Chapter 9 : Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations

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Knowledge of the epidemiology of the infections of the organism causes has been steadily accumulating. The majority of these infections are sporadic; is far less often recognized as a cause of outbreaks than is . In the first comprehensive epidemiological report of the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) covering 2005, campylobacteriosis was the most frequently occurring enteric bacterial infection, second only to infection among all diseases reported. Much of the difference in incidence rates between the otherwise comparable countries Denmark and The Netherlands is explained by the fact that all Danish laboratories report diagnoses to the national level, compared with 51% of the Dutch laboratories. As the efficacy of serological methods for diagnosis of infection are further validated, including appropriate control sera, and as mathematical models advance, the usefulness of seroepidemiology to study the incidence of infections will become clearer. The vast majority of infections are sporadic individual infections and often affect young adults and young children. Consumption of untreated water, raw milk, or milk products and contact with pets are important sources of infection. Routine treatment of drinking water and pasteurization of milk are core prevention strategies. Veterinary use of fluoroquinolones in poultry explains the recent rise in ciprofloxacin-resistant infections in humans in the United States and may explain much of the geographic variation in resistance around the world.

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9

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Infection and Immunity
Campylobacter jejuni
Campylobacter coli
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Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Reported incidence of infections in FoodNet, by month and year, 1996 to 2005.

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Relative incidence rate of infections in FoodNet through 2005, compared with baseline period 1996 to 1998, using a negative binomial Poisson regression model to account for effect of new sites added over time ( ).

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Annual incidence of infections, by site, FoodNet, 2005. CA, California; CO, Colorado; CT, Connecticut; GA, Georgia; MD, Maryland; MN, Minnesota; NM, New Mexico; NY, New York; OR, Oregon; TN, Tennessee.

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
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Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Incidence of infections by age group and sex, FoodNet, 2005.

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
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Image of Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Surveillance pyramid used to estimate the burden of food-borne diseases in FoodNet.

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
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Image of Figure 6.
Figure 6.

Trends in reported incidence of infections for six countries and the European Union, 1979 to 2006. Data sources: Denmark, Statens Serum Institut (http://www.mave-tarm.dk) and Statistics Denmark; Norway, Folkehelseinstituttet (http://www.msis.no) and Statistics Norway; Sweden, Smittskyddinstitutet (http://www.smittskyddsinstitutet.se/statistik/), M. Löfdahl (personal communication), and Statistics Sweden; England and Wales, Health Protection Agency (http://www.hpa.org.uk/infections/topics_az/campy/data_ew.htm); Australia, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (http://http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-communic-index.htm) and J. Musto, NSW Department of Health (personal communication); NZ, M. Baker, University of Otago, Wellington (personal communication) and Statistics New Zealand; ECDC, European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control and A. Amato (personal communication).

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
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Image of Figure 7.
Figure 7.

Number of human infections with , proportion of isolates from humans resistant to ciprofloxacin, and prevalence of cecal carriage of in broiler flocks, by 4-week interval, The Netherlands, aggregated over the time period, 2002 to 2006 ( ). Human surveillance coverage is approximately 50%.

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
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Image of Figure 8.
Figure 8.

Schema of transmission pathways for , 2007.

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.
Figure 9.

Antimicrobial resistance in isolates, United States, 1997 to 2004 ( ).

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
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Generic image for table
Table 1.

Food- and waterborne outbreaks of infections reported in the United States, by vehicle, 1998–2004

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Case-control studies of laboratory-confirmed sporadic campylobacteriosis within the United States

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Case-control studies of sporadic campylobacteriosis in industrialized countries outside the United States

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9

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