Chapter 22 : Photosynthetic Water-Splitting for Hydrogen Production

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This chapter emphasizes photobiological, H producing organisms and processes that are able to link photosynthetic water oxidation (reductant-generation) directly to [FeFe]-hydrogenase-catalyzed H production function. The biological catalysts involved in H metabolism are either nitrogenases or hydrogenases. Interestingly, the [NiFe], [FeFe], and FeS-cluster free types of hydrogenases are almost completely segregated within specific groups of organisms, suggesting convergent evolution. Two distinct H photoproduction pathways have been described in green algae, and there is evidence for a third, light-independent, fermentative H pathway coupled to starch degradation. A section summarizes the genetics, expression, maturation, structure, and modeling aspects of [FeFe]-hydrogenases, which catalyze H production in green algae. The hydrogenase structural genes that have been cloned and sequenced from species of , , and are homologues of the [FeFe]-hydrogenases from bacterial organisms. A majority of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase genes and proteins so far isolated exhibit complex structures that are organized into modular domains. Experimental investigations on the molecular engineering of O accessibility in [FeFe]-hydrogenase are currently under way. A better understanding of anaerobic metabolism in and metabolic fluxes associated with diurnal periods of light and dark will facilitate the development of physiological models able to predict metabolic fluxes under various environmental conditions. Photosynthesis and H production in unicellular green algae can in principle operate with a nearly 100% absorbed photon utilization efficiency. The rate of electron transport in the thylakoid membrane of photosynthesis is of importance for defining yield and efficiency of the overall process.

Citation: Seibert M, King P, Posewitz M, Melis A, Ghirardi M. 2008. Photosynthetic Water-Splitting for Hydrogen Production, p 273-291. In Wall J, Harwood C, Demain A (ed), Bioenergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815547.ch22

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Green Algae
Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry
Gene Expression and Regulation
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Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Approximate areas of the country required to displace all gasoline used in the United States using different technologies: algal H produced from water at a future 10% solar efficiency (1), corn grain ethanol at current production yields (2), and cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass at an estimated optimal yield (3). For comparison, box 4 represents the total area of the 2006 corn crop.

Citation: Seibert M, King P, Posewitz M, Melis A, Ghirardi M. 2008. Photosynthetic Water-Splitting for Hydrogen Production, p 273-291. In Wall J, Harwood C, Demain A (ed), Bioenergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815547.ch22
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Citation: Seibert M, King P, Posewitz M, Melis A, Ghirardi M. 2008. Photosynthetic Water-Splitting for Hydrogen Production, p 273-291. In Wall J, Harwood C, Demain A (ed), Bioenergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815547.ch22
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Figure 2.

Enzymes that depend on electron transfer from reduced Fd in . The broad arrow from Fd to FNR represents the preferential flux of electrons under normal physiological conditions. Electrons are transported to Fd directly from PSI. This figure was provided by A. Dubini.

Citation: Seibert M, King P, Posewitz M, Melis A, Ghirardi M. 2008. Photosynthetic Water-Splitting for Hydrogen Production, p 273-291. In Wall J, Harwood C, Demain A (ed), Bioenergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815547.ch22
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