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Chapter 7 : Clinical Significance of Campylobacter and Related Species Other Than Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli
Category: Bacterial Pathogenesis
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This chapter describes the microbiology, epidemiology, and clinical features of infection with Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni subsp. jejuni and C. coli that are associated with human disease. The major habitat of C. fetus is the intestine, and it is commonly isolated from healthy sheep and cattle. C. fetus infections are often prolonged and result in relapse, but most patients will recover with appropriate antibiotic treatment and medical procedures. C. upsaliensis is a recognized human pathogen in both healthy and immunocompromised patients. C. hyointestinalis was identified and suggested as a possible cause of proliferative enteritis in pigs. Six Campylobacter species have an essential growth requirement for hydrogen or formate. A membrane-bound hemolytic phospholipase was detected and characterized in clinical strains of C. concisus isolated from Australian children with gastroenteritis. The presence of this potential virulence factor suggests C. concisus is an opportunistic pathogen. Two recent reviews summarize clinical presentation, pathogenicity, and other aspects of Arcobacter infection. The chapter also describes other Helicobacter and Campylobacter species. The clinical relevance of the newly recognized Campylobacter species has yet to be determined. PCR assays for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of the genera and individual species of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Arcobacter may make this task easier. Appreciation and application of an efficient protocol is essential for the isolation of non-jejuni, non-coli Campylobacter species for surveillance, epidemiological, and other studies.
A 4-day-old pure growth of C. fetus after filtration of a stool specimen onto an antibiotic-free blood-agar plate.
Culture plate showing the spreading, noncolonial growth of H. fennelliae (top) contrasted with the domed colonies of C. upsaliensis (bottom).