1887

Chapter 9 : Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815554/9781555814373_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815554/9781555814373_Chap09-2.gif

Abstract:

Knowledge of the epidemiology of the infections of the organism causes has been steadily accumulating. The majority of these infections are sporadic; is far less often recognized as a cause of outbreaks than is . In the first comprehensive epidemiological report of the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) covering 2005, campylobacteriosis was the most frequently occurring enteric bacterial infection, second only to infection among all diseases reported. Much of the difference in incidence rates between the otherwise comparable countries Denmark and The Netherlands is explained by the fact that all Danish laboratories report diagnoses to the national level, compared with 51% of the Dutch laboratories. As the efficacy of serological methods for diagnosis of infection are further validated, including appropriate control sera, and as mathematical models advance, the usefulness of seroepidemiology to study the incidence of infections will become clearer. The vast majority of infections are sporadic individual infections and often affect young adults and young children. Consumption of untreated water, raw milk, or milk products and contact with pets are important sources of infection. Routine treatment of drinking water and pasteurization of milk are core prevention strategies. Veterinary use of fluoroquinolones in poultry explains the recent rise in ciprofloxacin-resistant infections in humans in the United States and may explain much of the geographic variation in resistance around the world.

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9

Key Concept Ranking

Infection and Immunity
0.46756008
Campylobacter jejuni
0.44702652
Campylobacter coli
0.4430966
0.46756008
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Reported incidence of infections in FoodNet, by month and year, 1996 to 2005.

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Relative incidence rate of infections in FoodNet through 2005, compared with baseline period 1996 to 1998, using a negative binomial Poisson regression model to account for effect of new sites added over time ( ).

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Annual incidence of infections, by site, FoodNet, 2005. CA, California; CO, Colorado; CT, Connecticut; GA, Georgia; MD, Maryland; MN, Minnesota; NM, New Mexico; NY, New York; OR, Oregon; TN, Tennessee.

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Incidence of infections by age group and sex, FoodNet, 2005.

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Surveillance pyramid used to estimate the burden of food-borne diseases in FoodNet.

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6.
Figure 6.

Trends in reported incidence of infections for six countries and the European Union, 1979 to 2006. Data sources: Denmark, Statens Serum Institut (http://www.mave-tarm.dk) and Statistics Denmark; Norway, Folkehelseinstituttet (http://www.msis.no) and Statistics Norway; Sweden, Smittskyddinstitutet (http://www.smittskyddsinstitutet.se/statistik/), M. Löfdahl (personal communication), and Statistics Sweden; England and Wales, Health Protection Agency (http://www.hpa.org.uk/infections/topics_az/campy/data_ew.htm); Australia, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (http://http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-communic-index.htm) and J. Musto, NSW Department of Health (personal communication); NZ, M. Baker, University of Otago, Wellington (personal communication) and Statistics New Zealand; ECDC, European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control and A. Amato (personal communication).

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 7.
Figure 7.

Number of human infections with , proportion of isolates from humans resistant to ciprofloxacin, and prevalence of cecal carriage of in broiler flocks, by 4-week interval, The Netherlands, aggregated over the time period, 2002 to 2006 ( ). Human surveillance coverage is approximately 50%.

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 8.
Figure 8.

Schema of transmission pathways for , 2007.

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.
Figure 9.

Antimicrobial resistance in isolates, United States, 1997 to 2004 ( ).

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815554.ch09
1. Adak, G.,, J. Cowden,, S. Nicholas, and, H. Evans. 1995. The Public Health Laboratory Service national case-control study of primary indigenous sporadic cases of Campylobacter infection. Epidemiol. Infect. 115:1522.
2. Angulo, F., and the FoodNet Working Group. 1997. Foodborne diseases active surveillance network (FoodNet). Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:581583.
3. Angulo, F., and, D. Swerdlow. 1995. Bacterial enteric infections in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:S84S93.
4. Anonymous. 2006a. Annual report on zoonoses in Denmark, 2005. http://www.dfvf.dk/Default.asp?ID=9606. Ministry of Family and Consumer Affairs.
5. Anonymous. 2006b. Burden and causes of foodborne disease in Australia: annual report of the OzFoodNet network, 2005. Comm. Dis. Intell. 30:278300.
6. Anonymous. 2000. Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with a contaminated municipal water supply, Walkerton, Ontario, May–June 2000. Can. Commun. Dis. Rep. 26:170173.
7. Baker, M.,, E. Sneyd, and, N. Wilson. 2007. Is the major increase in notified campylobacteriosis in New Zealand real? Epidemiol. Infect. 135:163170.
8. Baker, M.,, N. Wilson,, R. Ikram,, S. Chambers,, P. Shoemack, and, G. Cook. 2006. Regulation of chicken contamination is urgently needed to control New Zealand’s serious campylobacteriosis epidemic. N. Z. Med. J. 119:U2264.
9. Barreto, M.,, L. Santos,, A. Assis,, G. Farenzena,, P. Santos, and, R. Fiaccone. 1994. Effects of vitamin A supplementation on diarrhoea and acute lower-respiratory-tract infections in young children in Brazil. Lancet 344:228231.
10. Bayliss, C.,, S. MacPhee,, K. Martin,, T. Humphrey, and, R. Betts. 2000. Comparison of three enrichment media for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from foods. J. Appl. Microbiol. 89:884891.
11. Bean, N. H.,, S. M. Martin, and, H. J. Bradford. 1992. PHLIS: an electronic system for reporting public health data from remote sites. Am. J. Public Health 82:12731276.
12. Berg, D.,, T. Farley,, L. McFarland, and, T. Zhao. 1996. Campylobacter gastroenteritis associated with foodhandler contamination, Louisiana, abstr. K142. In 36th Intersci. Conf. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., New Orleans, LA, 15–16 September 1996.
13. Black, A.,, M. Kirk, and, G. Millard. 2006. Campylobacter outbreak due to chicken consumption at an Australian Capital Territory restaurant. Comm. Dis. Intell. 30:373377.
14. Black, R.,, M. Levine,, M. Clements,, T. Hughes, and, M. Blaser. 1988. Experimental Campylobacter jejuni infection in humans. J. Infect. Dis. 157:472479.
15. Blaser, M.,, H. Hardesty,, B. Powers, and, W. Wang. 1980. Survival of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in biological milieus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:309313.
16. Blaser, M.,, E. Sazie, and, L. J. Williams. 1987. The influence of immunity on raw milk–associated Campylobacter infection. JAMA 257:4346.
17. Borck, B.,, C. Galliono,, S. Nordentoft,, S. Ethelberg,, L. Boysen, and, B. Helwigh. 2007. Effects of the Danish intervention strategies aimed at reducing Campylobacter in broiler meat, abstr. O046. 14th Int. Workshop Campylobacter Helicobacter Related Organisms, 2–5 September 2007. Zoonoses Public Health 54(Suppl. 1):14.
18. Bowen, A.,, A. Fry,, G. Richards, and, L. Beuchat. 2006. Infections associated with cantaloupe consumption: a public health concern. Epidemiol. Infect. 134:675685.
19. Brieseman, M. 1987. Town water supply as the cause of an outbreak of Campylobacter infection. N. Z. Med. J. 100:212213.
20. Brieseman, M. A. 1990. A further study of the epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni infections. N. Z. Med. J. 103:207209.
21. Burgess, F.,, C. Little,, G. Allen,, K. Williamson, and, R. Mitchell. 2005. Prevalence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli on the external packaging of raw meat. J. Food Prot. 68:469475.
22. Cameron, S.,, K. Ried,, A. Worsley, and, D. Topping. 2004. Consumption of foods by young children with diagnosed Campylobacter infection—a pilot case-control study. Public Health Nutr. 7:8589.
23. Carrique-Mas, J.,, Y. Andersson,, M. Hjertqvist,, A. Svensson,, A. Torner, and, J. Giesecke. 2005. Risk factors for domestic sporadic campylobacteriosis among young children in Sweden. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 37:101110.
24. Castillo, A., and, E. Escartin. 1994. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni on sliced watermelon and papaya. J. Food Prot. 57:166168.
25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1991. Campylobacter enteritis—New Zealand, 1990. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 40:116123.
26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1986. Campylobacter outbreak associated with raw milk provided on a dairy tour—California. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 35:311312.
27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria (NARMS), final report 2004. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/narms/NARMSAnnualReport2004.pdf.
28. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infections associated with drinking unpasteurized milk procured through a cow-leasing program—Wisconsin, 2001. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:548549.
29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food—10 states, 2005. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55:392395.
30. Clark, C.,, L. Price,, R. Ahmed,, D. Woodward,, P. Melito,, F. Rodgers,, F. Jamieson,, B. Ciebin,, A. Li, and, A. Ellis. 2003. Characterization of waterborne outbreak–associated Campylobacter jejuni, Walkerton, Ontario. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:12321241.
31. Coker, A. O.,, R. D. Isokpehi,, B. N. Thomas,, K. O. Amisu, and, L. Obi. 2002. Human campylobacteriosis in developing countries. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:237243.
32. Cowden, J. 1992. Campylobacter: epidemiological paradoxes. Br. Med. J. 305:132133.
33. de Wit, M.,, M. Koopmans,, L. Kortbeek,, L. Wannet,, J. Vinje,, F. van Leusden,, A. Bartelds, and, Y. van Duynhoven. 2001. SENSOR, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in The Netherlands: incidence and etiology. Am. J. Epidemiol. 154:666674.
34. Dekeyser, P. J.,, M. Gossuin-Detrain,, J. P. Butzler, and, J. Sternon. 1972. Acute enteritis due to related Vibrio: first positive stool cultures. J. Infect. Dis. 125:390392.
35. Deming, M.,, R. Tauxe,, P. Blake, and, C. Patton. 1987. Campylobacter enteritis at a university: transmission from eating chicken and from cats. Am. J. Epidemiol. 126:526534.
36. Doorduyn, Y.,, B. Breukink,, W. van Brandhof,, Y. van Duynhoven,, J. Wagenaar, and, W. van Pelt. 2005. Risk factors for endemic Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections in The Netherlands, abstr. Epi2. MedVetNet Gen. Sci. Mtng., Winchester, United Kingdom, 29 June–1 July 2005.
37. Doyle, M., and, J. Schoeni. 1986. Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from retail mushrooms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51:449450.
38. Dziuban, E.,, J. L. Liang,, G. Craun,, V. Hill,, P. Yu,, J. Painter,, M. Moore,, R. Calderon,, S. Roy, and, M. Beach. 2006. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water—United States, 2003–4. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. Surveill. Summ. 55(SS-12):3265.
39. Eberhart-Phillips, J.,, N. Walker,, N. Garrett,, D. Bell,, D. Sinclair,, W. Rainger, and, M. Bates. 1997. Campylobacteriosis in New Zealand: results of a case-control study. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 51:686691.
40. Effler, P.,, M.-C. Ieong,, A. Kimura,, M. Nakata,, R. Burr,, E. Cremer, and, L. Slutsker. 2001. Sporadic Campylobacter jejuni infections in Hawaii: associations with prior antibiotic use and commercially prepared chicken. J. Infect. Dis. 183:11521155.
41. EFSA. 2006. The community summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents, antimicrobial resistance and foodborne outbreaks in the European Union in 2005. European Food Safety Agency. EFSA J. 2006:94.
42. Ekdahl, K., and, Y. Andersson. 2004. Regional risks and seasonality in travel-associated campylobacteriosis. BMC Infect. Dis. 4:54.
43. Ekdahl, K.,, B. Normann, and, Y. Andersson. 2005. Could flies explain the elusive epidemiology of campylobacteriosis? BMC Infect. Dis. 5:11.
44. Engberg, J.,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, F. Scheutz,, N. Moller,, S. On, and, K. Mølbak. 1998. Water-borne Campylobacter jejuni infection in a Danish town—a 6-week continuous source outbreak. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 4:648656.
45. Engleberg, N.,, A. Correa-Villasenor,, C. North,, T. Crow,, J. Wells, and, P. Blake. 1984. Campylobacter enteritis on Hopi and Navajo Indian reservations: clinical and epidemiologic features. West. J. Med. 141:5356.
46. Escherich, T. 1881. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Darmbacterien. III. Ueber das vorkommen von Vibrionen in Darmcanal und den Stuhlgaengen der Saeuglinge. Muench. Med. Wochenschr. 33:815817.
47. Ethelberg, S.,, K. Olsen,, P. Gerner-Smidt, and, K. Mølbak. 2004. Household outbreaks among culture-confirmed cases of bacterial gastrointestinal disease. Am. J. Epidemiol. 159:406412.
48. Ethelberg, S.,, J. Simonsen,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, K. Olsen, and, K. Mølbak. 2005. Spatial distribution and registry-based case-control analysis of Campylobacter infections in Denmark, 1991–2001. Am. J. Epidemiol. 162:10081015.
49. Flint, J.,, Y. van Duynhoven,, F. Angulo,, S. DeLong,, P. Braun,, M. Kirk,, E. Scallan,, M. Fitzgerald,, G. Adak,, P. Sockett,, A. Ellis,, G. Hall,, N. Gargouri,, H. Walke, and, P. Braam. 2005. Estimating the burden of acute gastroenteritis, foodborne disease, and pathogens commonly transmitted by food: an international review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41:698704.
50. Franco, D. A. 1988. Campylobacter species: considerations for controlling a foodborne pathogen. Food Prot. 51:145153.
51. Friedman, C.,, R. Hoekstra,, M. Samuel,, R. Marcus,, J. Bender,, B. Shiferaw,, V. Reddy,, S. Ahuja,, D. Helfrick,, F. Hardnett,, M. Carter,, B. Anderson, and, R. Tauxe. 2004. Risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infection in the United States: a case-control study in FoodNet sites. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38(Suppl. 3):S285S296.
52. Friedman, C.,, S. Yang,, J. Rocourt,, K. Stamey,, D. Vugia,, R. Marcus,, S. Segler,, B. Shiferaw, and, F. Angulo. 1998. Fluoroquino-lone-resistant Campylobacter infections in the United States: a pilot case-control study in FoodNet sites, abstr. 545. 36th Annu. Mtng. Infect. Dis. Soc. Am., Denver, CO, November 1998.
53. Frost, J.,, I. Gillespie, and, S. O’Brien. 2002. Public health implications of Campylobacter outbreaks in England and Wales, 1995–9: epidemiological and microbiological investigations. Epidemiol. Infect. 128:111118.
54. Fullerton, K.,, L. Ingram,, T. Jones,, B. Anderson,, P. McCarthy,, S. Hurd,, B. Shiferaw,, D. Vugia,, N. Haubert,, T. Hayes,, S. Wedel,, E. Scallan,, O. Henao, and, F. Angulo. 2007. Sporadic Campylobacter infections in infants: a population-based surveillance case-control study. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 26:1924.
55. Gauci, A., and, A. Ammon. 2007. The First European Communicable Disease Epidemiological Report. European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm.
56. Gaunt, P., and, L. Piddock. 1996. Ciprofloxacin resistant Campylobacter spp. in humans: an epidemiological and laboratory study. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 37:747757.
57. Georgsson, F.,, A. Þorkelsson,, M. Geirsdottir,, J. Reiersen, and, N. Stern. 2006. The influence of freezing and duration of storage on Campylobacter and indicator bacteria in broiler carcasses. Food Microbiol. 23:677683.
58. Gillespie, I.,, S. O’Brien,, G. Adak,, C. Tam,, J. Frost,, F. Bolton,, D. Tompkins, and the Campylobacter Sentinel Surveillance Scheme Collaborators. 2003. Point source outbreaks of Campylobacter jejuni infection—are they more common than we think and what might cause them? Epidemiol. Infect. 130:367375.
59. Gillespie, I.,, S. O’Brien,, J. Frost,, G. Adak,, P. Horby,, A. Swam,, M. Painter,, K. Neal, and the Campylobacter Sentinel Surveillance Scheme Collaborators. 2002. A case-case comparison of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni infection: a tool for generating hypotheses. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:937942.
60. Guerin, M. T.,, W. Martin,, J. Reiersen,, O. Berke,, S. A. McEwen,, J. R. Bisaillon, and, R. Lowman. 2007. A farm-level study of risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001–2004. Acta Vet. Scand. 49:18.
61. Hald, B.,, H. Skovgård,, D. Bang,, K. Pedersen,, J. Dybdahl,, J. Jespersen, and, M. Madsen. 2004. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:14901492.
62. Hald, B.,, H. Sommer, and, H. Skovgraad. 2007. Reductive effect of fly screens on the Campylobacter prevalence of broiler flocks in summer, abstr. P488. 14th Int. Workshop Campylobacter Helicobacter Relat. Organisms, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1 to 5 September 2007. Zoonoses Public Health 54(Suppl. 1):154155.
63. Harris, N.,, T. Kimball,, P. Bennett,, Y. Johnson,, D. Wakely, and, C. Nolan. 1987. Campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis associated with raw goat’s milk. Am. J. Epidemiol. 126:179186.
64. Harris, N.,, T. Kimball,, N. Weiss, and, C. Nolan. 1986a. Dairy products, produce and other non-meat food as possible sources of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli enteritis. J. Food Prot. 49:347351.
65. Harris, N.,, N. Weiss, and, C. Nolan. 1986b. The role of poultry and meats in the etiology of Campylobacter jejuni/coli enteritis. Am. J. Public Health 76:407411.
66. Headrick, M.,, S. Korangy,, N. Bean,, F. Angulo,, S. Altekruse,, M. Potter, and, K. Klontz. 1998. The epidemiology of raw milk-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported in the United States, 1973 through 1992. Am. J. Public Health 88:12191221.
67. Helms, M.,, J. Simonsen, and, K. Mølbak. 2006. Foodborne bacterial infection and hospitalization: a registry-based study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:498506.
68. Helms, M.,, P. Vastrup,, P. Gerner-Smidt, and, K. Mølbak. 2003. Short and long term mortality associated with foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal infections: registry based study. Br. Med. J. 326:357.
69. Ho, B., and, W. Wong. 1985. A one-year survey of Campylobacter enteritis and other forms of bacterial diarrhea in Hong Kong. J. Hyg. 94:5560.
70. Hofshagen, M., and, H. Kruse. 2005. Reduction in flock prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broilers in Norway after implementation of an action plan. J. Food Prot. 68:22202223.
71. Hoge, C.,, J. Gambel,, A. Srijan,, C. Pitarangsi, and, P. Echeverria. 1998. Trends in antibiotic resistance among diarrheal pathogens isolated in Thailand over 15 years. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:341345.
72. Hood, A. M.,, A. D. Pearson, and, M. Shahamat. 1988. The extent of surface contamination of retailed chickens with Campylobacter jejuni serogroups. Epidemiol. Infect. 100:1725.
73. Hopkins, R. S.,, R. Olmsted, and, G. R. Istre. 1984. Campylobacter jejuni infection in Colorado: identified risk factors. Am. J. Public Health 74:249250.
74. Hopkins, R. S., and, A. B. Scott. 1983. Handling raw chickens as a source for sporadic Campylobacter jejuni infections. J. Infect. Dis. 148:770. (Letter.)
75. Hudson, P. J.,, R. L. Vogt,, J. Brondum, and, C. M. Patton. 1984. Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from milk during an outbreak of campylobacteriosis. J. Infect. Dis. 150:789.
76. Humphrey, T., and, R. Hart. 1988. Campylobacter and Salmonella contamination of unpasteurized cows’ milk on sale to the public. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 65:463467.
77. Hutchinson, D. N.,, F. J. Bolton,, P. M. Hinchliffe,, H. D. Dawkins,, S. D. Horsley,, E. G. Jessop,, P. A. Robertshaw, and, D. E. Counter. 1985. Evidence of udder excretion of Campylobacter jejuni as the cause of milk-borne Campylobacter outbreak. J. Hyg. (Lond.) 94:205215.
78. Ikram, R.,, S. Chambers,, P. Mitchell,, M. Brieseman, and, O. Ikram. 1994. A case control study to determine risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Christchurch in the summer of 1992–3. N. Z. Med. J. 107:430432.
79. Ito, K.,, Y. Kubokura,, K.-I. Kaneko,, Y. Totake, and, M. Ogawa. 1988. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni in free-living wild birds from Japan. J. Wildl. Dis. 24:467470.
80. Jacobs-Reitsma, W.,, N. Bolder, and, R. Mulder. 1994. Cecal carriage of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Dutch broiler flocks at slaughter; a one year study. Poultry Sci. 73:12601266.
81. Jimenez, M.,, P. Soler,, J. Venanzi,, P. Cante,, C. Varela, and, N. Martinez. 2005. An outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis in a school of Madrid, Spain. Eurosurveillance 10:118121.
82. Jones, D.,, D. Robinson, and, J. Eldridge. 1981. Serological studies in two outbreaks of Campylobacter jejuni infection. J. Hyg. (Lond.) 87:163170.
83. Kapperud, G., and, S. Aasen. 1992. Descriptive epidemiology of infections due to thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in Norway, 1979–1988. APMIS 100:883890.
84. Kapperud, G.,, G. Espeland,, E. Wahl,, A. Walde,, H. Herikstad,, S. Gustavsen,, I. Tveit,, O. Natas,, L. Bevanger, and, A. Digranes. 2003. Factors associated with increased and decreased risk of Campylobacter infection: a prospective case-control study in Norway. Am. J. Epidemiol. 158:234242.
85. Kapperud, G.,, O. Lømo,, K. Styrmo,, S. Gregusson,, K. Melby, and, T. Vardund. 2000. [Two outbreaks of Campylobacter infection after bicycle races—dirty water splash from the wheels a source of infection?]. MSIS-Rapport 28:89.
86. Kapperud, G., and, O. Rosef. 1983. Avian wildlife reservoir of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. in Norway. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45:375380.
87. Kapperud, G.,, E. Skjerve,, N. Bean,, S. Ostroff, and, J. Lassen. 1992. Risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections: results of a case-control study in southeastern Norway. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:31173121.
88. Kapperud, G.,, E. Skjerve,, L. Vik,, K. Hauge,, A. Lysaker,, I. Aalmen,, S. Ostroff, and, M. Potter. 1993. Epidemiological investigations of risk factors for Campylobacter colonization in Norwegian broiler flocks. Epidemiol. Infect. 111:245255.
89. Kassenborg, H.,, K. Smith,, D. Vugia,, T. Rabatsky-Ehr,, M. Bates,, M. Carter,, N. Dumas,, M. Cassidy,, N. Marano,, R. Tauxe, and, F. Angulo. 2004. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter infections: eating poultry outside of the home and foreign travel are risk factors. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:S279S284.
90. King, E. O. 1962. The laboratory recognition of Vibrio fetus and closely related Vibrio species isolated from cases of human vibriosis. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 98:700711.
91. Kirk, M.,, R. Waddell,, C. Dalton,, A. Creaser, and, R. Rose. 1997. A prolonged outbreak of Campylobacter infection at a training facility. Commun. Dis. Intell. 21:5761.
92. Kist, M. 1982. Campylobacter enteritis: epidemiological and clinical data from recent isolations in the region of Freiburg, West Germany, p. 138143. In D. G. Newell (ed.), Campylobacter: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Biochemistry. MTP Press, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
93. Klein, B.,, J. Vergeront,, M. Blaser,, P. Edmonds,, D. Brenner,, D. Janssen, and, J. Davis. 1986. Campylobacter infection associated with raw milk: an outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Campylobacter jejuni and thermotolerant Campylobacter fetus subsp fetus. JAMA 255:361364.
94. Kovats, R.,, S. Edwards,, D. Charron,, J. Cowden,, R. D’Souza,, K. Ebi,, C. Gauci,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, S. Hajat,, S. Hales,, G. Hernández Pezzi,, B. Kriz,, K. Kutsar,, P. McKeown,, K. Mellou,, B. Menne,, S. O’Brien,, W. van Pelt, and, H. Schmid. 2005. Climate variability and campylobacter infection: an international study. Int. J. Biometeorol. 49:207214.
95. Kuusi, M.,, J. P. Nuorti,, M. L. Hanninen,, M. Koskela,, V. Jussila,, E. Kela,, I. Miettinen, and, P. Ruutu. 2005. A large outbreak of campylobacteriosis associated with a municipal water supply in Finland. Epidemiol. Infect. 133:593601.
96. Lewis, H.,, A. Mazick,, K. Mølbak,, S. Ethelberg, and, M. Lisby. 2007. Campylobacter outbreaks. Epi-News 2007, week 20/21.
97. Liang, J. L.,, E. Dziuban,, G. Craun,, V. Hill,, M. Moore,, R. Gelting,, R. Calderon,, M. Beach, and, S. Roy. 2006. Surveillance for waterborne-disease outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking—United States, 2003–2004. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. Surveill. Summ. 55(SS-12):131.
98. Lighton, L.,, E. Kaczmarski, and, D. Jones. 1991. A study of risk factors for Campylobacter infection in spring. Public Health 105:199203.
99. Louis, V.,, I. Gillespie,, S. O’Brien,, E. Russek-Cohen,, A. Pearson, and, R. Colwell. 2005. Temperature-driven Campylobacter seasonality in England and Wales. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:8592.
100. Luber, P., and, E. Bartelt. 2007. Enumeration of Campylobacter spp. on the surface and within chicken breast fillets. J. Appl. Microbiol. 102:313318.
101. Luber, P.,, S. Brynestad,, D. Topsch,, K. Sherer, and, E. Bartelt. 2006. Quantification of Campylobacter species cross-contamination during handling of contaminated fresh chicken parts in kitchens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:6670.
102. Lynch, M.,, J. Painter,, R. Woodruff, and, C. Braden. 2006. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks—United States, 1998–2002. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55:142.
103. Majowicz, S.,, G. Hall,, E. Scallan,, G. Adak,, C. Gauci,, T. Jones,, S. O’Brien,, O. Henao,, P. Sockett, and the International Collaboration on “Burden of Illness” Studies. Standardized case definition for acute gastroenteritis. Epidemiol. Infect. [Online.] doi: 10.1017/S0950268807009375.
104. Maurer, A. M., and, D. Sturchler. 2000. A waterborne outbreak of small round structured virus, campylobacter and shigella co-infections in La Neuveville, Switzerland, 1998. Epidemiol. Infect. 125:325332.
105. Mazick, A.,, S. Ethelberg,, E. M. Nielsen,, K. Mølbak, and, M. Lisby. 2006. An outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni associated with consumption of chicken, Copenhagen, 2005. Eurosurveillance 11:137139.
106. Mégraud, F. 1999. Les infections à Campylobacter en France: bilan du Centre National de Référence. Bulletin Epidémiologique Annual 1997. Centre National de Reference, Bordeaux, France.
107. Melby, K.,, O. P. Dahl,, L. Crisp, and, J. L. Penner. 1990. Clinical and serological manifestations in patients during a waterborne epidemic due to Campylobacter jejuni. J. Infect. Dis. 21:309316.
108. Melby, K.,, B. Gondrosen,, S. Gregusson,, H. Ribe, and, O. P. Dahl. 1991. Waterborne campylobacteriosis in northern Norway. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 12:151156.
109. Melby, K.,, J. Svendby,, T. Eggebo,, L. Holmen,, B. Andersen,, L. Lind,, E. Sjogren, and, B. Kaijser. 2000. Outbreak of Campylobacter infection in a subartic community. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 19:542544.
110. Meldrum, R.,, J. Griffiths,, R. Smith, and, M. Evans. 2005. The seasonality of human campylobacter infection and Campylobacter isolates from fresh retail chicken in Wales. Epidemiol. Infect. 133:4952.
111. Mentzing, L. O. 1981. Waterborne outbreaks of campylobacter enteritis in central Sweden. Lancet ii:352354.
112. Miller, G.,, G. Dunn,, T. Reid,, I. Ogden, and, N. Strachan. 2005. Does age acquired immunity confer selective protection to common serotypes of Campybacter jejuni? BMC Infect. Dis. 6:15.
113. Miller, G.,, G. Dunn,, A. Smith-Palmer,, A. Ogden, and, N. Strachan. 2004. Human campylobacteriosis in Scotland: seasonality regional trends and bursts of infection. Epidemiol. Infect. 132:585593.
114. Mintz, E.,, J. Bartram,, P. Lochery, and, M. Wegelin. 2001. Not just a drop in the bucket: expanding access to point-of-use water treatment systems. Am. J. Public Health 91:15651570.
115. Nauta, M.,, W. Jacobs-Reitsma,, E. Evers,, W. van Pelt, and, A. Havelaar. 2005. Risk assessment of Campylobacter in The Netherlands via chicken and other routes. RIVM Report no. 250911006/2005. National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
116. Neal, K., and, R. Slack. 1995. The autumn peak in campylobacter gastro-enteritis. Are the risk factors the same for travel- and U.K.-acquired campylobacter infections? J. Public Health Med. 17:98102.
117. Neal, K., and, R. Slack. 1997. Diabetes mellitus, anti-secretory drugs and other risk factors for Campylobacter gastroenteritis in adults: a case-control study. Epidemiol. Infect. 119:307311.
118. Neimann, J.,, J. Engberg,, K. Mølbak, and, H. Wegener. 2003. A case-control study of risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections in Denmark. Epidemiol. Infect. 130:353366.
119. Neimann, J.,, K. Mølbak,, J. Engberg,, F. Aarestrup, and, H. Wegener. 2001. Longer duration of illness among Campylobacter patients treated with fluoroquinolones, abstr. L-18. 11th Int. Workshop Campylobacter Helicobacter Relat. Organisms, Freiburg, Germany. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 291(Suppl. 31):108.
120. Nelson, J.,, T. Chiller,, J. Powers, and, F. Angulo. 2007. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species and the withdrawal of fluoroquinolones from use in poultry; a public health success story. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:977980.
121. Nelson, J.,, K. Smith,, D. Vugia,, T. Rabatsk-Ehr,, S. Segler,, H. Kassenborg,, S. Zansky,, K. Joyce,, N. Marano,, R. Hoekstra, and, F. Angulo. 2004. Prolonged diarrhea due to ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter infection. J. Infect. Dis. 190:11501157.
122. Nelson, M.,, D. Shanson,, D. Hawkins, and, B. Gazzard. 1992. Salmonella, Campylobacter and Shigella in HIV-seropositive patients. AIDS 6:14951498.
123. Newell, D., and, C. Fearnley. 2003. Sources of Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:43434351.
124. Nichols, G. 2005. Fly transmission of Campylobacter. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:361364.
125. Norkrans, G., and, A. Svedhem. 1982. Epidemiological aspects of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis. J. Hyg. (Lond.) 89:163170.
126. Nylen, G.,, F. Dunstan,, S. Palmer,, Y. Andersson,, F. Bager,, J. Cowden,, G. Feierl,, Y. Galloway,, G. Kapperud,, F. Megraud,, K. Mølbak,, L. Petersen, and, P. Ruutu. 2002. The seasonal distribution of campylobacter infection in nine European countries and New Zealand. Epidemiol. Infect. 128:383390.
127. Oberhelman, R. A., and, D. N. Taylor. 2000. Campylobacter infections in developing countries, p. 139153. In I. Nachamkin and, M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 2nd ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
128. Olsen, S.,, G. Hansen,, L. Bartlett,, C. Fitzgerald,, A. Sonder,, R. Manjrekar,, T. Riggs,, J. Kim,, R. Flahart,, G. Pezzino, and, D. Swerdlow. 2001. An outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infections associated with food handler contamination: the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J. Infect. Dis. 183:164167.
129. Oosterom, J., J., R. J. Banffer,, S. Lauwers, and, A. E. Busschbach. 1985. Serotyping of and hippurate hydrolysis by Campylobacter jejuni isolates from human patients, poultry and pigs in The Netherlands. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 51:6570.
130. Oosterom, J.,, C. H. Den Uyl,, J. R. J. Banffer, and, J. Huisman. 1984. Epidemiological investigations on Campylobacter jejuni in households with a primary infection. J. Hyg. (Lond.) 92:325332.
131. O’Reilly, C.,, A. Bowen,, N. Perez,, J. Sarisky,, C. Shepherd,, M. Miller,, B. Hubbard,, M. Herring,, S. Buchanan,, C. Fitzgerald,, V. Hill,, M. Arrowood,, L. Xiao,, R. Hoekstra,, E. Mintz,, M. Lynch, and the Outbreak Working Group. 2007. A waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis with multiple etiologies among resort island visitors and residents: Ohio, 2004. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:506512.
132. Patrick, M.,, L. Christiansen,, M. Waino,, S. Ethelberg,, H. Madsen, and, H. Wegener. 2004. Effects of climate on incidence of Campylobacter spp. in humans and prevalence in broiler flocks in Denmark. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:74747480.
133. Pearson, A.,, M. Greenwood,, T. Healing,, D. Rollins,, M. Shahamat,, J. Donaldson, and, R. Colwell. 1993. Colonization of broiler chickens by waterborne Campylobacter jejuni. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:987996.
134. Pebody, R.,, M. Ryan, and, P. Wall. 1997. Outbreaks of Campylobacter infection: rare events for a common pathogen. Commun. Dis. Rep. CDR Rev. 7:R33R37.
135. Piddock, L. 1995. Quinolone resistance and Campylobacter spp. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 36:891898.
136. Potter, R.,, J. Kaneene, and, W. Hall. 2003. Risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter jejuni infections in rural Michigan: a prospective case-control study. Am. J. Public Health 93:21182123.
137. Quick, R.,, L. Venczel,, O. Gonzalez,, E. Mintz,, A. Highsmith,, A. Espada,, E. Damini,, N. Bean,, E. De Hannover, and, R. Tauxe. 1996. Narrow-mouthed water storage vessels and in situ chlorination in a Bolivian community: a simple method to improve drinking water quality. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 54:511516.
138. Quinn, T.,, S. Goodell,, C. Fennell,, S. Wang,, M. Schuffler,, K. Holmes, and, W. Stamm. 1984. Infections with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter-like organisms in homosexual men. Ann. Intern. Med. 101:187192.
139. Redmond, E.,, C. Griffith,, J. Slader, and, T. Humphrey. 2004. Microbiological and observational analysis of cross contamination risks during domestic food preparation. Br. Food J. 106:581597.
140. Richardson, L. 2007. Isolation of Campylobacter from circulating blood of commercial broilers via venipucnture of exposed/unex-posed brachial veins, abstr. P287. 14th Int. Workshop Campylobacter Helicobacter Relat. Organisms, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1 to 5 September 2007. Zoonoses Public Health 54(Suppl. 1):98.
141. Riley, L. W., and, M. J. Finch. 1985. Results of the first year of national surveillance of Campylobacter infections in the United States. J. Infect. Dis. 151:956959.
142. Riordan, T.,, T. Humphrey, and, A. Fowles. 1993. A point source outbreak of Campylobacter infections related to bird-pecked milk. Epidemiol. Infect. 110:261265.
143. Robinson, D. 1981. Infective dose of Campylobacter jejuni in milk. Br. Med. J. Clin. Res. Ed. 282:1584.
144. Rodrigues, L.,, J. Cowden,, J. Wheeler,, D. Sethi,, P. Wall,, P. Cumberland,, D. Tompkins,, M. Hudson,, J. Roberts, and, P. Roderick. 2001. The study of infectious intestinal disease in England: risk factors for cases of infectious intestinal disease with Campylobacter jejuni infection. Epidemiol. Infect. 127:185193.
145. Saeed, A.,, N. Harris, and, R. DiGiacomo. 1993. The role of exposure to animals in the etiology of Campylobacter jejuni/coli enteritis. Am. J. Epidemiol. 137:108114.
146. Said, B.,, F. Wright,, G. L. Nichols,, M. Reacher, and, M. Rutter. 2003. Outbreaks of infectious disease associated with private drinking water supplies in England and Wales 1970–2000. Epidemiol. Infect. 130:469479.
147. Salfield, N., and, E. Pugh. 1987. Campylobacter enteritis in young children living in households with puppies. Br. Med. J. 294:2122.
148. Samuel, M.,, D. Vugia,, S. Shallow,, R. Marcus,, S. Segler,, T. McGivern,, H. Kassenborg,, K. Reilly,, M. Kennedy,, F. Angulo, and, R. Tauxe. 2004. Epidemiology of sporadic Campylobacter infection in the United States and declining trend in incidence. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38(Suppl 3):S165S174.
149. Sandberg, M.,, B. Bergsjo,, M. Hofshagen,, E. Skjerve, and, H. Kruse. 2002. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Norwegian cats and dogs. Prev. Vet. Med. 55:244253.
150. Sato, K.,, P. Bartlett,, J. Kaneene, and, F. Downes. 2004. Comparison of prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from organic and conventional dairy herds in Wisconsin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:14421447.
151. Scallan, E. 2007. Activities, achievements, and lessons learned during the first 10 years of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network: 1996–2005. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:718725.
152. Scherer, K.,, E. Bartelt,, C. Sommerfeld, and, G. Hildebrandt. 2006. Quantification of Campylobacter on the surface and in the muscle of chicken legs at retail. J. Food Prot. 69:757761.
153. Schlesselman, J. J. 1982. Case-Control Studies: Design, Conduct, Analysis. Oxford University Press, New York.
154. Schmid, G. P.,, R. E. Schaefer, and, B. D. Plikaytis. 1987. A one-year study of endemic campylobacteriosis in a midwestern city: association with consumption of raw milk. J. Infect. Dis. 156:218222.
155. Schonberg-Norio, D.,, J. Takkinen,, M. Hanninen,, M. Katila,, S. Kaukoranta,, L. Mattila, and, H. Rautelin. 2004. Swimming and Campylobacter infections. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:14741477.
156. Schorr, D.,, H. Schmid,, H. Rieder,, A. Baumgartner,, H. Vorkauf, and, A. Burnens. 1994. Risk factors for Campylobacter enteritis in Switzerland. Zentralbl. Hyg. Umweltmed. 196:327337.
157. Shane, S. M. 1991. Environmental factors associated with Campylobacter jejuni colonization of poultry, p. 2946. In S. M. Shane (ed.), Colonization Control of Human Bacterial Enteropathogens in Poultry. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
158. Shmilovitz, M.,, B. Kretzer, and, N. Rotman. 1982. Campylobacter jejuni as an aetiological agent of diarrheal diseases in Israel. Isr. J. Med. Sci. 18:935940.
159. Simonsen, J.,, M. Strid,, K. Mølbak,, K. Krogfelt,, A. Linneberg, and, P. Teunis. Sero-epidemiology as a tool to study the incidence of Salmonella infections. Epidemiol. Infect. [Online.] doi:10.1017/S0950268807009314.
160. Skirrow, M. 1991. Epidemiology of Campylobacter enteritis. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 12:916.
161. Skirrow, M. B. 1987. A demographic survey of Campylobacter, Salmonella and Shigella infections in England. A public health laboratory service survey. Epidemiol. Infect. 99:647657.
162. SMI. 1997. Reported Foodborne and Waterborne Outbreaks in Sweden. Swedish Institute of Infectious Disease Control, Stockholm.
163. Smith, K.,, J. Besser,, C. Hedberg,, F. Leano,, J. Bender,, J. Wicklund,, B. Johnson,, K. Moore, and, M. Osterholm. 1999. Quinolone-resistant infections of Campylobacter jejuni in Minnesota, 1992–1998. N. Engl. J. Med. 340:15251532.
164. Sorvillo, F.,, L. Lieb, and, S. Waterman. 1991. Incidence of campylobacteriosis among patients with AIDS in Los Angeles County. J Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 4:598602.
165. Southern, J.,, R. Smith, and, S. Palmer. 1990. Public Health. Bird attack on milk bottles: possible mode of transmission of Campylobacter jejuni to man. Lancet 336:14251427.
166. Stafford, R.,, P. Schluter,, M. Kirk,, A. Wilson,, L. Unicomb,, R. Ashbolt, and, J. Gregory. 2007. A multi-centre prospective case-control study of campylobacter infection in persons aged 5 years and older in Australia. Epidemiol. Infect. 135:978988.
167. Stafford, R.,, T. Tenkate, and, B. McCall. 1996. A five year review of Campylobacter infection in Queensland. Commun. Dis. Intell. 20:478482.
168. Stern, N. J.,, K. L. Hiett,, G. A. Alfredsson,, K. G. Kristinsson,, J. Reiersen,, H. Hardardottir,, H. Briem,, E. Gunnarsson,, F. Georgsson,, R. Lowman,, E. Berndtson,, A. M. Lammerding,, G. M. Paoli, and, M. T. Musgrove. 2003. Campylobacter spp. in Icelandic poultry operations and human disease. Epidemiol. Infect. 130:2332.
169. Strid, M.,, J. Engberg,, L. Larsen,, K. Begtrup,, K. Mølbak, and, K. Krogfelt. 2001. Antibody responses to Campylobacter infections determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: 2-year follow-up study of 210 patients. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8:314319.
170. Studahl, A., and, Y. Andersson. 2000. Risk factors for indigenous Campylobacter infection: a Swedish case-control study. Epidemiol. Infect. 125:269275.
171. Swift, L., and, P. Hunter. 2004. What do negative associations between potential risk factors and illness in analytical epidemio-logical studies of infectious disease really mean? Epidemiol. Infect. 19:219223.
172. Tauxe, R.,, N. Hargrett-Bean,, C. Patton, and, I. Wachsmuth. 1988. Campylobacter isolates in the United States, 1982–1986. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 37:113.
173. Taylor, D. N.,, K. T. McDermott,, J. R. Little,, J. G. Wells, and, M. J. Blaser. 1983. Campylobacter enteritis from untreated water in the Rocky Mountains. Ann. Intern. Med. 99:3840.
174. Tenkate, T., and, R. Stafford. 2001. Risk factors for campylobacter infection in infants and young children: a matched case-control study. Epidemiol. Infect. 127:399404.
175. Ternhag, A.,, A. Toerner,, A. Svensson,, J. Giesecke, and, K. Ekdahl. 2005. Mortality following Campylobacter infection: a registry-based linkage study. BMC Infect. Dis. 5:15.
176. Teunis, P., and, A. Havelaar. 2000. The beta Poisson dose-model is not a single-hit model. Risk Assess. 20:513520.
177. Teunis, P.,, W. Van den Brandhof,, M. Nauta,, J. Wagenaar,, H. Van den Kerkhof, and, W. Van Pelt. 2005. A reconsideration of the Campylobacter dose-response relation. Epidemiol. Infect. 133:583592.
178. Unicomb, L.,, J. Ferguson,, T. Riley, and, P. Collignon. 2003. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter absent from isolates, Australia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:14821483.
179. Unicomb, L.,, J. Ferguson,, R. Stafford,, R. Ashbolt,, M. Kirk,, N. Becker,, M. Patel,, G. Gilbert,, M. Valcanis,, L. Mickan, and the Australian Campylobacter Subtyping Study Group. 2006. Low-level fluoroquinolone resistance among Campylobacter jejuni isolates in Australia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:13681374.
180. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1996. Pathogen reduction: hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems; final rule. Fed. Regist. 61:3880538989.
181. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Groundwater Rule: Proposed Rules. 40 CFR parts 141 and 142. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. http://www.epa.gov/safewater/gwr.html.
182. van Pelt, W.,, M. A. de Wit,, W. J. Wannet,, E. J. Ligtvoet,, M. A. Widdowson, and, Y. T. van Duynhoven. 2003a. Laboratory surveillance of bacterial gastroenteric pathogens in The Netherlands, 1991–2001. Epidemiol. Infect. 130:431441.
183. van Pelt, W.,, Y. Doorduyn,, E. Evers,, W. Ang,, Y. van Duynhoven, and, A. Havelaar. 2005. Presented at the MedVetNet General Scientific Meeting. 29 June–1 July 2005, Winchester, United Kingdom.
184. van Pelt, W.,, S. van der Heijden, and, Y. van Duynhoven. 2007. Similarities and differences in seasonality of Campylobacter in broilers and humans, 1998–2006, The Netherlands, abstr. P110. 14th Int. Workshop Campylobacter Helicobacter Relat. Organisms, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1 to 5 September 2007. Zoonoses Public Health 54(Suppl. 1):5051.
185. van Pelt, W.,, G. Visser, and, S. Valkenburgh. 2003b. Zoonoses and Zoonotic Agents in Humans, Food, Animals and Feed in The Netherlands, 2002. Inspectorate for Health Protection and Veterinary Public Health, the Hague, The Netherlands.
186. van Pelt, W.,, W. Wannett,, A. van de Giessen,, D. Mevius, and, Y. van Duynhoven. 2004. Trends in gastroenteritis in The Netherlands, 1996–2003. Infect. Bull. 15:335341.
187. Vellinga, A., and, F. Van Loock. 2002. The dioxin crisis as experiment to determine poultry-related Campylobacter enteritis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:1922.
188. Vestergaard, L. S.,, K. E. Olsen,, R. Stensvold,, B. E. Bottiger,, M. Adelhardt,, M. Lisby,, L. Mork, and, K. Mølbak. 2007. Outbreak of severe gastroenteritis with multiple aetiologies caused by contaminated drinking water in Denmark, January 2007. Eurosurveillance 12:E0703291.
189. Voetsch, A.,, T. Van Gilder,, F. Angulo,, M. Farley,, S. Shallow,, R. Marcus,, R. Cieslak,, V. C. Deneen, and, R. Tauxe. 2004. FoodNet estimate of the burden of illness caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:S127S134.
190. Vogt, R. L.,, H. E. Sours,, T. Barrett,, R. A. Feldman,, R. J. Dickinson, and, L. Witherell. 1982. Campylobacter enteritis associated with contaminated water. Ann. Intern. Med. 96:292296.
191. Waldenstroem, J.,, T. Broman,, I. Carlsson,, D. Hasselquist,, R. Achterberg,, J. Wagenaar, and, B. Olsen. 2002. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter coli in different ecological guilds and taxa of migrating birds. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:59115917.
192. Wheeler, J.,, D. Sethi,, J. Cowden,, P. Wall,, L. Rodrigues,, D. Tompkins,, M. Hudson, and, P. Roderick. 1999. Study of infectious intestinal diseases in England: rates in the community, presenting to general practice, and reported to national surveillance. Br. Med. J. 318:10461050.
193. World Health Organization. 2001. The Increasing Incidence of Human Campylobacteriosis: Report and Proceedings of a WHO Consultation of Experts. WHO/CDS/CSR/APH 2001. 7. World Health Organization, Copenhagen.
194. Wilson, I. 2003. Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of raw retail chicken from different producers: a six-year survey. Epidemiol. Infect. 130:320323.
195. Wingstrand, A.,, J. Neimann,, J. Engberg,, E. Nielsen,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, H. Wegener, and, K. Mølbak. 2006. Fresh chicken as main risk factor for campylobacteriosis, Denmark. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:280285.
196. Wong, T.,, R. Whyte,, A. Cornelius, and, J. Hudson. 2004. Enumeration of Campylobacter and Salmonella on chicken packs. Br. Food J. 106:651662.
197. Wood, R.,, K. MacDonald, and, M. Osterholm. 1992. Campylobacter enteritis outbreaks associated with drinking raw milk during youth activities. A 10-year review of outbreaks in the United States. JAMA 268:32283230.
198. Yang, S.,, M. Leff,, D. McTague,, K. Horvath,, T. Jackson-Thompson,, T. Murayi,, G. Boeslager,, T. Melnik,, M. Gilder-master,, D. Ridings,, S. Altekruse, and, F. Angulo. 1998. Multistate surveillance for food handling, preparation and consumption behaviors associated with foodborne diseases: 1995 and 1996 BRFSS food safety questions. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. CDC Surveill. Summ. 47(4):3357.
199. Zhao, T.,, M. Doyle, and, D. Berg. 2000. Fate of Campylobacter jejuni in butter. J. Food Prot. 63:120122.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Food- and waterborne outbreaks of infections reported in the United States, by vehicle, 1998–2004

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Case-control studies of laboratory-confirmed sporadic campylobacteriosis within the United States

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Case-control studies of sporadic campylobacteriosis in industrialized countries outside the United States

Citation: Olson C, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe R. 2008. Epidemiology of Infections in Industrialized Nations, p 163-189. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch9

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error