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Chapter 8 : Burden of Illness of Campylobacteriosis and Sequelae

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Abstract:

The burden of disease can be defined as the summary of morbidity and mortality associated with different acute and chronic manifestations of infections. Burden of disease studies include elements of epidemiology, disease modeling, risk assessment, and burden projections. This chapter discusses challenges in the measurement of burden of illness. The major limitation of seroepidemiology is that it measures the incidence of -related seroreactions, and some of these may be reactions to previous exposures that took place long ago. To assess the burden of disease, the most important or relevant disease outcomes need to be defined. This can be illustrated by an outcome tree, which is a qualitative representation of the progression of a disease in time. One of the challenges in the measurement of burden of illness is to identify methods to include contribution from immunity. The costs of campylobacteriosis are somewhat lower than the viruses but still significant. When evaluating an intervention or policy, decision makers need to determine its ability to positively impact public health (effectiveness) at a reasonable cost (efficiency) in a fair manner for all affected parties. In industrialized countries and countries in the transition phase, recent studies have shed light on the burden of illness.

Citation: Mølbak K, Havelaar A. 2008. Burden of Illness of Campylobacteriosis and Sequelae, p 151-162. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch8

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Citation: Mølbak K, Havelaar A. 2008. Burden of Illness of Campylobacteriosis and Sequelae, p 151-162. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch8
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Citation: Mølbak K, Havelaar A. 2008. Burden of Illness of Campylobacteriosis and Sequelae, p 151-162. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch8
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Figure 1.

Surveillance pyramid. Only a fraction of the population that is exposed to will become infected, and among those who are infected, only a fraction will experience symptoms. Furthermore, only a fraction of these patients will seek medical care, and only a fraction of those who seek care (whether at the hospital or at their general practitioner’s office) will have the organism culture confirmed and reported, and thus figure in the official statistics. The tip of the pyramid represents the most severe cases.

Citation: Mølbak K, Havelaar A. 2008. Burden of Illness of Campylobacteriosis and Sequelae, p 151-162. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch8
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Example of an outcome tree for -associated gastroenteritis and sequelae. R, recovery. From .

Citation: Mølbak K, Havelaar A. 2008. Burden of Illness of Campylobacteriosis and Sequelae, p 151-162. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch8
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Disease burden of seven enteric pathogens in The Netherlands, 2004. From and . Bars indicate most likely estimate; error bars, minimum and maximum values. STEC, Shiga-toxin producing ; cong., congenital.

Citation: Mølbak K, Havelaar A. 2008. Burden of Illness of Campylobacteriosis and Sequelae, p 151-162. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch8
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Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Breakdown of disease burden of seven enteric pathogens in The Netherlands, 2004. From and . STEC, Shiga toxin–producing .

Citation: Mølbak K, Havelaar A. 2008. Burden of Illness of Campylobacteriosis and Sequelae, p 151-162. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch8
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Image of Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Cost of illness of seven enteric pathogens in The Netherlands, 2004. From and . Bars indicate most likely estimate; error bars, minimum and maximum values.

Citation: Mølbak K, Havelaar A. 2008. Burden of Illness of Campylobacteriosis and Sequelae, p 151-162. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch8
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Image of Figure 6.
Figure 6.

Breakdown of cost of illness of seven enteric pathogens in The Netherlands, 2004. From . DHC, direct health care costs; DNHC, direct non–health care costs; INHC, indirect non–health care costs.

Citation: Mølbak K, Havelaar A. 2008. Burden of Illness of Campylobacteriosis and Sequelae, p 151-162. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch8
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Image of Figure 7.
Figure 7.

Risk reduction of campylobacteriosis by interventions in the broiler meat chain. From .

Citation: Mølbak K, Havelaar A. 2008. Burden of Illness of Campylobacteriosis and Sequelae, p 151-162. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch8
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Figure 8.

Cost-utility ratio of different interventions to reduce contamination of broiler meat with . Data are presented when effects on Dutch consumers only are considered and when effects on all consumers (including exports from The Netherlands) are considered. Only products from flocks that tested positive by PCR are treated. From . NL, The Netherlands.

Citation: Mølbak K, Havelaar A. 2008. Burden of Illness of Campylobacteriosis and Sequelae, p 151-162. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch8
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Tables

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Table 1.

Reported and estimated numbers of associated gastroenteritis per 100,000 population

Citation: Mølbak K, Havelaar A. 2008. Burden of Illness of Campylobacteriosis and Sequelae, p 151-162. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Incidence (cases per year) of gastroenteritis and associated sequelae, The Netherlands, 2004 (population 16 million)

Citation: Mølbak K, Havelaar A. 2008. Burden of Illness of Campylobacteriosis and Sequelae, p 151-162. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Duration of hospital stay per 1,000 patients with infections

Citation: Mølbak K, Havelaar A. 2008. Burden of Illness of Campylobacteriosis and Sequelae, p 151-162. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Disease burden of infections in comparison with selected other diseases in The Netherlands (population 16 million)

Citation: Mølbak K, Havelaar A. 2008. Burden of Illness of Campylobacteriosis and Sequelae, p 151-162. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch8

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