap12-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter briefly reviews the Sec pathway and its modification in gram-positive bacteria and discusses second independent protein targeting pathways. Some gram-positive bacteria have evolved protein secretion machines dedicated to the assembly of macro-molecular structures such as flagella, type 4 pili, or Flp pili, all of which can be viewed by light or electron microscopy as elongated organelles that protrude from the cell surface. The chapter describes the general principles of protein secretion in gram-positive bacteria along with a few examples. The factors that catalyze protein secretion can be predicted in silico and identified in genomes of all gram-positive bacteria. Sec-mediated protein secretion has been best studied in and, more recently, in . S-layer proteins are deposited on the surface of gram-positive bacteria to establish specific interactions with cell wall polymers. Many other proteins decorate the cell wall envelope of gram-positive bacteria but are not covalently attached to the envelope. The major subunit of flagella, flagellin, is exported through the hollow conduct made by the basal body across the membrane and hook. Rational vaccine design was achieved by interrogating conserved antigens (secreted or surface displayed) for protective immunity, which led to the identification of multiple surface proteins of group B streptococci as candidates.

Citation: Schneewind O, Missiakas D. 2007. What Genomics Has Taught Us about Gram-Positive Protein Secretion and Targeting, p 301-326. In Pallen M, Nelson K, Preston G (ed), Bacterial Pathogenomics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815530.ch12
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815530.ch12
1. Adler, L. A., and, S. Arvidson. 1988. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of genes encoding a multiprotein complex involved in secretion of proteins from Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacteriol. 170:53375343.
2. Adler, L. A., and, S. Arvidson. 1987. Correlation between the rate of exoprotein synthesis and the amount of the multiprotein complex on membrane-bound ribosomes (MBRP-complex) in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Gen. Microbiol. 133:803813.
3. Aktories, K. 1997. Rho proteins: targets for bacterial toxins. Trends Microbiol. 5:282288.
4. Alami, M.,, I. Luke,, S. Deitermann,, G. Eisner,, H. G. Koch,, J. Brunner, and, M. Muller. 2003. Differential interactions between a twin-arginine signal peptide and its translocase in Escherichia coli. Mol. Cell 12:937946.
5. Aliprantis, A. O.,, R. B. Yang,, M. R. Mark,, S. Suggett,, B. Devaux,, J. D. Radolf,, G. R. Klimpel,, P. Godowski, and, A. Zychlinsky. 1999. Cell activation and apoptosis by bacterial lipoproteins through Toll-like receptor-2. Science 285:736739.
6. Altman, E.,, R. K. Altman,, J. M. Garrett,, R. J. Grimaila, and, R. Young. 1983. S gene product: identification and membrane localization of a lysis control protein. J. Bacteriol. 155:11301137.
7. Baba, T., and, O. Schneewind. 1998. Targeting of muralytic enzymes to the cell division site of gram-positive bacteria: repeat domains direct autolysin to the equatorial surface ring of Staphylococcus aureus. EMBO J. 17:46394646.
8. Bae, T., and, O. Schneewind. 2003. The YSIRK-G/S motif of staphylococcal protein A and its role in efficiency of signal peptide processing. J. Bacteriol. 185:29102919.
9. Baumeister, W.,, F. Karrenberg,, R. Rachel,, A. Engel,, B. ten Heggeler, and, W. O. Saxton. 1982. The major cell envelope protein of Micrococcus radiodurans (R1). Structural and chemical characterization. Eur. J. Biochem. 125:535544.
10. Bensing, B. A., and, P. M. Sullam. 2002. An accessory sec locus of Streptococcus gordonii is required for export of the surface protein GspB and for normal levels of binding to human platelets. Mol. Microbiol. 44:10811094.
11. Berks, B. C.,, T. Palmer, and, F. Sargent. 2003. The Tat protein translocation pathway and its role in microbial physiology. Adv. Microb. Physiol. 47:187254.
12. Bernstein, H. D.,, M. A. Poritz,, K. Strub,, P. J. Hoben,, S. Brenner, and, P. Walter. 1989. Model for signal sequence recognition from amino-acid sequence of 54K subunit of signal recognition particle. Nature 340:482486.
13. Beveridge, T. J.,, P. H. Pouwels,, M. Sara,, A. Kotiranta,, K. Lounatmaa,, K. Kari,, E. Kerosuo,, M. Haapasalo,, E. M. Egelseer,, I. Schocher,, U. B. Sleytr,, L. Morelli,, M. L. Callegari,, J. F. Nomellini,, W. H. Bingle,, J. Smit,, E. Leibovitz,, M. Lemaire,, I. Miras,, S. Salamitou,, P. Beguin,, H. Ohayon,, P. Gounon,, M. Matuschek, and, S. F. Koval. 1997. Functions of S-layers. FEMS. Microbiol. Rev. 20:99149.
14. Blasi, U.,, C. Y. Chang,, M. T. Zagotta,, K. B. Nam, and, R. Young. 1990. The lethal lambda S gene encodes its own inhibitor. EMBO J. 9:981989.
15. Blobel, G. 1980. Intracellular protein topogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:14961500.
16. Bolhuis, A.,, C. P. Broekhuizen,, A. Sorokin,, M. L. van Roosmalen,, G. Venema,, S. Bron,, W. J. Quax, and, J. van Dijl. 1998. SecDF of Bacillus subtilis, a molecular Siamese twin required for the efficient secretion of proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 273:2121721224.
17. Boyce, J. M. 1990. Increasing prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the United States. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 11:639642.
18. Braun, L.,, S. Dramsi,, P. Dehoux,, H. Bierne,, G. Lindahl, and, P. Cossart. 1997. InlB: an invasion protein of Listeria monocytogenes with a novel type of surface association. Mol. Microbiol. 25:285294.
19. Braun, V., and, V. Bosch. 1972. Sequence of the murein lipoprotein and the attachment site of the lipid. Eur. J. Biochem. 28:5169.
20. Braun, V., and, H. C. Wu. 1994. Lipoproteins: structure, function, biosynthesis and model for protein export, p. 319–337. In J.-M. Ghuysen and, R. Hakenbeck (ed.), Bacterial Cell Wall, vol. 27. Elsevier Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
21. Breukink, E.,, N. Nouwen,, A. van Raalte,, S. Mizushima,, J. Tommassen, and, B. de Kruijff. 1995. The C terminus of SecA is involved in both lipid binding and SecB binding. J. Biol. Chem. 270:79027907.
22. Brightbill, H. D.,, D. H. Libraty,, S. R. Krutzik,, R. B. Yang,, J. T. Belisle,, J. R. Bleharski,, M. Maitland,, M. V. Norgard,, S. E. Plevy,, S. T. Smale,, P. J. Brennan,, B. R. Bloom,, P. J. Godowski, and, R. L. Modlin. 1999. Host defense mechanisms triggered by microbial lipoproteins through Toll-like receptors. Science 285:732736.
23. Brodin, P.,, M. I. de Jonge,, L. Majlessi,, C. Leclerc,, M. Nilges,, S. T. Cole, and, R. Brosch. 2005. Functional analysis of early secreted antigenic target-6, the dominant T-cell antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, reveals key residues involved in secretion, complex formation, virulence, and immunogenicity. J. Biol. Chem. 280:3395333959.
24. Brumfitt, W., and, J. Hamilton-Miller. 1989. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. N. Engl. J. Med. 320:11881199.
25. Bubeck Wardenburg, J.,, W. A. Williams, and, D. Missiakas. 2006. Host defenses against Staphylococcus aureus infection require recognition of bacterial lipoproteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:1383113836.
26. Burts, M. L.,, W. A. Williams,, K. DeBord, and, D. M. Missiakas. 2005. EsxA and EsxB are secreted by an ESAT-6-like system that is required for the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infections. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:11691174.
27. Campo, N.,, H. Tjalsma,, G. Buist,, D. Step-niak,, M. Meijer,, M. Veenhuis,, M. Wester-mann,, J. P. Muller,, S. Bron,, J. Kok,, O. P. Kuipers, and, J. D. Jongbloed. 2004. Subcellular sites for bacterial protein export. Mol. Microbiol. 53:15831599.
28. Carlsson, F.,, M. Stålhammar-Carlemalm,, K. Flärdh,, C. Sandin,, E. Carlemalm, and, G. Lindahl. 2006. Signal sequence directs localized secretion of bacterial surface proteins. Nature 442:943946.
29. Chaatwal, G. S. 2002. Anchorless adhesins and invasins of gram-positive bacteria: a new class of virulence factors. Trends Microbiol. 10:205208.
30. Champion, P. A.,, S. A. Stanley,, M. M. Champion,, E. J. Brown, and, J. S. Cox. 2006. C-terminal signal sequence promotes virulence factor secretion in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Science 313:16321636.
31. Chang, C. N.,, G. Blobel, and, P. Model. 1978. Detection of prokaryotic signal peptidase in an Escherichia coli membrane fraction: endoproteolytic cleavage of nascent f1 pre-coat protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75:361365.
32. Chang, C. N.,, J. B. K. Nielsen,, K. Izui,, G. Blobel, and, J. O. Lampen. 1982. Idenification of the signal peptidase cleavage site in Bacillus licheniformis prepenicillinase. J. Biol. Chem. 257:43404344.
33. Chen, I., and, D. Dubnau. 2004. DNA uptake during bacterial transformation. Nat. Rev. Micro-biol. 2:241249.
34. Chhatwal, G. S. 2002. Anchorless adhesins and invasins of gram-positive bacteria: a new class of virulence factors. Trends Microbiol. 10:205208.
35. Choi, D. S.,, H. Yamada,, T. Mizuno, and, S. Mizushima. 1986. Trimeric structure and localization of the major lipoprotein in the cell surface of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 261:89538957.
36. Christie, J.,, R. McNab, and, H. F. Jenkinson. 2002. Expression of fibronectin-binding protein FbpA modulates adhesion in Streptococcus gordonii. Microbiology 148:16151625.
37. Claverys, J. P., and, B. Martin. 2003. Bacterial “competence” genes: signatures of active transformation, or only remnants? Trends Microbiol. 11:161165.
38. Cole, S. T.,, R. Brosch,, J. Parkhill,, T. Garnier,, C. Churcher,, D. Harris,, S. V. Gordon,, K. Eiglmeier,, S. Gas,, C. E. Barry III,, F. Tekaia,, K. Badcock,, D. Basham,, D. Brown,, T. Chill-ingworth,, R. Connor,, R. Davies,, K. Devlin,, T. Feltwell,, S. Gentles,, N. Hamlin,, S. Holroyd,, T. Hornsby,, K. Jagels,, A. Krogh,, J. McLean,, S. Moule,, L. Murphy,, K. Oliver,, J. Osborne,, M. A. Quail,, M. A. Rajandream,, J. Rogers,, S. Rutter,, K. Seeger,, J. Skelton,, R. Squares,, S. Squares,, J. E. Sulston,, K. Taylor,, S. Whitehead, and, B. G. Barrell. 1998. Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence. Nature 393:537544.
39. Cossart, P., and, R. Jonquieres. 2000. Sortase, a universal target for therapeutic agents against gram-positive bacteria? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:50135015.
40. Courtney, H. S.,, Y. Li,, J. B. Dale, and, D. L. Hasty. 1994. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of a fibronectin/fibrinogen-binding protein from group A streptococci. Infect. Immun. 62:39373946.
41. Cregg, K. M.,, I. Wilding, and, M. T. Black. 1996. Molecular cloning and expression of the spsB gene encoding an essential type I signal peptidase from Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacteriol. 178:57125718.
42. Crowley, P. J.,, G. Svensater,, J. L. Snoep,, A. S. Bleiweis, and, L. J. Brady. 2004. An ffh mutant of Streptococcus mutans is viable and able to physiologically adapt to low pH in continuous culture. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 234:315324.
43. Dalbey, R. E.,, M. O. Lively,, S. Bron, and, J. M. van Dijl. 1997. The chemistry and enzymology of the type I signal peptidases. Protein Sci. 6:11291138.
44. Dalbey, R. E., and, W. Wickner. 1985. Leader peptidase catalyzes the release of exported proteins from the outer surface of the Escherichia coli plasma membrane. J. Biol. Chem. 260:1592515931.
45. Daughdrill, G. W.,, M. S. Chadsey,, J. E. Karlinsey,, K. T. Hughes, and, F. W. Dahlquist. 1997. The C-terminal half of the anti-sigma factor, FlgM, becomes structured when bound to its target, sigma 28. Nat. Struct. Biol. 4:285291.
46. De Gier, J. W.,, Q. A. Valent,, G. Von Heijne, and, J. Luirink. 1997. The E. coli SRP: preferences of a targeting factor. FEBS Lett. 408:14.
47. den Blaauwen, T.,, E. Terpetschnig,, J. R. Lakowicz, and, A. J. Driessen. 1997. Interaction of SecB with soluble SecA. FEBS Lett. 416:3538.
48. Desvaux, M., and, M. Hebraud. 2006. The protein secretion systems in Listeria: inside out bacterial virulence. FEMS. Microbiol. Rev. 30:774805.
49. Desvaux, M.,, A. Khan,, A. Scott-Tucker,, R. R. Chaudhuri,, M. J. Pallen, and, I. R. Henderson. 2005. Genomic analysis of the protein secretion systems in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1745:223253.
50. Dev, I. K., and, P. H. Ray. 1990. Signal peptidases and signal peptide hydrolases. J. Bioenergetics Biomem. 22:271289.
51. Dhar, G.,, K. F. Faull, and, O. Schneewind. 2000. Anchor structure of cell wall surface proteins in Listeria monocytogenes. Biochemistry 39:37253733.
52. Dramsi, S.,, F. Bourdichon,, D. Cabanes,, M. Lecuit,, H. Fsihi, and, P. Cossart. 2004. FbpA, a novel multifunctional Listeria monocytogenes virulence factor. Mol. Microbiol. 53:639649.
53. Dramsi, S.,, E. Caliot,, I. Bonne,, S. Guadagnini,, M. C. Prevost,, M. Kojadinovic,, L. Lalioui,, C. Poyart, and, P. Trieu-Cuot. 2006. Assembly and role of pili in group B streptococci. Mol. Microbiol. 60:14011413.
54. Dramsi, S.,, P. Trieu-Cuot, and, H. Bierne. 2005. Sorting sortases: a nomenclature proposal for the various sortases of gram-positive bacteria. Res. Microbiol. 156:289297.
55. Dubnau, D. 1999. DNA uptake in bacteria. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 53:217244.
56. Duong, F.,, J. Eichler,, A. Price,, M. R. Leonard, and, W. Wickner. 1997. Biogenesis of the gram-negative bacterial envelope. Cell 91:567573.
57. Duong, F., and, W. Wickner. 1997. The SecD-FYajC domain of preprotein translocase controls preprotein movement by regulating SecA membrane cycling. EMBO J. 16:48714879.
58. Economou, A., and, W. Wickner. 1994. SecA promotes preprotein translocation by undergoing ATP-driven cycles of membrane insertion and deinsertion. Cell 78:835843.
59. Egelseer, E.,, I. Schocher,, M. Sara, and, U. B. Sleytr. 1995. The S-layer from Bacillus stearothermophilus DSM 2358 functions as an adhesion site for a high-molecular-weight amylase. J. Bacteriol. 177:14441451.
60. Egelseer, E. M.,, K. Leitner,, M. Jarosch,, C. Hotzy,, S. Zayni,, U. B. Sleytr, and, M. Sara. 1998. The S-layer proteins of two Bacillus stearothermophilus wild-type strains are bound via their N-terminal region to a secondary cell wall polymer of identical chemical composition. J. Bacteriol. 180:14881495.
61. Eichler, J., and, W. Wickner. 1997. Both an N-terminal 65-kDa domain and a C-terminal 30-kDa domain of SecA cycle into the membrane at SecYEG during translocation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:55745581.
62. Emr, S. D.,, S. Hanley-Way, and, T. J. Silhavy. 1981. Suppressor mutations that restore export of a protein with a defective signal sequence. Cell 23:7988.
63. Emr, S. D.,, J. Hedgpeth,, J. M. Clement,, T. J. Silhavy, and, M. Hofnung. 1980. Sequence analysis of mutations that prevent export of lambda receptor, an Escherichia coli outer membrane protein. Nature 285:8285.
64. Faller, M.,, M. Niederweis, and, G. E. Schulz. 2004. The structure of a mycobacterial outer-membrane channel. Science 303:11891192.
65. Fekkes, P.,, C. van der Does, and, A. J. M. Driessen. 1997. The molecular chaperone SecB is released from the carboxy-terminus of SecA during initiation of precursor protein translocation. EMBO J. 16:61056113.
66. Fernandez-Tornero, C.,, R. Lopez,, E. Garcia,, G. Gimenez-Gallego, and, A. Romero. 2001. A novel solenoid fold in the cell wall anchoring domain of the pneumococcal virulence factor LytA. Nat. Struct. Biol. 8:10201024.
67. Fischetti, V. A. 1989. Streptococcal M protein: molecular design and biological behavior. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2:285314.
68. Fischetti, V. A.,, V. Pancholi, and, O. Schneewind. 1990. Conservation of a hexapep-tide sequence in the anchor region of surface proteins from gram-positive cocci. Mol. Microbiol. 4:16031605.
69. Forsgren, A., and, J. Sjoquist. 1966. “Protein A” from S. aureus. I. Pseudo-immune reaction with human gamma-globulin. J. Immunol. 97:822827.
70. Foster, T. J., and, M. Höök. 1998. Surface protein adhesins of Staphylococcus aureus. Trends Micro-biol. 6:484488.
71. Fowler, T.,, E. R. Wann,, D. Joh,, S. Johansson,, T. J. Foster, and, M. Hook. 2000. Cellular invasion by Staphylococcus aureus involves a fibronectin bridge between the bacterial fibronectin-binding MSCRAMMs and host cell beta1 integrins. Eur. J. Cell. Biol. 79:672679.
72. Gan, K.,, S. D. Gupta,, K. Sankaran,, M. B. Schmid, and, H. C. Wu. 1993. Isolation and characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutant of Salmonella typhimurium defective in prolipoprotein modification. J. Biol. Chem. 268:1654416550.
73. Gao, L. Y.,, S. Guo,, B. McLaughlin,, H. Morisaki,, J. N. Engel, and, E. J. Brown. 2004. A mycobacterial virulence gene cluster extending RD1 is required for cytolysis, bacterial spreading and ESAT-6 secretion. Mol. Microbiol. 53:16771693.
74. Reference deleted.
75. Gaspar, A. H., and, H. Ton-That. 2006. Assembly of distinct pilus structures on the surface of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J. Bacteriol. 188:15261533.
76. Gey Van Pittius, N. C.,, J. Gamieldien,, W. Hide,, G. D. Brown,, R. J. Siezen, and, A. D. Beyers. 2001. The ESAT-6 gene cluster of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other high G + C gram-positive bacteria. Genome Biol. 2:research0044.1– 0044.18.
77. Ghuysen, J.-M.,, D. J. Tipper, and, J. L. Strominger. 1966. Enzymes that degrade bacterial cell walls. Methods Enzymol. 8:685699.
78. Giesbrecht, P.,, T. Kersten,, H. Maidhof, and, J. Wecke. 1998. Staphylococcal cell wall: morphogenesis and fatal variations in the presence of penicillin. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62:13711414.
79. Giesbrecht, P.,, T. Kersten, and, J. Wecke. 1992. Fan-shaped ejections of regularly arranged murosomes involved in penicillin-induced death of staphylococci. J. Bacteriol. 174:22412252.
80. Giesbrecht, P.,, J. Wecke, and, B. Reinicke. 1976. On the morphogenesis of the cell wall of staphylococci. Int. Rev. Cytol. 44:225318.
81. Glickman, M. S., and, W. R. J. Jacobs. 2001. Microbial pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis dawn of a discipline. Cell 104:477485.
82. Gohlke, U.,, L. Pullan,, C. A. McDevitt,, I. Porcelli,, E. de Leeuw,, T. Palmer,, H. R. Saibil, and, B. C. Berks. 2005. The TatA component of the twin-arginine protein transport system forms channel complexes of variable diameter. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1048210486.
83. Guinn, K. M.,, M. J. Hickey,, S. K. Mathur,, K. L. Zakel,, J. E. Grotzke,, D. M. Lewinsohn,, S. Smith, and, D. R. Sherman. 2004. Individual RD1-region genes are required for export of ESAT-6/CFP-10 and for virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mol. Microbiol. 51:359370.
84. Hartl, F. U.,, S. Lecker,, E. Schiebel,, J. P. Hendrick, and, W. Wickner. 1990. The binding cascade of SecB to SecA to SecY/E mediates pre-protein targeting to the E. coli plasma membrane. Cell 63:269279.
85. Hashimoto, M.,, K. Tawaratsumida,, H. Kariya,, A. Kiyohara,, Y. Suda,, F. Krikae,, T. Kirikae, and, F. Gotz. 2006. Not lipoteichoic acid but lipoproteins appear to be the dominant immunobiologically active compounds in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Immunol. 177:31623169.
86. Hemila, H.,, A. Palva,, L. Paulin,, L. Adler,, S. Arvidson, and, I. Palva. 1991. The secretory S complex in Bacillus subtilis is identified as pyruvate dehydrogenase. Res. Microbiol. 142:779785.
87. Hemila, H.,, A. Palva,, L. Paulin,, S. Arvidson, and, I. Palva. 1990. Secretory S complex of Bacillus subtilis: sequence analysis and identity to pyruvate dehydrogenase. J. Bacteriol. 172:50525063.
88. Herrmann, J. M.,, W. Neupert, and, R. A. Stuart. 1997. Insertion into the mitochondrial inner membrane of a polytopic protein, the nuclear-encoded Oxa1p. EMBO J. 16:22172226.
89. Hesterkamp, T.,, S. Hauser,, H. Lutcke, and, B. Bukau. 1996. Escherichia coli trigger factor is a prolyl isomerase that associates with nascent polypeptide chains. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:44374441.
90. Hirschfeld, M.,, C. J. Kirschning,, R. Schwandner,, H. Wesche,, J. H. Weis,, R. M. Wooten, and, J. J. Weis. 1999. Cutting edge: inflammatory signaling by Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins is mediated by Toll-like receptor 2. J. Immunol. 163:23822386.
91. Hjelm, H.,, K. Hjelm, and, J. Sjoquist. 1972. Protein A from Staphylococcus aureus. Its isolation by affinity chromatography and its use as an immunosorbent for isolation of immunoglobulins. FEBS Lett. 28:7376.
92. Holmes, A. R.,, R. McNab,, K. W. Millsap,, M. Rohde,, S. Hammerschmidt,, J. L. Mawdsley, and, H. F. Jenkinson. 2001. The pavA gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae encodes a fibronectin-binding protein that is essential for virulence. Mol. Microbiol. 41:13951408.
93. Höltje, J.-V., and, A. Tomasz. 1975. Specific recognition of choline residues in the cell wall teichoic acid by N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanine amidase of Pneumococcus. J. Biol. Chem. 250:60726076.
94. Hsu, T.,, S. M. Hingley-Wilson,, B. Chen,, M. Chen,, A. Z. Dai,, P. M. Morin,, C. B. Marks,, J. Padiyar,, C. Goulding,, M. Gingery,, D. Eisenberg,, R. G. Russell,, S. C. Derrick,, F. M. Collins,, S. L. Morris,, C. H. King, and, W. R. Jacobs, Jr. 2003. The primary mechanism of attenuation of bacillus Calmette-Guérin is a loss of secreted lytic function required for invasion of lung interstitial tissue. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:1242012425.
95. Hughes, K. T.,, K. L. Gillen,, M. J. Semon, and, J. E. Karlinsey. 1993. Sensing structural intermediates in bacterial flagellar assembly by export of a negative regulator. Science 262:12771280.
96. Inoue, T.,, I. Tanimoto,, H. Ohta,, K. Kato,, Y. Murayama, and, K. Fukui. 1998. Molecular characterization of low-molecular-weight component protein, Flp, in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans fimbriae. Microbiol. Immunol. 42:253258.
97. Inouye. S.,, S. Wang,, J. Sekizawa,, S. Hale-goua, and, M. Inouye, 1977. Amino acid sequence for the peptide extension on the prolipoprotein of the Escherichia coli outer membrane. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74:10041008.
98. Jack, R. L.,, F. Sargent,, B. C. Berks,, G. Sawers, and, T. Palmer. 2001. Constitutive expression of Escherichia coli tat genes indicates an important role for the twin-arginine translocase during aerobic and anaerobic growth. J. Bacteriol. 183:18011804.
99. Ji, Y.,, B. Zhang,, S. F. Van Horn,, P. Warren,, G. Woodnutt,, M. K. Burnham, and, M. Rosenberg. 2001. Identification of critical staphylococcal genes using conditional pheno-types generated by antisense RNA. Science 293:22662269.
100. Johnson, T. L.,, J. Abendroth,, W. G. Hol, and, M. Sandkvist. 2006. Type II secretion: from structure to function. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 255:175186.
101. Jongbloed, J. D.,, U. Grieger,, H. Antelmann,, M. Hecker,, R. Nijland,, S. Bron, and, J. M. van Dijl. 2004. Two minimal Tat translocases in Bacillus. Mol. Microbiol. 54:13191325.
102. Jonquieres, R.,, H. Bierne,, F. Fiedler,, P. Gounon, and, P. Cossart. 1999. Interaction between the protein InlB of Listeria monocyto-genes and lipoteichoic acid: a novel mechanism of protein association at the surface of gram-positive bacteria. Mol. Microbiol. 34:902914.
103. Just, I.,, G. Fritz,, K. Aktories,, M. Giry,, M. R. Popoff,, P. Boquet,, S. Hegenbarth, and, C. von Eichel-Streiber. 1994. Clostridium difficile toxin B acts on the GTP-binding protein Rho. J. Biol. Chem. 269:1070610712.
104. Just, I.,, J. Selzer,, M. Wilm,, C. von Eichel-Streiber,, M. Mann, and, K. Aktories. 1995. Glucosylation of Rho proteins by Clostridium difficile toxin B. Nature 375:500503.
105. Just, I.,, M. Wilm,, J. Selzer,, G. Rex,, C. von Eichel-Streiber,, M. Mann, and, K. Aktories. 1995. The enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile (ToxA) monoglucosylates the Rho proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 270:1393213936.
106. Kachlany, S. C.,, P. J. Planet,, M. K. Bhattacharjee,, E. Kollia,, R. DeSalle,, D. H. Fine, and, D. H. Figurski. 2000. Nonspecific adherence by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans requires genes widespread in bacteria and archaea. J. Bacteriol. 182:61696176.
107. Kermorgant, M.,, N. Bonnefoy, and, G. Dujardin. 1997. Oxa1p, which is required for cytochrome c oxidase and ATP synthase complex formation, is embedded in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Curr. Genet. 31:302307.
108. Kist, M. L., and, R. G. Murray. 1984. Components of the regular surface array of Aquaspirillum serpens MW5 and their assembly in vitro. J. Bacteriol. 157:599606.
109. Kocks, C.,, E. Gouin,, M. Tabouret,, P. Berche,, H. Ohayon, and, P. Cossart. 1992. L. monocytogenes–induced actin assembly requires the actA gene product, a surface protein. Cell 68:521531.
110. Kocks, C.,, R. Hellio,, P. Gounon,, H. Ohayon, and, P. Cossart. 1993. Polarized distribution of Listeria monocytogenes surface protein ActA at the site of directional actin assembly. J. Cell. Sci. 105(Pt. 3):699710.
111. Kontinen, V. P.,, P. Saris, and, M. Sarvas. 1991. A gene (prsA) of Bacillus subtilis involved in a novel, late stage of protein export. Mol. Micro-biol. 5:12731283.
112. Kuhn, A., and, W. Wickner. 1985. Conserved residues of the leader peptide are essential for cleavage by leader peptidase. J. Biol. Chem. 260:1591415918.
113. Kumamoto, C. A., and, O. Francetic. 1993. Highly selective binding of nascent polypeptides by an Escherichia coli chaperone protein in vivo. J. Bacteriol. 175:21842188.
114. Kutsukake, K.,, S. Iyoda,, K. Ohnishi, and, T. Iino. 1994. Genetic and molecular analyses of the interaction between the flagellum-specific sigma and anti-sigma factors in Salmonella typhimurium. EMBO J. 13:45684576.
115. Kutsukake, K.,, Y. Ohya, and, T. Iino. 1990. Transcriptional analysis of the flagellar regulon of Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 172:741747.
116. Lai, E. M.,, N. D. Phadke,, M. T. Kachman,, R. Giorno,, S. Vazquez,, J. A. Vazquez,, J. R. Maddock, and, A. Driks. 2003. Proteomic analysis of the spore coats of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus anthracis. J. Bacteriol. 185:14431454.
117. Lancefield, R. 1962. Current knowledge of type-specific M antigens of group A streptococci. J. Immunol. 89:307313.
118. Lauer, P.,, C. D. Rinaudo,, M. Soriani,, I. Margarit,, D. Maione,, R. Rosini,, A. R. Taddei,, M. Mora,, R. Rappuoli,, G. Grandi, and, J. L. Telford. 2005. Genome analysis reveals pili in group B Streptococcus. Science 309:105.
119. Lee, V. T.,, S. K. Mazmanian, and, O. Schneewind. 2001. A program of Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion reactions is triggered by specific host signals. J. Bacteriol. 183:49704978.
120. Lee, V. T., and, O. Schneewind. 2001. Protein secretion and the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. Genes Dev. 15:17251752.
121. Leibovitz, E.,, H. Ohayon,, P. Gounon, and, P. Beguin. 1997. Characterization and subcellular localization of the Clostridium thermocellum scaffoldin dockerin binding protein SdbA. J. Bacteriol. 179:25192523.
122. Lemaire, M.,, H. Ohayon,, P. Gounon,, T. Fujino, and, P. Beguin. 1995. OlpB, a new outer layer protein of Clostridium thermocellum, and binding of its S-layer-like domains to components of the cell envelope. J. Bacteriol. 177:24512459.
123. Losick, R., and, P. Stragier. 1992. Criss-cross regulation of cell-type specific gene expression during development in B. subtilis. Nature 355:601604.
124. Lupas, A. 1996. A circular permutation event in the evolution of the SLH domain? Mol. Micro-biol. 20:897898.
125. Lupas, A.,, H. Engelhardt,, J. Peters,, U. Santarius,, S. Volker, and, W. Baumeister. 1994. Domain structure of the Acetogenium kivui surface layer revealed by electron crystallography and sequence analysis. J. Bacteriol. 176:12241233.
126. Ma, Y.,, A. E. Bryant,, D. B. Salmi,, S. M. Hayes-Schroer,, E. McIndoo,, M. J. Aldape, and, D. L. Stevens. 2006. Identification and characterization of bicistronic speB and prsA gene expression in group A Streptococcus. J. Bacteriol. 188:76267634.
127. Macnab, R. M. 2004. Type III flagellar protein export and flagellar assembly. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1694:207217.
128. Madden, J. C.,, N. Ruiz, and, M. Caparon. 2001. Cytolysin-mediated translocation (CMT): a functional equivalent of type III secretion in gram-positive bacteria. Cell 104:143152.
129. Mader, C.,, C. Huber,, D. Moll,, U. B. Sleytr, and, M. Sara. 2004. Interaction of the crystalline bacterial cell surface layer protein SbsB and the secondary cell wall polymer of Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72 assessed by real-time surface plasmon resonance biosensor technology. J. Bacteriol. 186:17581768.
130. Mahairas, G. G.,, P. J. Sabo,, M. J. Hickey,, D. C. Singh, and, C. K. Stover. 1996. Molecular analysis of genetic differences between Mycobacterium bovis BCG and virulent M. bovis. J. Bacteriol. 178:12741282.
131. Maione, D.,, I. Margarit,, C. D. Rinaudo,, V. Masignani,, M. Mora,, M. Scarselli,, H. Tettelin,, C. Brettoni,, E. T. Iacobini,, R. Rosini,, N. D’Agostino,, L. Miorin,, S. Buccato,, M. Mariani,, G. Galli,, R. Nogarotto,, V. Nardi Dei,, F. Vegni,, C. Fraser,, G. Mancuso,, G. Teti,, L. C. Madoff,, L. C. Paoletti,, R. Rappuoli,, D. L. Kasper,, J. L. Telford, and, G. Grandi. 2005. Identification of a universal group B streptococcus vaccine by multiple genome screen. Science 309:148150.
132. Matsuyama, S.,, Y. Fujita, and, S. Mizushima. 1993. SecD is involved in the release of translocated secretory proteins from the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 12:265270.
133. Mattick, J. S. 2002. Type IV pili and twitching motility. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 56:289314.
134. Mazmanian, S. K.,, G. Liu,, E. R. Jensen,, E. Lenoy, and, O. Schneewind. 2000. Staphylococcus aureus sortase mutants defective in the display of surface proteins and in the pathogenesis of animal infections. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:55105515.
135. Reference deleted.
136. Mazmanian, S. K.,, G. Liu,, H. Ton-That, and, O. Schneewind. 1999. Staphylococcus aureus sortase, an enzyme that anchors surface proteins to the cell wall. Science 285:760763.
137. Mazmanian, S. K.,, E. P. Skaar,, A. H. Gaspar,, M. Humayun,, P. Gornicki,, J. Jelenska,, A. Joachmiak,, D. M. Missiakas, and, O. Schneewind. 2003. Passage of heme-iron across the envelope of Staphylococcus aureus. Science 299:906909.
138. Medini, D.,, C. Donati,, H. Tettelin,, V. Masignani, and, R. Rappuoli. 2005. The microbial pan-genome. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 15:589594.
139. Medzhitov, R. 2001. Toll-like receptors and innate immunity. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 1:135145.
140. Medzhitov, R.,, P. Preston-Hurlburt, and, C. A. J. Janeway. 1997. A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity. Nature 388:394397.
141. Mesnage, S.,, T. Fontaine,, T. Mignot,, M. Delepierre,, M. Mock, and, A. Fouet. 2000. Bacterial SLH domain proteins are non-covalently anchored to the cell surface via a conserved mechanism involving wall polysaccharide pyruvylation. EMBO J. 19:44734484.
142. Mesnage, S.,, E. Tosi-Couture,, P. Gounon,, M. Mock, and, A. Fouet. 1998. The capsule and S-layer: two independent and yet compatible macromolecular structures in Bacillus anthracis. J. Bacteriol. 180:5258.
143. Mesnage, S.,, E. Tosi-Couture,, M. Mock,, P. Gounon, and, A. Fouet. 1997. Molecular characterization of the Bacillus anthracis main S-layer component: evidence that it is the major cell-associated antigen. Mol. Microbiol. 23:11471155
144. Miller, J. D.,, H. D. Bernstein, and, P. Walter. 1994. Interaction of E. coli Ffh/4.5S ribonucleo-protein and FtsY mimics that of mammalian signal recognition particle and its receptor. Nature 367:657659.
145. Milohanic, E.,, R. Jonquieres,, P. Cossart,, P. Berche, and, J. L. Gaillard. 2001. The autolysin Ami contributes to the adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to eukaryotic cells via its cell wall anchor. Mol. Microbiol. 39:12121224.
146. Milohanic, E.,, R. Jonquieres,, P. Glaser,, P. Dehoux,, C. Jacquet,, P. Berche,, P. Cossart, and, J. L. Gaillard. 2004. Sequence and binding activity of the autolysin-adhesin Ami from epidemic Listeria monocytogenes 4b. Infect. Immun. 72:44014409.
147. Mori, H., and, K. Cline. 2001. Post-translational protein translocation into thylakoids by the Sec and DeltapH-dependent pathways. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1541:8090.
148. Muller, M., and, G. Blobel. 1984. In vitro translocation of bacterial proteins across the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:74217425.
149. Murakami, T.,, K. Haga,, M. Takeuchi, and, T. Sato. 2002. Analysis of the Bacillus subtilis spoIIIJ gene and its paralogue gene, yqjG. J. Bacteriol. 184:19982004.
150. Navarre, W. W., and, O. Schneewind. 1994. Proteolytic cleavage and cell wall anchoring at the LPXTG motif of surface proteins in gram-positive bacteria. Mol. Microbiol. 14:115121.
151. Neu, H. C. 1992. The crisis in antibiotic resistance. Science 257:10641073.
152. Newton, S. M.,, P. E. Klebba,, C. Raynaud,, Y. Shao,, X. Jiang,, I. Dubail,, C. Archer,, C. Frehel, and, A. Charbit. 2005. The svpA-srtB locus of Listeria monocytogenes: fur-mediated iron regulation and effect on virulence. Mol. Micro-biol. 55:927940.
153. Nikaido, H. 1992. Porins and specific channels of bacterial outer membranes. Mol. Microbiol. 6:435442.
154. Nouwen, N.,, M. Piwowarek,, G. Berrelkamp, and, A. J. Driessen. 2005. The large first periplasmic loop of SecD and SecF plays an important role in SecDF functioning. J. Bacteriol. 187:58575860.
155. Ohnishi, K.,, K. Kutsukake,, H. Suzuki, and, T. Lino. 1990. Gene fliA encodes an alternative sigma factor specific for flagellar operons in Salmonella typhimurium. Mol. Gen. Genet. 221:139147.
156. Ohnishi, K.,, K. Kutsukake,, H. Suzuki, and, T. Lino. 1992. A novel transcriptional regulation mechanism in the flagellar regulon of Salmonella typhimurium: an antisigma factor inhibits the activity of the flagellum-specific sigma factor, sigma F. Mol. Microbiol. 6:31493157.
157. Olabarria, G.,, J. L. Carrascosa,, M. A. de Pedro, and, J. Berenguer. 1996. A conserved motif in S-layer proteins is involved in peptidoglycan binding in Thermus thermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 178:47654772.
158. Oliver, D. B., and, J. Beckwith. 1981. E. coli mutant pleiotropically defective in the export of secreted proteins. Cell 25:765772.
159. Pallen, M. J. 2002. The ESAT-6/WXG100 superfamily—and a new gram-positive secretion system? Trends Microbiol. 10:209212.
160. Pallen, M. J.,, R. R. Chaudhuri, and, I. R. Henderson. 2003. Genomic analysis of secretion systems. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 6:519527.
161. Pancholi, V., and, V. A. Fischetti. 1992. A major surface protein on group A streptococci is a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase with multiple binding activity. J. Exp. Med. 176:415426.
162. Peabody, C. R.,, Y. J. Chung,, M. R. Yen,, D. Vidal-Ingigliardi,, A. P. Pugsley, and, M. H. Saier, Jr. 2003. Type II protein secretion and its relationship to bacterial type IV pili and archaeal flagella. Microbiology 149:30513072.
163. Planet, P. J.,, S. C. Kachlany,, R. DeSalle, and, D. H. Figurski. 2001. Phylogeny of genes for secretion NTPases: identification of the widespread tadA subfamily and development of a diagnostic key for gene classification. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:25032508.
164. Pohlschröder, M.,, W. A. Prinz,, E. Hart-mann, and, J. Beckwith. 1997. Protein translocation in the three domains of life: variations on a theme. Cell 91:563566.
165. Popham, D. L.,, J. Helin,, C. E. Costello, and, P. Setlow. 1996. Muramic acid lactam in peptidoglycan of Bacillus spores is required for spore outgrowth but not for spore dehydration or heat resistance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:1540515410.
166. Porcelli, I.,, E. de Leeuw,, R. Wallis,, E. van den Brink-van der Laan,, B. de Kruijff,, B. A. Wallace,, T. Palmer, and, B. C. Berks. 2002. Characterization and membrane assembly of the TatA component of the Escherichia coli twin-arginine protein transport system. Biochemistry 41:1369013697.
167. Poritz, M. A.,, K. Strub, and, P. Walter. 1988. Human SRP RNA and E. coli 4.5S RNA contain a highly homologous structural domain. Cell 55:46.
168. Pugsley, A. P. 1993. The complete general secretory pathway in gram-negative bacteria. Microbiol. Rev. 57:50108.
169. Pym, A. S.,, P. Brodin,, R. Brosch,, M. Huerre, and, S. T. Cole. 2002. Loss of RD1 contributed to the attenuation of the live tuberculosis vaccines Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium microti. Mol. Microbiol. 46:709717.
170. Pym, A. S.,, P. Brodin,, L. Majlessi,, R. Brosch,, C. Demangel,, A. Williams,, K. E. Griffiths,, G. Marchal,, C. Leclerc, and, S. T. Cole. 2003. Recombinant BCG exporting ESAT-6 confers enhanced protection against tuberculosis. Nat. Med. 9:533539.
171. Randall, L. L. 1992. Peptide binding by chaperone SecB: implications for recognition of non-native structure. Science 257:241245.
172. Randall, L. L.,, T. B. Topping, and, S. J. Hardy. 1990. No specific recognition of leader peptide by SecB, a chaperone involved in protein export. Science 248:860863.
173. Reader, R. W., and, L. Siminovitch. 1971. Lysis defective mutants of bacteriophage lambda: genetics and physiology of S cistron mutants. Virology 43:607622.
174. Renshaw, P. S.,, K. L. Lightbody,, V. Veverka,, F. W. Muskett,, G. Kelly,, T. A. Frenkiel,, S. V. Gordon,, R. G. Hewinson,, B. Burke,, J. Norman,, R. A. Williamson, and, M. D. Carr. 2005. Structure and function of the complex formed by the tuberculosis virulence factors CFP-10 and ESAT-6. EMBO J. 24:24912498.
175. Renshaw, P. S.,, P. Panagiotidou,, A. Whelan,, S. V. Gordon,, R. G. Hewinson,, R. A. Williamson, and, M. D. Carr. 2002. Conclusive evidence that the major T-cell antigens of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex ESAT-6 and CFP-10 form a tight, 1:1 complex and characterization of the structural properties of ESAT-6, CFP-10, and the ESAT-6*CFP-10 complex. Implications for pathogenesis and virulence. J. Biol. Chem. 277:2159821603.
176. Ries, W.,, C. Hotzy,, I. Schocher,, U. B. Sleytr, and, M. Sara. 1997. Evidence that the N-terminal part of the S-layer protein from Bacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2 recognizes a secondary cell wall polymer. J. Bacteriol. 179:38923898.
177. Romisch, K.,, J. Webb,, J. Herz,, S. Prehn,, R. Frank,, M. Vingron, and, B. Dobberstein. 1989. Homology of 54K protein of signal-recognition particle, docking protein and two E. coli proteins with putative GTP-binding domains. Nature 340:478482.
178. Ronda-Lain, C.,, R. Lopez,, A. Tapia, and, A. Tomasz. 1977. Role of the pneumococcal autolysin (murein hydrolase) in the release of progeny bacteriophage and in the bacteriophage-induced lysis of the host cells. J. Virol. 21:366374.
179. Rosch, J., and, M. Caparon. 2004. A micro-domain for protein secretion in gram-positive bacteria. Science 304:15131515.
180. Rosenstein, R., and, F. Gotz. 2000. Staphylococcal lipases: biochemical and molecular characterization. Biochimie 82:10051014.
181. Samuelson, J. C.,, M. Chen,, F. Jiang,, I. Moller,, M. Wiedmann,, A. Kuhn,, G. J. Phillips, and, R. E. Dalbey. 2000. YidC mediates membrane protein insertion in bacteria. Nature 406:637641.
182. Samuelson, J. C.,, F. Jiang,, L. Yi,, M. Chen,, J. W. de Gier,, A. Kuhn, and, R. E. Dalbey. 2001. Function of YidC for the insertion of M13 procoat protein in Escherichia coli: translocation of mutants that show differences in their membrane potential dependence and Sec requirement. J. Biol. Chem. 276:3484734852.
183. Sánchez-Puelles, J. M.,, C. Ronda,, J.-L. García,, R. Lopez, and, E. García. 1986. Searching for autolysin functions: characterization of a pneumococcal mutant deleted in the lytA gene. Eur. J. Biochem. 158:289293.
184. Sandberg, A. L.,, S. Ruhl,, R. A. Joralmon,, M. J. Brennan,, M. J. Sutphin, and, J. O. Cisar. 1995. Putative glycoprotein and glycolipid polymorphnuclear leukocyte receptors for the Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 fimbrial lectin. Infect. Immun. 63:26252631.
185. Sargent, F.,, E. G. Bogsch,, N. R. Stanley,, M. Wexler,, C. Robinson,, B. C. Berks, and, T. Palmer. 1998. Overlapping functions of components of a bacterial Sec-independent protein export pathway. EMBO J. 17:36403650.
186. Schaffer, C., and, P. Messner. 2004. Surface-layer glycoproteins: an example for the diversity of bacterial glycosylation with promising impacts on nanobiotechnology. Glycobiology 14:31R42R.
187. Schneewind, O.,, A. Fowler, and, K. F. Faull. 1995. Structure of the cell wall anchor of surface proteins in Staphylococcus aureus. Science 268:103106.
188. Schneewind, O.,, D. Mihaylova-Petkov, and, P. Model. 1993. Cell wall sorting signals in surface protein of gram-positive bacteria. EMBO J. 12:48034811.
189. Schneewind, O.,, P. Model, and, V. A. Fischetti. 1992. Sorting of protein A to the staphylococcal cell wall. Cell 70:267281.
190. Scotti, P. A.,, M. L. Urbanus,, J. Brunner,, J. W. de Gier,, G. von Heijne,, C. van der Does,, A. J. Driessen,, B. Oudega, and, J. Luirink. 2000. YidC, the Escherichia coli homologue of mitochondrial Oxa1p, is a component of the Sec translocase. EMBO J. 19:542549.
191. Shockman, G. D., and, J. F. Barrett. 1983. Structure, function, and assembly of cell walls of gram-positive bacteria. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 37:501527.
192. Shockman, G. D., and, J.-V. Holtje. 1994. Microbial peptidoglycan (murein) hydrolases, p. 131–166. In J.-M. Ghuysen and, R. Hakenbeck (ed.), Bacterial Cell Wall, vol. 27. Elsevier Biochemical Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
193. Sibbald, M. J.,, A. K. Ziebandt,, S. Engel-mann,, M. Hecker,, A. de Jong,, H. J. Harm-sen,, G. C. Raangs,, I. Stokroos,, J. P. Arends,, J.Y. Dubois, and, J. M. van Dijl. 2006. Mapping the pathways to staphylococcal pathogenesis by comparative secretomics. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 70:755788.
194. Sieradzki, K.,, R. B. Roberts,, S. W. Haber, and, A. Tomasz. 1999. The development of vancomycin resistance in a patient with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 340:517523.
195. Silhavy, T. J.,, S. A. Benson, and, S. D. Emr. 1983. Mechanisms of protein localization. Micro-biol. Rev. 47:313344.
196. Sjoquist, J.,, B. Meloun, and, H. Hjelm. 1972. Protein A isolated from Staphylococcus aureus after digestion with lysostaphin. Eur. J. Biochem. 29:572578.
197. Sjöquist, J.,, J. Movitz,, I.-B. Johansson, and, H. Hjelm. 1972. Localization of protein A in the bacteria. Eur. J. Biochem. 30:190194.
198. Sleytr, U. B. 1997. Basic and applied S-layer research: an overview. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 20:512.
199. Sleytr, U. B., and, A. M. Glauert. 1976. Ultra-structure of the cell walls of two closely related clostridia that possess different regular arrays of surface subunits. J. Bacteriol. 126:869882.
200. Sorensen, A. L.,, S. Nagai,, G. Houen,, P. Andersen, and, A. B. Andersen. 1995. Purification and characterization of a low-molecular-mass T-cell antigen secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect. Immun. 63:17101717.
201. Stanley, S. A.,, S. Raghavan,, W. W. Hwang, and, J. S. Cox. 2003. Acute infection and macrophage subversion by Mycobacterium tubercu- losis require a specialized secretion system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:1300113006.
202. Stoll, H.,, J. Dengjel,, C. Nerz, and, F. Gotz. 2005. Staphylococcus aureus deficient in lipidation of prelipoproteins is attenuated in growth and immune activation. Infect. Immun. 73:24112423.
203. Stranger-Jones, Y. K.,, T. Bae, and, O. Schneewind. 2006. Vaccine assembly from surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:1694216947.
204. Struck, J. C.,, H. Y. Toschka,, T. Specht, and, V. A. Erdmann. 1988. Common structural features between eukaryotic 7SL RNAs, eubacterial 4.5S RNA and scRNA and archaebacterial 7S RNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 16:7740.
205. Takeda, K.,, T. Kaisho, and, S. Akira. 2003. Toll-like receptors. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 21:335376.
206. Tan, K. S.,, B. Y. Wee, and, K. P. Song. 2001. Evidence for holin function of tcdE gene in the pathogenicity of Clostridium difficile. J. Med. Microbiol. 50:613619.
207. Tan, T.,, W. L. Lee,, D. C. Alexander,, S. Grin-stein, and, J. Liu. 2006. The ESAT-6/CFP-10 secretion system of Mycobacterium marinum modulates phagosome maturation. Cell Microbiol. 8:14171429.
208. Telford, J. L.,, M. A. Barocchi,, I. Margarit,, R. Rappuoli, and, G. Grandi. 2006. Pili in gram-positive pathogens. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 4:509519.
209. Tettelin, H.,, K. E. Nelson,, I. T. Paulsen,, J. A. Eisen,, T. D. Read,, S. Peterson,, J. Heidelberg,, R.T. DeBoy,, D. H. Haft,, R. J. Dodson,, A. S. Durkin,, M. Gwinn,, J. F. Kolonay,, W. C. Nelson,, J. D. Peterson,, L. A. Umayam,, O. White,, S. L. Salzberg,, M. R. Lewis,, D. Radune,, E. Holtzapple,, H. Khouri,, A. M. Wolf,, T. R. Utterback,, C. L. Hansen,, L. A. McDonald,, T. V. Feldblyum,, S. Angiuoli,, T. Dickinson,, E. K. Hickey,, I. E. Holt,, B. J. Loftus,, F. Yang,, H. O. Smith,, J. C. Venter,, B. A. Dougherty,, D. A. Morrison,, S. K. Hollingshead, and, C. M. Fraser. 2001. Complete genome sequence of a virulent isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Science 293:498506.
210. Tjalsma, H.,, H. Antelmann,, J. D. Jong-bloed,, P. G. Braun,, E. Darmon,, R. Dorenbos,, J. Y. Dubois,, H. Westers,, G. Zanen,, W. J. Quax,, O. P. Kuipers,, S. Bron,, M. Hecker, and, J. M. van Dijl. 2004. Proteomics of protein secretion by Bacillus subtilis: separating the “secrets” of the secretome. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68:207233.
211. Tjalsma, H.,, A. Bolhuis,, J. D. Jongbloed,, S. Bron, and, J. M. van Dijl. 2000. Signal peptide-dependent protein transport in Bacillus subtilis: a genome-based survey of the secretome. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64:515547.
212. Tjalsma, H.,, A. Bolhuis,, M. L. van Roos-malen,, T. Wiegert,, W. Schumann,, C. P. Broekhuizen,, W. J. Quax,, G. Venema,, S. Bron, and, J. M. van Dijl. 1998. Functional analysis of the secretory precursor processing machinery of Bacillus subtilis: identification of a eubacterial homolog of archaeal and eukaryotic signal peptidases. Genes Dev. 12:23182331.
213. Tokunaga, M.,, H. Tokunaga, and, H. C. Wu. 1982. Post-translational modification and processing of Escherichia coli prolipoprotein in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:22552259.
214. Tomich, M.,, D. H. Fine, and, D. H. Figurski. 2006. The TadV protein of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a novel aspartic acid prepilin peptidase required for maturation of the Flp1 pilin and TadE and TadF pseudopilins. J. Bacteriol. 188:68996914.
215. Ton-That, H., and, O. Schneewind. 2003. Assembly of pili on the surface of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Mol. Microbiol. 50:14291438.
216. Tsuboi, A.,, R. Uchihi,, R. Tabata,, Y. Takahashi,, H. Hashiba,, T. Sasaki,, H. Yamagata,, N. Tsukagoshi, and, S. Udaka. 1986. Characterization of the genes coding for two major cell wall proteins from protein-producing Bacillus brevis 47: complete nucleotide sequence of the outer wall protein gene. J. Bacteriol. 168:365373.
217. Ulbrandt, N. D.,, J. A. Newitt, and, H. D. Bernstein. 1997. The E. coli signal recognition particle is required for the insertion of a subset of inner membrane proteins. Cell 88:187196.
218. Valent, Q. A.,, D. A. Kendall,, S. High,, R. Kusters,, B. Oudega, and, J. Luirink. 1995. Early events in preprotein recognition in E. coli: interaction of SRP and trigger factor with nascent polypeptides. EMBO J. 14:54945505.
219. Valent, Q. A.,, P. A. Scotti,, S. High,, J. W. de Gier,, G. von Heijne,, G. Lentzen,, W. Wintermeyer,, B. Oudega, and, J. Luirink. 1998. The Escherichia coli SRP and SecB targeting pathways converge at the translocon. EMBO J. 17:25042512.
220. van der Wolk, J. P.,, J. G. de Wit, and, A. J. Driessen. 1997. The catalytic cycle of the Escherichia coli SecA ATPase comprises two distinct preprotein translocation events. EMBO J. 16:72977304.
221. van Roosmalen, M. L.,, N. Geukens,, J. D. Jongbloed,, H. Tjalsma,, J. Y. Dubois,, S. Bron,, J. M. van Dijl, and, J. Anné. 2004. Type I signal peptidases of gram-positive bacteria. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1694:279297.
222. von Heijne, G. 1983. Patterns of amino acids near signal-sequence cleavage sites. Eur. J. Biochem. 133:1721.
223. von Heijne, G. 1989. The structure of signal peptides from bacterial lipoproteins. Protein. Eng. 2:531534.
224. von Heijne, G., and, L. Abrahmsen. 1989. Species-specific variation in signal peptide design. Implications for protein secretion in foreign hosts. FEBS Lett. 244:439446.
225. Voth, D. E., and, J. D. Ballard. 2005. Clostridium difficile toxins: mechanism of action and role in disease. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18:247263.
226. Walter, P., and, G. Blobel. 1980. Purification of a membrane-associated protein complex required for protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:71127116.
227. Walter, P., and, G. Blobel. 1981. Translocation of proteins across the endoplasmic reticulum III. Signal recognition protein (SRP) causes signal sequence-dependent and site-specific arrest of chain elongation that is released by microsomal membranes. J. Cell Biol. 91:557561.
228. Wang, A.,, B. J. Wilkinson, and, R. K. Jayaswal. 1991. Sequence analysis of a Staphylococcus aureus gene encoding a peptidoglycan hydrolase activity. Gene 102:105109.
229. Weiner, J. H.,, P. T. Bilous,, G. M. Shaw,, S. P. Lubitz,, L. Frost,, G. H. Thomas,, J. A. Cole, and, R. J. Turner. 1998. A novel and ubiquitous system for membrane targeting and secretion of cofactor-containing proteins. Cell 93:93101.
230. Wickus, G. G.,, A. D. Warth, and, J. L. Strominger. 1972. Appearance of muramic lactam during cortex synthesis in sporulating cultures of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium. J. Bacteriol. 111:625627.
231. Wild, J.,, E. Altman,, T. Yura, and, C.A. Gross. 1992. DnaK and DnaJ heat shock proteins participate in protein export in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 6:11651172.
232. Williams, W. A.,, M. L. Burts,, J. Bubeck Wardenburg, and, D. Missiakas. Staphylococcus aureus prsA is dispensable for protein secretion. J. Bacteriol. Submitted.
233. Wolfe, P. B.,, P. Silver, and, W. Wickner. 1982. The isolation of homogeneous leader peptidase from a strain of Escherichia coli which overproduces the enzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 257:78987902.
234. Yahr, T. L., and, W. T. Wickner. 2001. Functional reconstitution of bacterial Tat translocation in vitro. EMBO J. 20:24722479.
235. Yamada, S.,, M. Sugai,, H. Komatsuzawa,, S. Nakashima,, T. Oshida,, A. Matsumoto, and, H. Suginaka. 1996. An autolysin ring associated with cell separation of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacteriol. 178:15651571.
236. Yoshimura, A.,, E. Lien,, R. R. Ingalls,, E. Tuomanen,, R. Dziarski, and, D. Golenbock. 1999. Cutting edge: recognition of gram-positive bacterial cell wall components by the innate immune system occurs via Toll-like receptor 2. J. Immunol. 163:15.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error