Chapter 15 : Genomic Analysis of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Genomic Analysis of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815530/9781555814519_Chap15-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815530/9781555814519_Chap15-2.gif


This chapter provides an overview of how genome sequence data are changing our understanding of the mechanisms and evolution of plant pathogenesis, and discusses the opportunities and challenges genome data present for future research. The majority of plant pathogenic bacteria contain large numbers of genomic islands, and it is clear that in many cases they play an essential role in disease. Genes encoding the phytotoxins coronatine and syringomycin reside on PIs, as do their recently discovered counterparts in subsp. SCR1043. Pathogenicity and virulence factors have received the greatest focus in the genomic analysis of plant pathogens. Protein secretion systems are essential for pathogenesis in most plant pathogenic bacteria and have been extensively studied, particularly in proteobacterial pathogens. The phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA or auxin) is produced by many phytopathogenic bacteria. IAA production has been shown to contribute to in planta and epiphytic growth, virulence, and the regulation of syringomycin in . Genome analyses of plant pathogens have highlighted three aspects of physiological adaptation to life on plants: specialization, innovation, and flexibility. A largely uninvestigated element in understanding the content and function of plant pathogen genomes, particularly the genomes of facultative plant pathogens, rests on understanding what plant pathogenic bacteria do when not causing disease.

Citation: Preston G, Guttman D, Toth I. 2007. Genomic Analysis of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, p 392-418. In Pallen M, Nelson K, Preston G (ed), Bacterial Pathogenomics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815530.ch15

Key Concept Ranking

Plant Pathogenic Bacteria
Type III Secretion System
Type II Secretion System
Type I Secretion System
Type II Secretion System
Type I Secretion System
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Pathogenicity and virulence factors produced by proteobacterial plant pathogens.

Citation: Preston G, Guttman D, Toth I. 2007. Genomic Analysis of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, p 392-418. In Pallen M, Nelson K, Preston G (ed), Bacterial Pathogenomics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815530.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Main routes of bacterial penetration and infection.

Citation: Preston G, Guttman D, Toth I. 2007. Genomic Analysis of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, p 392-418. In Pallen M, Nelson K, Preston G (ed), Bacterial Pathogenomics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815530.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abramovitch, R. B., and, G. B. Martin. 2004. Strategies used by bacterial pathogens to suppress plant defenses. Cur. Opin. Plant Biol. 7:356364.
2. Alarcon-Chaidez, F. J.,, A. Penaloza-Vazquez,, M. Ullrich, and, C. L. Bender. 1999. Characterization of plasmids encoding the phytotoxin coronatine in Pseudomonas syringae. Plasmid 42:210220.
3. Alegria, M. C.,, D. P. Souza,, M. O. Andrade,, C. Docena,, L. Khater,, C. H. I. Ramos,, A. C. R. da Silva, and, C. S. Farah. 2005. Identification of new protein-protein interactions involving the products of the chromosome- and plasmid-encoded type IV secretion loci of the phytopathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. J. Bacteriol. 187:23152325.
4. Alfano, J. R.,, A. O. Charkowski,, W.-L. Deng,, J. L. Badel,, T. Petnicki-Ocwieja,, K. van Dijk, and, A. Collmer. 2000. The Pseudomonas syringae Hrp pathogenicity island has a tripartite mosaic structure composed of a cluster of type III secretion genes bounded by exchangeable effector and conserved effector loci that contribute to parasitic fitness and pathogenicity in plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:48564861.
5. Alfano, J. R., and, A. Collmer. 2004. Type III secretion system effector proteins: double agents in bacterial disease and plant defense. Ann. Rev. of Phytopathol. 42:385414.
6. Arnold, D. L.,, A. Pitman, and, R.W. Jackson. 2003. Pathogenicity and other genomic islands in plant pathogenic bacteria. Mol. Plant Pathol. 4:407420.
7. Bai, X.,, J. Zhang,, A. Ewing,, S. A. Miller,, A. Jancso Radek,, D. V. Shevchenko,, K. Tsukerman,, T. Walunas,, A. Lapidus,, J.W. Campbell, and, S. A. Hogenhout. 2006. Living with genome instability: the adaptation of phytoplasmas to diverse environments of their insect and plant hosts. J. Bacteriol. 188:36823696.
8. Bauer, D. W.,, A. J. Bogdanove,, S.V. Beer, and, A. Collmer. 1994. Erwinia chrysanthemi hrp genes and their involvement in soft rot pathogenesis and elicitation of the hypersensitive response. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 7:573581.
9. Bedini, E.,, C. DeCastro,, G. Erbs,, L. Mangoni,, J. M. Dow,, M.-A. Newman,, M. Parrilli, and, C. Unverzagt. 2005. Structure-dependent modulation of a pathogen response in plants by synthetic O-antigen polysaccharides. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127:24142416.
10. Bell, K. S.,, M. Sebaihia,, L. Pritchard,, M. T. G. Holden,, L. J. Hyman,, M. C. Holeva,, N. R. Thomson,, S. D. Bentley,, L. J. C. Churcher,, K. Mungall,, R. Atkin,, N. Bason,, K. Brooks,, T. Chillingworth,, K. Clark,, J. Doggett,, A. Fraser,, Z. Hance,, H. Hauser,, K. Jagels,, S. Moule,, H. Norbertczak,, D. Ormond,, C. Price,, M. A. Quail,, M. Sanders,, D. Walker,, S. Whitehead,, G. P. C. Salmond,, P. R. J. Birch,, J. Parkhill, and, I. K. Toth. 2004. Genome sequence of the enterobacterial phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and characterization of virulence factors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:1110511110.
11. Bender, C. L.,, F. Alarcon-Chaidez, and, D. C. Gross. 1999. Pseudomonas syringae phytotoxins: mode of action, regulation, and biosynthesis by peptide and polyketide synthetases. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 63:266292.
12. Bender, C. L.,, D. K. Malvick, and, R. E. Mitchell. 1989. Plasmid-mediated production of the phytotoxin coronatine in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. J. Bacteriol. 171:807812.
13. Bender, C. L.,, S. A. Young, and, R. E. Mitchell. 1991. Conservation of plasmid DNA sequences in coronatine-producing pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:993999.
14. Binet, R.,, S. Letoffe,, J. M. Ghigo, P. Delepelaire, and, C. Wandersman. 1997. Protein secretion by gram-negative bacterial ABC exporters—a review. Gene 192:711.
15. Binet, R., and, C. Wandersman. 1996. Cloning of the Serratia marcescens hasF gene encoding the Has ABC exporter outer membrane component: a TolC analogue. Mol. Microbiol. 22:265273.
16. Bogdanove, A. J.,, D. W. Bauer, and, S.V. Beer. 1998. Erwinia amylovora secretes DspE, a pathogenicity factor and functional AvrE homolog, through the Hrp (type III secretion) pathway. J. Bacteriol. 180:22442247.
17. Boureau, T.,, H. El Maarouf-Bouteau,, A. Garnier,, M.-N. Brisset,, C. Perino,, I. Pucheu, and, M.-A. Barny. 2006. DspA/E, a type III effector essential for Erwinia amylovora pathogenicity and growth in planta, induces cell death in host apple and nonhost tobacco plants. Mol. Plant Microbe. Interact. 19:1624.
18. Bretz, J. R., and, S. W. Hutcheson. 2004. Role of type III effector secretion during bacterial pathogenesis in another kingdom. Infect. Immun. 72:36973705.
19. Broothaerts, W.,, H. J. Mitchell,, B. Weir,, S. Kaines,, L. M. A. Smith,, W. Yang,, J. E. Mayer,, C. Roa-Rodriguez, and, R. A. Jefferson. 2005. Gene transfer to plants by diverse species of bacteria. Nature 433:629633.
20. Buell, C. R., and, A. J. Anderson. 1992. Genetic analysis of the aggA locus involved in agglutination and adherence of Pseudomonas putida, a beneficial pseudomonad. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 5:154162.
21. Buell, C. R.,, V. Joardar,, M. Lindeberg,, J. Selengut,, I. T. Paulsen,, M. L. Gwinn,, R. J. Dodson,, R. T. Deboy,, A. S. Durkin,, J. F. Kolonay,, R. Madupu,, S. Daugherty,, L. Brinkac,, M. J. Beanan,, D. H. Haft,, W. C. Nelson,, T. David-sen,, N. Zafar,, L. Zhou,, J. Liu,, Q. Yuan,, H. Khouri,, N. Fedorova,, B. Tran,, D. Russell,, K. Berry,, T. Utterback,, S. E. Van Aken,, T. V. Feldblyum,, M. D’Ascenzo,, W.-L. Deng,, A. R. Ramos,, J. R. Alfano,, S. Cartinhour,, A. K. Chatterjee,, T. P. Delaney,, S. G. Lazarowitz,, G. B. Martin,, D. J. Schneider,, X. Tang,, C. L. Bender,, O. White,, C. M. Fraser, and, A. Collmer. 2003. The complete genome sequence of the Arabidopsis and tomato pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:1018110186.
22. Bukhalid, R. A.,, S. Y. Chung, and, R. Loria. 1998. nec1, a gene conferring a necrogenic phenotype, is conserved in plant-pathogenic Streptomyces spp. and linked to a transposase pseudogene. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 11:960967.
23. Buttner, D., and, U. Bonas. 2003. Common infection strategies of plant and animal pathogenic bacteria. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 6:312319.
24. Buttner, D.,, L. Noel,, F. Thieme, and, U. Bonas. 2003. Genomic approaches in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria allow fishing for virulence genes. J. Biotechnol. 106:203214.
25. Cao, T. B.,, J. Saier, and, H. Milton. 2003. The general protein secretory pathway: phylogenetic analyses leading to evolutionary conclusions. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1609:115125.
26. Castaneda, A.,, J. D. Reddy,, B. El-Yacoubi, and, D. W. Gabriel. 2005. Mutagenesis of all eight avr genes in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris had no detected effect on pathogenicity, but one avr gene affected race specificity. Mol. Plant Microbe. Interact. 18:13061317.
27. Castaneda, M.,, J. Guzman,, S. Moreno, and, G. Espin. 2000. The GacS sensor kinase regulates alginate and poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate production in Azotobacter vinelandii. J. Bacteriol. 182:26242628.
28. Chang, J. H.,, A. K. Goel,, S. R. Grant, and, J. L. Dangl. 2004. Wake of the flood: ascribing functions to the wave of type III effector proteins of phytopathogenic bacteria. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 7:1118.
29. Chen, L.-L. 2006. Identification of genomic islands in six plant pathogens. Gene 374:134141.
30. Chivasa, S.,, B. K. Ndimba,, W. J. Simon,, K. Lindsey, and, A. R. Slabas. 2005. Extracellular ATP functions as an endogenous external metabolite regulating plant cell viability. Plant Cell 17:30193034.
31. Christensen, N. M.,, K. B. Axelsen,, M. Nicolaisen, and, A. Schulz. 2005. Phytoplasmas and their interactions with hosts. Trends Plant Sci. 10:526535.
32. Christie, P. J.,, K. Atmakuri,, V. Krishnamoorthy,, S. Jakubowski, and, E. Cascales. 2005. Biogenesis, architecture, and function of bacterial type IV secretion systems. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 59:451485.
33. Christie, P. J., and, J. P. Vogel. 2000. Bacterial type IV secretion: conjugation systems adapted to deliver effector molecules to host cells. Trends Microbiol. 8:354360.
34. Chung, S.-M.,, M. Vaidya, and, T. Tzfira. 2006. Agrobacterium is not alone: gene transfer to plants by viruses and other bacteria. Trends Plant Sci. 11:14.
35. Cianciotto, N. P. 2005. Type II secretion: a protein secretion system for all seasons. Trends Micro-biol. 13:581588.
36. Cocking, E. C. 2003. Endophytic colonisation of plant roots by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Plant Soil 252:169175.
37. Corbett, M.,, S. Virtue,, K. Bell,, P. Birch,, T. Burr,, L. Hyman,, K. Lilley,, S. Poock,, I. Toth, and, G. Salmond. 2005. Identification of a new quorum-sensing controlled virulence factor in Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica secreted via the type II targeting pathway. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 18:334342.
38. Cornelis, P., and, S. Matthijs. 2002. Diversity of siderophore-mediated iron uptake systems in fluorescent pseudomonads: not only pyoverdines. Environ. Microbiol. 4:767798.
39. da Silva, A. C. R.,, J. A. Ferro,, F. C. Reinach,, C. S. Farah,, L. R. Furlan,, R. B. Quaggio,, C. B. Monteiro-Vitorello,, M. A., V. Sluys,, N. F. Almeida,, L. M. C. Alves,, A. M. do Amaral,, M. C. Bertolini,, L. E. A. Camargo,, G. Camarotte,, F. Cannavan,, J. Cardozo,, F. Chambergo,, L. P. Ciapina,, R. M. B. Cicarelli,, L. L. Coutinho,, J. R. Cursino-Santos,, H. El-Dorry,, J. B. Faria,, A. J. S. Ferreira,, R. C. C. Ferreira,, M. I. T. Ferro,, E. F. Formighieri,, M. C. Franco,, C. C. Greggio,, A. Gruber,, A. M. Katsuyama,, L. T. Kishi,, R. P. Leite,, E. G. M. Lemos,, M. V. F. Lemos,, E. C. Locali,, M. A. Machado,, A. M. B. N. Madeira,, N. M. Martinez-Rossi,, E. C. Martins,, J. Meidanis,, C. F. M. Menck,, C. Y. Miyaki,, D. H. Moon,, L. M. Moreira,, M. T. M. Novo,, V. K. Okura,, M. C. Oliveira,, V. R. Oliveira,, H. A. Pereira,, A. Rossi,, J. A. D. Sena,, C. Silva,, R. F. de Souza,, L. A. F. Spinola,, M. A. Takita,, R. E. Tamura,, E. C. Teixeira,, R. I. D. Tezza,, M. Trindade dos Santos,, D. Truffi,, S. M. Tsai,, F. F. White,, J. C. Setubal, and, J. P. Kitajima. 2002. Comparison of the genomes of two Xan-thomonas pathogens with differing host specificities. Nature 417:459463.
40. da Silva, F. R.,, A. L. Vettore,, E. L. Kemper,, A. Leite, and, P. Arruda. 2001. Fastidian gum: the Xylella fastidiosa exopolysaccharide possibly involved in bacterial pathogenicity. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 203:165171.
41. DebRoy, S.,, R. Thilmony,, Y.-B. Kwack,, K. Nomura, and, S.Y. He. 2004. A family of conserved bacterial effectors inhibits salicylic acid-mediated basal immunity and promotes disease necrosis in plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:99279932.
42. Dharmapuri, S., and, R. V. Sonti. 1999. A transposon insertion in the gumG homologue of Xan-thomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes loss of extra-cellular polysaccharide production and virulence. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 179:5359.
43. Dow, J. M.,, A. E. Osbourn,, T. J. Wilson, and, M. J. Daniels. 1995. A locus determining pathogenicity of Xanthomonas campestris is involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 8:768777.
44. Dow, J. M.,, J.-X. Feng,, C. E. Barber,, J.-L. Tang, and, M. J. Daniels. 2000. Novel genes involved in the regulation of pathogenicity factor production within the rpf gene cluster of Xanthomonas campestris. Microbiology 146:885891.
45. Dreier, J.,, D. Meletzus, and, R. Eichenlaub. 1997. Characterization of the plasmid encoded virulence region pat-1 of phytopathogenic Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 10:195206.
46. Dunne,, W. M. J. 2002. Bacterial adhesion: seen any good biofilms lately? Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 15:155166.
47. Escobar, M. A., and, A. M. Dandekar. 2003. Agrobacterium tumefaciens as an agent of disease. Trends Plant Sci. 8:380386.
48. Espinosa, A., and, J. R. Alfano. 2004. Disabling surveillance: bacterial type III secretion system effectors that suppress innate immunity. Cell. Micro-biol. 6:10271040.
49. Fallman, M., and, A. Gustavsson. 2005. Cellular mechanisms of bacterial internalization counteracted by Yersinia, p. 135–188. In K. W. Jeon (ed.), A Survey of Cell Biology. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
50. Feil, H.,, W. S. Feil,, P. Chain,, F. Larimer,, G. DiBartolo,, A. Copeland,, A. Lykidis,, S. Trong,, M. Nolan,, E. Goltsman,, J. Thiel,, S. Malfatti,, J. E. Loper,, A. Lapidus,, J. C. Detter,, M. Land,, P. M. Richardson,, N. C. Kyrpides,, N. Ivanova, and, S. E. Lindow. 2005. Comparison of the complete genome sequences of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a and pv. tomato DC3000. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1106411069.
51. Filloux, A. 2004. The underlying mechanisms of type II protein secretion. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1694:163179.
52. Foulongne, V.,, S. Michaux-Charachon,, D. O’Callaghan, and, M. Ramuz. 2002. Type IV secretion systems and bacterial virulence. MS Med. Sci. 18:439447.
53. Foultier, B.,, P. Troisfontaines,, S. Muller,, F. R. Opperdoes, and, G. R. Cornelis. 2002. Characterization of the ysa pathogenicity locus in the chromosome of Yersinia enterocolitica and phylogeny analysis of type III secretion systems. J. Mol. Evol. 55:3751.
54. Franza, T.,, B. Mahe, and, D. Expert. 2005. Erwinia chrysanthemi requires a second iron transport route dependent of the siderophore achromobactin for extracellular growth and plant infection. Mol. Microbiol. 55:261275.
55. Frey, J., and, P. Kuhnert. 2002. RTX toxins in Pasteurellaceae. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 292:149158.
56. Galperin, M. 2005. A census of membrane-bound and intracellular signal transduction proteins in bacteria: bacterial IQ, extroverts and introverts. BMC Microbiol. 5:35.
57. Gaudriault, S.,, L. Malandrin,, J. P. Paulin, and, M. A. Barny. 1997. DspA, an essential pathogenicity factor of Erwinia amylovora showing homology with AvrE of Pseudomonas syringae, is secreted via the Hrp secretion pathway in a DspB-dependent way. Mol. Microbiol. 26:10571069.
58. Genin, S., and, C. Boucher. 2004. Lessons learned from the genome analysis of Ralstonia solanacearum. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 42:107134.
59. Gentschev, I.,, G. Dietrich, and, W. Goebel. 2002. The E. coli (alpha)-hemolysin secretion system and its use in vaccine development. Trends Microbiol. 10:3945.
60. Gijzen, M., and, T. Nurnberger. 2006. Nep1-like proteins from plant pathogens: recruitment and diversification of the NPP1 domain across taxa. Phytochemistry 67:18001807.
61. Gil, R.,, B. Sabater-Munoz,, V. Perez-Brocal,, F. J. Silva, and, A. Latorre. 2006. Plasmids in the aphid endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola with the smallest genomes. A puzzling evolutionary story. Gene 370:1725.
62. Glickmann, E.,, L. Gardan,, S. Jacquet,, S. Hussain,, M. Elasri,, A. Petit, and, Y. Dessaux. 1998. Auxin production is a common feature of most pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 11:156162.
63. Godfrey, S. A. C.,, S. A. Harrow,, J. W. Marshall, and, J. D. Klena. 2001. Characterization by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of pseudomonads causing blotch disease of cultivated Agaricus bisporus. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 67:43164323.
64. Goldberg, J. B., and, G. B. Pier. 1996. Pseudo-monas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides and pathogenesis. Trends Microbiol. 4:490494.
65. Green, R. L., and, G. J. Warren. 1985. Physical and functional repetition in a bacterial ice nucleation gene. Nature 317:645648.
66. Greenberg, J. T., and, B. A. Vinatzer. 2003. Identifying type III effectors of plant pathogens and analyzing their interaction with plant cells. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 6:2028.
67. Guiney, D. G., and, M. Lesnick. 2005. Targeting of the actin cytoskeleton during infection by Salmonella strains. Clin. Immunol. 114:248255.
68. Gurian-Sherman, D., and, S. Lindow. 1993. Bacterial ice nucleation: significance and molecular basis. FASEB J. 7:13381343.
69. Gurlebeck, D.,, F. Thieme, and, U. Bonas. 2006. Type III effector proteins from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas and their role in the interaction with the host plant. J. Plant Physiol. 163:233255.
70. Hacker, J., and, J. B. Kaper. 2000. Pathogenicity islands and the evolution of microbes. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54:641679.
71. He, S. Y.,, K. Nomura, and, T. S. Whittam. 2004. Type III protein secretion mechanism in mammalian and plant pathogens. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1694:181206.
72. Heeb, S., and, D. Haas. 2001. Regulatory roles of the GacS/GacA two-component system in plant-associated and other gram-negative bacteria. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 14:13511363.
73. Holeva, M. C.,, K. Bell,, L. Hyman,, A. O. Avrova,, S. C. Whisson,, P. R. Birch, and, I. K. Toth. 2004. Use of a pooled transposon mutation grid to demonstrate roles in disease development for Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica putative type III secreted effector (DspE/A) and helper (HrpN) proteins. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 17:943950.
74. Hotson, A., and, M. B. Mudgett. 2004. Cysteine proteases in phytopathogenic bacteria: identification of plant targets and activation of innate immunity. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 7:384390.
75. Hueck, C. J. 1998. Type III protein secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62:379433.
76. Hwang, M. S. H.,, R. L. Morgan,, S. F. Sarkar,, P. W. Wang, and, D. S. Guttman. 2005. Phylo-genetic characterization of virulence and resistance phenotypes of Pseudomonas syringae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:51825191.
77. Ito, S.-i.,, T. Eto,, S. Tanaka,, N. Yamauchi,, H. Takahara, and, T. Ikeda. 2004. Tomatidine and lycotetraose, hydrolysis products of (alpha)-tomatine by Fusarium oxysporum tomatinase, suppress induced defense responses in tomato cells. FEBS Lett. 571:3134.
78. Jackson, R. W.,, G. M. Preston, and, P. B. Rainey. 2005. Genetic characterisation of Pseudo-monas fluorescens SBW25 rsp gene expression in the phytosphere and in vitro. J. Bacteriol. 187:84778488.
79. Jin, Q.,, R. Thilmony,, J. Zwiesler-Vollick, and, S.-Y. He. 2003. Type III protein secretion in Pseudomonas syringae. Microbes Infect. 5:301310.
80. Joardar, V.,, M. Lindeberg,, R. W. Jackson,, J. Selengut,, R. Dodson,, L. M. Brinkac,, S. C. Daugherty,, R. DeBoy,, A. S. Durkin,, M. G. Giglio,, R. Madupu,, W. C. Nelson,, M. J. Rosovitz,, S. Sullivan,, J. Crabtree,, T. Creasy,, T. Davidsen,, D. H. Haft,, N. Zafar,, L. Zhou,, R. Halpin,, T. Holley,, H. Khouri,, T. Feld-blyum,, O. White,, C. M. Fraser,, A. K. Chat-terjee,, S. Cartinhour,, D. J. Schneider,, J. Mansfield,, A. Collmer, and, C. R. Buell. 2005. Whole-genome sequence analysis of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448. reveals divergence among pathovars in genes involved in virulence and transposition. J. Bacteriol. 187:64886498.
81. Joardar, V.,, M. Lindeberg,, D. J. Schneider,, A. Collmer, and, C. R. Buell. 2005. Lineage-specific regions in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Mol. Plant Pathol. 6:5364.
82. Kakizawa, S.,, K. Oshima, and, S. Namba. 2006. Diversity and functional importance of phytoplasma membrane proteins. Trends Microbiol. 14:254256.
83. Kang, Y.,, J. Huang,, M. Guozhang,, L.-Y. He, and, M. A. Schell. 1994. Dramatically reduced virulence of mutants of Pseudomonas solanacearum defective in export of extracellular proteins across the outer membrane. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 7:370377.
84. Katzen, F.,, D. U. Ferreiro,, C. G. Oddo,, M. V. Ielmini,, A. Becker,, A. Puhler, and, L. Ielpi. 1998. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris gum mutants: effects on xanthan biosynthesis and plant virulence. J. Bacteriol. 180:16071617.
85. Kaup, O.,, I. Grafen,, E. M. Zellermann,, R. Eichenlaub, and, K. H. Gartemann. 2005. Identification of a tomatinase in the tomato-pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382. Mol. Plant Microbe. Interact. 18:10901098.
86. Kers, J. A.,, K. D. Cameron,, M. V. Joshi,, R. A. Bukhalid,, J. E. Morello,, M. J. Wach,, D. M. Gibson, and, R. Loria. 2005. A large, mobile pathogenicity island confers plant pathogenicity on Streptomyces species. Mol. Microbiol. 55:10251033.
87. Kim, J. F., and, J. R. Alfano. 2002. Pathogenicity islands and virulence plasmids of bacterial plant pathogens. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 264:127147.
88. Kinscherf, T. G., and, D. K. Willis. 1999. Swarming by Pseudomonas syringae B728a requires gacS (lemA) and gacA but not the acyl-homoserine lactone biosynthetic gene ahlI. J. Bacteriol. 181:41334136.
89. Kitten, T.,, T. G. Kinscherf,, J. L. McEvoy, and, D. K. Willis. 1998. A newly identified regulator is required for virulence and toxin production in Pseudomonas syringae. Mol. Microbiol. 28:917929.
90. Koide, T.,, P.A. Zaini,, L. M. Moreira,, R. Z. N. Vencio,, A. Y. Matsukuma,, A. M. Durham,, D. C. Teixeira,, H. El-Dorry,, P. B. Monteiro,, A. C. R. da Silva,, S. Verjovski-Almeida,, A. M. da Silva, and, S. L. Gomes. 2004. DNA microarray-based genome comparison of a pathogenic and a nonpathogenic strain of Xylella fastidiosa delineates genes important for bacterial virulence. J. Bacteriol. 186:54425449.
91. Lai, E.-M., and, C. I. Kado. 2000. The T-pilus of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Trends Microbiol. 8:361369.
92. Lee, B.-M.,, Y.-J. Park,, D.-S. Park,, H.-W. Kang,, J.-G. Kim,, E.-S. Song,, I.-C. Park,, U.-H. Yoon,, J.-H. Hahn,, B.-S. Koo,, G.-B. Lee,, H. Kim,, H.-S. Park,, K.-O. Yoon,, J.-H. Kim,, C.-H. Jung,, N.-H. Koh,, J.-S. Seo, and, S.-J. Go. 2005. The genome sequence of Xan-thomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae KACC10331, the bacterial blight pathogen of rice. Nucleic Acids Res. 33:577586.
93. Lee, I.-M.,, R. E. Davis, and, D. E. Gundersen-Rindal. 2000. Phytoplasma: phytopathogenic mollicutes. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 54:221255.
94. Lee, J.-S.,, K.-S. Shin,, J.-G. Pan, and, C.-J. Kim. 2000. Surface-displayed viral antigens on Salmonella carrier vaccine. Nat. Biotechnol. 18:645648.
95. Leigh, J. A., and, D. L. Coplin. 1992. Exopolysaccharides in plant-bacterial interactions. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 46:307346.
96. Lemos, E. G. d. M.,, L. M. C. Alves, and, J. C. Campanharo. 2003. Genomics-based design of defined growth media for the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 219:3945.
97. Lory, S. 1998. Secretion of proteins and assembly of bacterial surface organelles: shared pathways of extracellular protein targeting. Curr. Opin. Micro-biol. 1:2735.
98. Lu, S. E.,, N. Wang,, J. Wang,, Z. J. Chen, and, D. C. Gross. 2005. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis of the salA regulon controlling phytotoxin production by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 18:324333.
99. Maor, R., and, K. Shirasu. 2005. The arms race continues: battle strategies between plants and fungal pathogens. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 8:399404.
100. Marco, M. L.,, J. Legac, and, S. E. Lindow. 2005. Pseudomonas syringae genes induced during colonization of leaf surfaces. Environ. Microbiol. 7:13791391.
101. Marcone, C.,, H. Neimark,, A. Ragozzino,, U. Lauer, and, E. Seemuller. 1999. Chromo-some sizes of phytoplasmas composing major phylogenetic groups and subgroups. Phytopathology 89:805810.
102. Marie, C.,, W. J. Broughton, and, W. J. Deakin. 2001. Rhizobium type III secretion systems: legume charmers or alarmers? Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 4:336342.
103. Matthysse, A. G.,, M. Marry,, L. Krall,, M. Kaye,, B. E. Ramey,, C. Fuqua, and, A. R. White. 2005. The effect of cellulose overproduction on binding and biofilm formation on roots by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mol. Plant Microbe. Interact. 18:10021010.
104. Mazzola, M., and, F. F. White. 1994. A mutation in the indole-3-acetic-acid biosynthesis pathway of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae affects growth in Phaseolus vulgaris and syringomycin production. J. Bacteriol. 176:13741382.
105. Meng, X.,, J. M. Bonasera,, J. F. Kim,, R. M. Nissinen, and, S.V. Beer. 2006. Apple proteins that interact with DspA/E, a pathogenicity effector of Erwinia amylovora, the fire blight pathogen. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 19:5361.
106. Meng, Y.,, Y. Li,, C. D. Galvani,, G. Hao,, J. N. Turner,, T. J. Burr, and, H. C. Hoch. 2005. Upstream migration of Xylella fastidiosa via pilus-driven twitching motility. J. Bacteriol. 187:55605567.
107. Miller, S. I.,, R. K. Ernst, and, M. W. Bader. 2005. LPS, TLR4 and infectious disease diversity. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 3:3646.
108. Monteiro-Vitorello, C. B.,, L. E.A. Camargo,, M. A. Van Sluys,, J. P. Kitajima,, D. Truffi,, A. M. do Amaral,, R. Harakava,, J. C. F. de Oliveira,, D. Wood,, M. C. de Oliveira,, C. Miyaki,, M. A. Takita,, A. C. R. da Silva,, L. R. Furlan,, D. M. Carraro,, G. Camarotte,, N. F. Almeida,, H. Carrer,, L. L. Coutinho,, H. A. El-Dorry,, M. I. T. Ferro,, P. R. Gagliardi,, E. Giglioti,, M. H. S. Goldman,, G. H. Goldman,, E. T. Kimura,, E. S. Ferro,, E. E. Kuramae,, E. G. M. Lemos,, M. V. F. Lemos,, S. M. Z. Mauro,, M. A. Machado,, C. L. Marino,, C. F. Menck,, L. R. Nunes,, R. C. Oliveira,, G. G. Pereira,, W. Siqueira,, A. A. de Souza,, S. M. Tsai,, A. S. Zanca,, A. J. G. Simpson,, S. M. Brumbley, and, J. C. Setúbal. 2004. The genome sequence of the gram-positive sugarcane pathogen Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 17:827836.
109. Moreira, L. M.,, R. F. De Souza,, L. A. Digiampietri,, A. C. R. Da Silva, and, J. C. Setubal. 2005. Comparative analyses of Xanthomonas and Xylella complete genomes. OMICS 9:4376.
110. Morris, C. E., and, J.-M. Monier. 2003. The ecological significance of biofilm formation by plant-associated bacteria. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 41:429453.
111. Mudgett, M. B. 2005. New insights to the function of phytopathogenic bacterial type III effectors in plants. Ann. Rev. Plant Biol. 56:509531.
112. Noel, L.,, F. Thieme,, D. Nennstiel, and, U. Bonas. 2002. Two novel type III–secreted proteins of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria are encoded within the hrp pathogenicity island. J. Bacteriol. 184:13401348.
113. Nomura, K.,, M. Melotto, and, S.-Y. He. 2005. Suppression of host defense in compatible plant-Pseudomonas syringae interactions. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 8:361368.
114. Ochiai, H.,, Y. Inoue,, M. Takeya,, A. Sasaki, and, H. Kaku. 2005. Genome sequence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae suggests contribution of large numbers of effector genes and insertion sequences to its race diversity. JARQ 39:275287.
115. Ojanen-Reuhs, T.,, N. Kalkkinen,, B. Wester-lund-Wikstrom,, J. van Doorn,, K. Haahtela,, E. Nurmiaho-Lassila,, K. Wengelnik,, U. Bonas, and, T. Korhonen. 1997. Characterization of the fimA gene encoding bundle-forming fimbriae of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. J. Bacteriol. 179:12801290.
116. Oshima, K.,, S. Kakizawa,, H. Nishigawa,, J. Hee-Young,, W. Wei,, S. Suzuki,, R., Nakata,, D. Arashida,, S.-I. Miyata,, M. Ugaki, and, N. Shigetou. 2004. Reductive evolution suggested from the complete genome sequence of a plant-pathogenic phytoplasma. Nat. Genet. 36:2729.
117. Osiro, D.,, J. R. C. Muniz,, H. D. Coleta Filho,, A. A. de Sousa,, M. A. Machado,, R. C. Garratt, and, L. A. Colnago. 2004. Fatty acid synthesis in Xylella fastidiosa: correlations between genome studies, 13C NMR data, and molecular models. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 323:987995.
118. Patil, P. B., and, R. V. Sonti. 2004. Variation suggestive of horizontal gene transfer at a lipopolysaccharide (lps) biosynthetic locus in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacterial leaf blight pathogen of rice. BMC Microbiol. 4:40.
119. Pedras, M. S. C., and, P. W. K. Ahiahonu. 2005. Metabolism and detoxification of phytoalexins and analogs by phytopathogenic fungi. Phytochemistry 66:391411.
120. Pemberton, C. L., and, G. P. C. Salmond. 2004. The Nep1-like proteins—a growing family of microbial elicitors of plant necrosis. Mol. Plant Pathol. 5:353359.
121. Perombelon, M. C. 2002. Potato diseases caused by soft rot erwinias: an overview of pathogenesis. Plant Pathol. 51:112.
122. Preston, G. 2000. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato: the right pathogen, of the right plant, at the right time. Mol. Plant Pathol. 1:263275.
123. Preston, G. M.,, N. Bertrand, and, P. B. Rainey. 2001. Type III secretion in plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25. Mol. Microbiol. 41:9991014.
124. Preston, G. M.,, D. Studholme, and, I. Caldelari. 2005. Profiling the secretomes of plant pathogenic Proteobacteria. FEMS Micro-biol. Rev. 29:331360.
125. Price-Whelan, A.,, L. E. P. Dietrich, and, D. K. Newman. 2006. Rethinking “secondary” metabolism: physiological roles for phenazine antibiotics. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2:7178.
126. Pritchard, L.,, J. White,, P. R. J. Birch, and, I. K. Toth. 2006. GenomeDiagram: a python package for the visualisation of large-scale genomic data. Bioinformatics 22:616617.
127. Qian, W.,, Y. Jia,, S.-X. Ren,, Y.-Q. He,, J.-X. Feng,, L.-F. Lu,, Q. Sun,, G. Ying,, D.-J. Tang,, H. Tang,, W. Wu,, P. Hao,, L. Wang,, B.-L. Jiang,, S. Zeng,, W.-Y. Gu,, G. Lu,, L. Rong,, Y. Tian,, Z. Yao,, G. Fu,, B. Chen,, R. Fang,, B. Qiang,, Z. Chen,, G.-P. Zhao,, J.-L. Tang, and, C. He. 2005. Comparative and functional genomic analyses of the pathogenicity of phyto-pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Genome Res. 15:757767.
128. Quinones, B.,, C. J. Pujol, and, S. E. Lindow. 2004. Regulation of AHL production and its contribution to epiphytic fitness in Pseudomonas syringae. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 17:521531.
129. Rajeshwari, R.,, G. Jha, and, R. V. Sonti. 2005. Role of an in planta-expressed xylanase of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in promoting virulence on rice. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 18:830837.
130. Rantakari, A.,, O. Virtaharju,, S. Vahamiko,, S. Taira,, E.T. Palva,, H.T. Saarilahti, and, M. Romantschuk. 2001. Type III secretion contributes to the pathogenesis of the soft-rot pathogen Erwinia carotovora: partial characterization of the hrp gene cluster. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 14:962968.
131. Ray, S. K.,, R. Rajeshwari, and, R. V. Sonti. 2000. Mutants of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae deficient in general secretory pathway are virulence deficient and unable to secrete xylanase. Mol. Plant Microbe. Interact. 13:394401.
132. Redak, R. A.,, A. H. Purcell,, J. R. S. Lopes,, M. J. Blua,, R. F. Mizell III, and, P. C. Andersen. 2004. The biology of xylem fluid-feeding insect vectors of Xylella fastidiosa and their relation to disease epidemiology. An. Rev. Entomol. 49:243270.
133. Rezzonico, F.,, C. Binder,, G. Defago, and, Y. Moenne-Loccoz. 2005. The type III secretion system of biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens KD targets the phytopathogenic Chromista Pythium ultimum and promotes cucumber protection. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 18:9911001.
134. Roden, J. A.,, B. Belt,, J. B. Ross,, T. Tachibana,, J. Vargas, and, M. B. Mudgett. 2004. A genetic screen to isolate type III effectors translocated into pepper cells during Xanthomonas infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:1662416629.
135. Rojas, C. M.,, J. H. Ham,, W. L. Deng,, J. J. Doyle, and, A. Collmer. 2002. HecA, a member of a class of adhesins produced by diverse pathogenic bacteria, contributes to the attachment, aggregation, epidermal cell killing, and virulence phenotypes of Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16 on Nicotiana clevelandii seedlings. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:1314213147.
136. Rojas, C. M.,, J. H. Ham,, L. M. Schecter,, J. F. Kim,, S. V. Beer, and, A. Collmer. 2004. The Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16 hrp/hrc gene cluster encodes an active Hrp type III secretion system that is flanked by virulence genes functionally unrelated to the Hrp system. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 17:644653.
137. Romantschuk, M. 1992. Attachment of plant pathogenic bacteria to plant surfaces. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 30:225243.
138. Romantschuk, M., and, D. H. Bamford. 1986. The causal agent of halo blight in bean, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, attaches to stomato via its pili. Microb. Pathog. 1:139148.
139. Russel, M. 1998. Macromolecular assembly and secretion across the bacterial cell envelope: type II protein secretion systems. J. Mol. Biol. 279:485499.
140. Sarkar, S. F., and, D. S. Guttman. 2004. Evolution of the core genome of Pseudomonas syringae, a highly clonal, endemic plant pathogen. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:19992012.
141. Savka, M. A.,, Y. Dessaux,, P. Oger, and, S. Rossbach. 2002. Engineering bacterial competitiveness and persistence in the phyto-sphere. Mol. Plant Microbe. Interact. 15:866874.
142. Schell, M. A. 2000. Control of virulence and pathogenicity genes of Ralstonia solanacearum by an elaborate sensory network. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 38:263292.
143. Schmitz-Esser, S.,, N. Linka,, A. Collingro,, C. L. Beier,, H. E. Neuhaus,, M. Wagner, and, M. Horn. 2004. ATP/ADP translocases: a common feature of obligate intracellular amoebal symbionts related to chlamydiae and rickettsiae. J. Bacteriol. 186:683691.
144. Scholz-Schroeder, B. K.,, J. D. Soule,, S. E. Lu,, I. Grgurina, and, D. C. Gross. 2002. A physical map of the syringomycin and syringopeptin gene clusters localized to an approximately 145-kb DNA region of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain B301D. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 14:14261435.
145. Sexton, J., and, J. P. Vogel. 2002. Type IVB secretion by intracellular pathogens. Traffic 3:178195.
146. Simpson, A. J. G.,, F. C. Reinach,, P. Arruda,, F. A. Abreu,, M. Acencio,, R. Alvarenga,, L. M. C. Alves,, J. E. Araya,, G. S. Baia,, C. S. Baptista,, M. H. Barros,, E. D. Bonaccorsi,, S. Bordin,, J. M. Bove,, M. R. S. Briones,, M. R. P. Bueno,, A.A. Camargo,, L. E.A. Camargo,, D. M. Carraro,, H. Carrer,, N. B. Colauto,, C. Colombo,, F. F. Costa,, M. C. R. Costa,, C. M. Costa-Neto,, L. L. Coutinho,, M. Cristofani,, E. Dias-Neto,, C. Docena,, H. El-Dorry,, A. P. Facincani,, A. J. S. Ferreira,, V. C.A. Ferreira,, J. A. Ferro,, J. S. Fraga,, S. C. Franca,, M. C. Franco,, M. Frohme,, L. R. Furlan,, M. Garnier,, G. H. Goldman,, M. H. S., Gomes,, S. L. Goldman,, A. Gruber,, P. L. Ho,, J. D. Hoheisel,, M. L. Junqueira,, E. L. Kemper,, J. P. Kitajima,, J. E. Krieger,, E. E. Kuramae,, F. Laigret,, M. R. Lambais,, L. C. C. Leite,, E. G. M. Lemos,, M. V. F. Lemos,, S.A. Lopes,, C. R. Lopes,, J.A. Machado,, M.A. Machado,, A. M. B. N. Madeira,, H. M. F. Madeira,, C. L. Marino,, M.V. Marques,, E. A. L. Martins,, E. M. F. Martins,, A. Y. Matsukuma,, C. F. M. Menck,, E. C. Miracca,, C.Y. Miyaki,, C. B. Monteiro-Vitorello,, D. H. Moon,, M.A. Nagai,, A. L. T. O. Nascimento,, L. E. S. Netto,, A. Nhani,, F. G. Nobrega,, L. R. Nunes,, M. A. Oliveira,, M. C. de Oliveira,, R. C. de Oliveira,, D. A. Palmieri,, A. Paris,, B. R. Peixoto,, G. A. G. Pereira,, H. A. Pereira,, J. B. Pesquero,, R. B. Quaggio,, P. G. Roberto,, V. Rodrigues,, A. J. de, M. Rosa,, V. E. de Rosa,, R. G. de Sa,, R. V. Santelli,, H. E. Sawasaki,, A. C. R. da Silva,, A. M. da Silva,, F. R. da Silva,, W. A. Silva,, J. F. da Silveira,, M. L. Z. Silvestri,, W. J. Siqueira,, A. A. de Souza,, A. P. de Souza,, M. F. Terenzi,, D. Truffi,, S. M. Tsai,, M. H. Tsuhako,, H. Vallada,, M. A. Van Sluys,, S. Verjovski-Almeida,, A. L. Vettore,, M. A. Zago,, M. Zatz,, J. Meidanis, and, J. C. Setubal. 2000. The genome sequence of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. Nature 406:151157.
147. Smolka, M. B.,, D. Martins,, F. V. Winck,, C. E. Santoro,, R. R. Castellari,, F. Ferrari,, I. J. Brum,, E. Galembeck,, H. D. C. Filho,, M. A. Machado,, S. Marangoni, and, J. C. Novello. 2003. Proteome analysis of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa reveals major cellular and extracellular proteins and a peculiar codon bias distribution. Proteomics 3:224237.
148. Song, C. J.,, I. Steinebrunner,, X. Wang,, S. C. Stout, and, S. J. Roux. 2006. Extracellular ATP induces the accumulation of superoxide via NADPH oxidases in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 140:12221232.
149. Souza, L. C. A.,, N. A. Wulff,, P. Gaurivaud,, A. G. Mariano,, A. C. D. Virgilio,, J. L. Azevedo, and, P. B. Monteiro. 2006. Disruption of Xylella fastidiosa CVC gumB and gumF genes affects biofilm formation without a detectable influence on exopolysaccharide production. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 257:236242.
150. Stavrinides, J., and, D. S. Guttman. 2004. Nucleotide sequence and evolution of the five-plasmid complement of the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326. J. Bacteriol. 186:51015115.
151. Studholme, D.,, A. Downie, and, G. Preston. 2005. Unique domain architectures in plant pathogenic Proteobacteria. BMC Genomics 6:17.
152. Suoniemi, A.,, K. Bjorklof,, K. Haahtela, and, M. Romantschuk. 1995. Pili of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar syringae enhance initiation of bacterial epiphytic colonization of bean. Microbiology 141:497503.
153. Suzuki, S.,, K. Oshima,, S. Kakizawa,, R. Arashida,, H.-Y. Jung,, Y. Yamaji,, H. Nishigawa,, M. Ugaki, and, S. Namba. 2006. Interaction between the membrane protein of a pathogen and insect microfilament complex determines insect-vector specificity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:42524257.
154. Thanassi, D. G., and, S. J. Hultgren. 2000. Multiple pathways allow protein secretion across the bacterial outer membrane. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 12:420430.
155. Thieme, F.,, R. Koebnik,, T. Bekel,, C. Berger,, J. Boch,, D. Buttner,, C. Caldana,, L. Gaigalat,, A. Goesmann,, S. Kay,, O. Kirchner,, C. Lanz,, B. Linke,, A. C. McHardy,, F. Meyer,, G. Mittenhuber,, D. H. Nies,, U. Niesbach-Klosgen,, T. Patschkowski,, C. Ruckert,, O. Rupp,, S. Schneiker,, S. C. Schuster,, F.-J. Vorholter,, E. Weber,, A. Puhler,, U. Bonas,, D. Bartels, and, O. Kaiser. 2005. Insights into genome plasticity and pathogenicity of the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria revealed by the complete genome sequence. J. Bacteriol. 187:72547266.
156. Thomson, N. R.,, J. D. Thomas, and, G. P. C. Salmond. 1999. Virulence Determinants in the Bacterial Phytopathogen Erwinia. Academic Press Inc., San Diego, CA.
157. Toth, I. K.,, L. Pritchard, and, P. R. J. Birch. 2006. Comparative genomics reveals what makes an enterobacterial plant pathogen. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 44:305336.
158. Toth, I. K.,, C. J. Thorpe,, S. D. Bentley,, V. Mulholland,, L. J. Hyman,, M. C. Perombelon, and, G. P. C. Salmond. 1999. Mutation in a gene required for lipopolysaccharide and enterobacterial common antigen biosynthesis affects virulence in the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 12:499507.
159. Tran Van Nhieu, G.,, J. Enninga,, P. Sansonetti, and, G. Grompone. 2005. Tyrosine kinase signaling and type III effectors orchestrating Shigella invasion. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 8:1620.
160. Truman, W.,, M. T. Zabala, and, M. Grant. 2006. Type III effectors orchestrate a complex interplay between transcriptional networks to modify basal defence responses during pathogenesis and resistance. Plant J. 46:1433.
161. Tzfira, T., and, V. Citovsky. 2006. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of plants: biology and biotechnology. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 17:147154.
162. Van Sluys, M. A.,, M. C. de Oliveira,, C. B. Monteiro-Vitorello,, C. Y. Miyaki,, L. R. Furlan,, L. E. A. Camargo,, A. C. R. da Silva,, D. H. Moon,, M. A. Takita,, E. G. M. Lemos,, M. A. Machado,, M. I. T. Ferro,, F. R. da Silva,, M. H. S. Goldman,, G. H. Goldman,, M. V. F. Lemos,, H. El-Dorry,, S. M. Tsai,, H. Carrer,, D. M. Carraro,, R. C. de Oliveira,, L. R. Nunes,, W. J. Siqueira,, L. L. Coutinho,, E. T. Kimura,, E. S. Ferro,, R. Harakava,, E. E. Kuramae,, C. L. Marino,, E. Giglioti,, I. L. Abreu,, L. M. C. Alves,, A. M. do Amaral,, G. S. Baia,, S. R. Blanco,, M. S. Brito,, F. S. Cannavan,, A. V. Celestino,, A. F. da Cunha,, R. C. Fenille,, J. A. Ferro,, E. F. Formighieri,, L. T. Kishi,, S. G. Leoni,, A. R. Oliveira,, V. E. Rosa, Jr.,, F.T. Sassaki,, J. A. D. Sena,, A. A. de Souza,, D. Truffi,, F. Tsukumo,, G. M. Yanai,, L. G. Zaros,, E. L. Civerolo,, A. J. G. Simpson,, N. F. Almeida, Jr.,, J. C. Setubal, and, J. P. Kitajima. 2003. Comparative analyses of the complete genome sequences of Pierce’s Disease and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis strains of Xylella fastidiosa. J. Bacteriol. 185:10181026.
163. van Wees, S. C. M., and, J. Glazebrook. 2003. Loss of non-host resistance of Arabidopsis NahG to Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola is due to degradation products of salicylic acid. Plant J. 33:733742.
164. Vencato, M.,, F. Tian,, J. R. Alfano,, R. Buell,, S. Cartinhour,, G. DeClerck,, D. S. Guttman,, J. Stavrinides,, V. Joardar,, M. Lindeberg,, P. Bronstein,, J. Mansfield,, C. R. Myers,, A. Collmer, and, D. J. Schneider. 2006. Bioinformatics-enabled inventory of the Hrp regulon and type III secretion system effector proteins of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448a. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 19:11931206.
165. Vinatzer, B. A.,, J. Jelenska, and, J. T. Greenberg. 2005. Bioinformatics correctly identifies many type III secretion substrates in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and the biocontrol isolate P. fluorescens SBW25. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 18:877888.
166. Vivian, A.,, J. Murillo, and, R. W. Jackson. 2001. The roles of plasmids in phytopathogenic bacteria: mobile arsenals? Microbiol. 147:763780.
167. Wall, D. P.,, H. B. Fraser, and, A. E. Hirsh. 2003. Detecting putative orthologs. Bioinformatics 19:17101711.
168. Wandersman, C., and, P. Delepelaire. 2004. Bacterial iron sources: from siderophores to hemophores. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 58:611647.
169. Wang, N.,, S.-E. Lu,, A. R. Records, and, D. C. Gross. 2006. Characterization of the transcriptional activators SalA and SyrF, which are required for syringomycin and syringopeptin production by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. J. Bacteriol. 188:32903298.
170. Wang, N.,, S.-E. Lu,, Q. Yang,, S.-H. Sze, and, D. C. Gross. 2006. Identification of the syr-syp box in the promoter regions of genes dedicated to syringomycin and syringopeptin production by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B301D. J. Bacteriol. 188:160168.
171. Wei, Z.-M.,, R. J. Laby,, C. H. Zumoff,, D.W. Bauer,, S.Y. He,, A. Collmer, and, S.V. Beer. 1992. Harpin, elicitor of the hypersensitive response produced by the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Science 257:8588.
172. Weintraub, P. G., and, L. Beanland. 2006. Insect vectors of phytoplasmas. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 51:91111.
173. West, M. A., and, W. Heagy. 2002. Endotoxin tolerance: a review. Crit. Care Med. 30:S64S73.
174. West, N. P.,, P. Sansonetti,, J. Mounier,, R. M. Exley,, C. Parsot,, S. Guadagnini,, M.-C. Prevost,, A. Prochnicka-Chalufour,, M. Delepierre,, M. Tanguy, and, C. M. Tang. 2005. Optimization of virulence functions through glucosylation of Shigella LPS. Science 307:13131317.
175. Willis, D. K.,, J. J. Holmstadt, and, T. G. Kinscherf. 2001. Genetic evidence that loss of virulence associated with gacS or gacA mutations in Pseudomonas syringae B728a does not result from effects on alginate production. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:14001403.
176. Wilson, T. J. G.,, N. Bertrand,, J.-L. Tang,, J.-X. Feng,, M.-Q. Pan,, C. E. Barber,, J. M. Dow, and, M. J. Daniels. 1998. The rpfA gene of Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris, which is involved in the regulation of pathogenicity factor production, encodes an aconitase. Mol. Microbiol. 28:961970.
177. Wisniewski, M.,, S. E. Lindow, and, E. N. Ashworth. 1997. Observations of ice nucleation and propagation in plants using infrared video thermography. Plant Physiol. 113:327334.
178. Yang C. H.,, M. Gavilanes-Ruiz,, Y. Okinaka,, R. Vedel,, I. Berthuy,, M. Boccara,, J.W. Chen,, N. T. Perna, and, N. T. Kee. 2002. hrp genes of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 are important virulence factors. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 15:472480.
179. Yu, J.,, A. Penaloza-Vazquez,, A. M. Chakrabarty, and, C. L. Bender. 1999. Involvement of the exopolysaccharide alginate in the virulence and epiphytic fitness of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Mol. Microbiol. 33:712720.
180. Zaharik, M. L.,, S. Gruenheid,, A. J. Perrin, and, B. B. Finlay. 2002. Delivery of dangerous goods: type III secretion in enteric pathogens. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 291:593603.
181. Zeidler, D.,, U. Zahringer,, I. Gerber,, I. Dubery,, T. Hartung,, W. Bors,, P. Hutzler, and, J. Durner. 2004. Innate immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana: lipopolysaccharides activate nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and induce defense genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:158161581..
182. Zhang, Y.,, D. D. Bak,, H. Heid, and, K. Geider. 1999. Molecular characterization of a pro-tease secreted by Erwinia amylovora. J. Mol. Biol. 289:12391251.
183. Zhao, J. L., and, C. S. Orser. 1990. Conserved repetition in the ice nucleation gene inaX from Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens. Mol. Gen. Genet. 223:163166.
184. Zhao, Y.,, R. Thilmony,, C. L. Bender,, A. Schaller,, S. Y. He, and, G. A. Howe. 2003. Virulence systems of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato promote bacterial speck disease in tomato by targeting the jasmonate signaling pathway. Plant J. 36:485499.


Generic image for table

Completed genome sequences of plant pathogenic bacteria

Citation: Preston G, Guttman D, Toth I. 2007. Genomic Analysis of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, p 392-418. In Pallen M, Nelson K, Preston G (ed), Bacterial Pathogenomics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815530.ch15
Generic image for table

Regulatory domains of representative plant pathogens

Citation: Preston G, Guttman D, Toth I. 2007. Genomic Analysis of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, p 392-418. In Pallen M, Nelson K, Preston G (ed), Bacterial Pathogenomics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815530.ch15

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error