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Chapter 16 : Biomethane from Biomass, Biowaste, and Biofuels

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Biomethane from Biomass, Biowaste, and Biofuels, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Biogas can be made from most biomass and waste materials regardless of the composition and over a large range of moisture contents, with limited feedstock preparation. Methane-producing communities are very stable and resilient, but they are also complex and largely undefined. The methanogenic uniquely catabolize acetic acid and one-carbon compounds to methane. The methanogens are obligate anaerobes that can pick up electrons from dead-end fermentations, through interspecies hydrogen transfer, and shuttle these electrons through a unique form of respiration which results in the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. Codigestion with manure often enhances the conversion of other biomass and waste feedstocks through balancing micronutrients. Organic acids, pH, and alkalinity are related parameters that influence digester performance. The major alkalis contributing to alkalinity are ammonia and bicarbonate. Biowastes and biomass crops can be gasified in a reduced atmosphere combustion process to convert the biomass into a mixture of CH, CO, CO, and H. Any improvement in conversion efficiency that enhances cellulosic ethanol yields is equally applicable for biomass conversion to methane. Methane yields from seaweeds, grasses, and crops all approach theoretical yields, such that as much as 80% of biomass energy content could be recovered in methane. Processing of terrestrial and marine energy crops to biomethane can result in higher energy yields than that of other biofuels.

Citation: Wilkie A. 2008. Biomethane from Biomass, Biowaste, and Biofuels, p 195-205. In Wall J, Harwood C, Demain A (ed), Bioenergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815547.ch16

Key Concept Ranking

Hydrogen Sulfide
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Carbon monoxide
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Figures

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Figure 1.

Biogas cycle

Citation: Wilkie A. 2008. Biomethane from Biomass, Biowaste, and Biofuels, p 195-205. In Wall J, Harwood C, Demain A (ed), Bioenergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815547.ch16
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Citation: Wilkie A. 2008. Biomethane from Biomass, Biowaste, and Biofuels, p 195-205. In Wall J, Harwood C, Demain A (ed), Bioenergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815547.ch16
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Potential biogas feedstocks from bioethanol production.

Citation: Wilkie A. 2008. Biomethane from Biomass, Biowaste, and Biofuels, p 195-205. In Wall J, Harwood C, Demain A (ed), Bioenergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815547.ch16
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Potential biogas feedstocks from biodiesel production.

Citation: Wilkie A. 2008. Biomethane from Biomass, Biowaste, and Biofuels, p 195-205. In Wall J, Harwood C, Demain A (ed), Bioenergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815547.ch16
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References

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1. Amon, T.,, B. Amon,, V. Kryvoruchko,, W. Zollitsch,, K. Mayer, and, L. Gruber. 2007. Biogas production from maize and dairy cattle manure—influence of biomass composition on the methane yield. Agric. Ecosystems Environ. 118:173182.
2. Angenent, L. T.,, K. Karim,, M. H. Al-Dahhan,, B. A. Wrenn, and, R. Domíguez-Espinosa. 2004. Production of bioenergy and biochemicals from industrial and agricultural wastewater. Trends Biotechnol. 22:477485.
3. Bryant, M. P.,, E. A. Wolin,, M. J. Wolin, and, R. S. Wolfe. 1967. Methanobacillus omelianskii, a symbiotic association of two species of bacteria. Arch. Mikrobiol. 59:20.
4. Buswell, A. M., and, F. W. Sollo. 1948. The mechanism of the methane fermentation. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 70:17781780.
5. Chynoweth, D. P.,, C. E. Turick,, J. M. Owens,, D. E. Jerger, and, M. W. Peck. 1993. Biochemical methane potential of biomass and waste feedstocks. Biomass Bioenergy 5:95111.
6. Hungate, R. E. 1974. Potentials and limitations of microbial methanogenesis. ASM News 40:833838.
7. Pate, F. M.,, J. Alvarez,, J. D. Phillips, and, B. R. Eiland. 1984. Sugarcane as a cattle feed: production and utilization. In Florida Sugarcane Handbook. Bulletin 884. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville.
8. Sipma, J.,, A. M. Henstra,, S. N. Parshina,, P. N. L. Lens,, G. Lettinga, and, A. J. M. Stams. 2006. Microbial CO conversions with applications in synthesis gas purification and bio-desulfurization. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 26:4165.
9. Speece, R. E. 1996. Anaerobic Biotechnology for Industrial Waste-waters. Archae Press, Nashville, TN.
10. van Haandel, A. C. 2005. Integrated energy production and reduction of the environmental impact at alcohol distillery plants. Water Sci. Technol. 52:4957.
11. van Haandel, A. C., and, G. Lettinga. 1994. Anaerobic Sewage Treatment. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, United Kingdom.
12. Wilkie, A. C. 2005. Anaerobic digestion: biology and benefits, p. 6372. In Dairy Manure Management: Treatment, Handling, and Community Relations. NRAES-176. Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
13. Wilkie, A.,, M. Goto,, F. M. Bordeaux, and, P. H. Smith. 1986. Enhancement of anaerobic methanogenesis from Napiergrass by addition of micronutrients. Biomass 11:135146.
14. Wilkie, A. C.,, K. J. Riedesel, and, J. M. Owens. 2000. Stillage characterization and anaerobic treatment of ethanol stillage from conventional and cellulosic feedstocks. Biomass Bioenergy 19:63102.
15. Wilkie, A. C.,, H. F. Castro,, K. R. Cubinski,, J. M. Owens, and, S. C. Yan. 2004. Fixed-film anaerobic digestion of flushed dairy manure after primary treatment: wastewater production and characterisation. Biosystems Eng. 89:457471.
16. Younesi, H.,, G. Najafpour, and, A. R. Mohamed. 2005. Ethanol and acetate production from synthesis gas via fermentation processes using anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium ljungdahlii. Biochem. Eng.J. 27:110119.

Tables

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Table 1.

Theoretical methane yield of biomass components

Citation: Wilkie A. 2008. Biomethane from Biomass, Biowaste, and Biofuels, p 195-205. In Wall J, Harwood C, Demain A (ed), Bioenergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815547.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Examples of agricultural and industrial wastewater strength

Citation: Wilkie A. 2008. Biomethane from Biomass, Biowaste, and Biofuels, p 195-205. In Wall J, Harwood C, Demain A (ed), Bioenergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815547.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 3.

COD of some bioenergy by-products

Citation: Wilkie A. 2008. Biomethane from Biomass, Biowaste, and Biofuels, p 195-205. In Wall J, Harwood C, Demain A (ed), Bioenergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815547.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Ranges of biochemical methane potential yield for biomass energy crops

Citation: Wilkie A. 2008. Biomethane from Biomass, Biowaste, and Biofuels, p 195-205. In Wall J, Harwood C, Demain A (ed), Bioenergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815547.ch16

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