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Chapter 11 : Isolation, Identification, Subspecies Differentiation, and Typing of

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Isolation, Identification, Subspecies Differentiation, and Typing of , Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter presents an overview of the historic classifications and nomenclature of . The current recognized nomenclature for was officially accepted in 1980, published in the approved list of bacterial names, and in accordance with that used in . During 1950s to 1970s, identification, subspecies differentiation, and typing results were based on phenotypic methods that are limited in both reliability and interpretation. Screening programs aiming to control bovine genital campylobacteriosis and limit the economic impact are performed by veterinary health services. The majority of the molecular methods are sensitive and can be used to identify . However, one study has investigated the use of animal models for subspecies differentiation, on the premise that subsp. and subsp. have differences in their preference for host and niche. The use of animals for subspecies differentiation purposes is not practical and has never been publicly evaluated. Phenotyping of has been confined to serotyping. The currently accepted serotyping scheme is based on the heat-stable O antigens and consists of only two serotypes, A and B. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) results showed that has a more clonal structure compared with most other species within the genus. MLST in combination with a subsp. –specific PCR may be applied. Currently, the best method for typing purposes is pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).

Citation: van Bergen M, van Putten J, Dingle K, Blaser M, Wagenaar J. 2008. Isolation, Identification, Subspecies Differentiation, and Typing of , p 213-225. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch11

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Campylobacter fetus
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Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis
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Multilocus Sequence Typing
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Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Lack of genetic diversity in the A locus compared with other species. Radial neighbor-joining tree comparing 477 nt sequences at the A locus of with those of five other species. Alleles are numbered as in the MLST databases at http://pubmlst.org/ and prefixed by a letter to indicate the species. Bootstrap values are shown. Reprinted from the ( ).

Citation: van Bergen M, van Putten J, Dingle K, Blaser M, Wagenaar J. 2008. Isolation, Identification, Subspecies Differentiation, and Typing of , p 213-225. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch11
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Dendrogram showing the AFLP banding patterns of 69 strains. Cluster analysis was based on the similarity levels among bands in region 841 to 879 of the banding patterns (arrow). The different clusters of subsp. and subsp. are indicated. The percentage of genetic similarity among banding patterns is shown. Reprinted from the ( ).

Citation: van Bergen M, van Putten J, Dingle K, Blaser M, Wagenaar J. 2008. Isolation, Identification, Subspecies Differentiation, and Typing of , p 213-225. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch11
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Congruence of sequence type (ST), type, and subspecies. Analysis of concatenated MLST sequences by split decomposition. The three STs identified in association with subsp. are indicated by the dotted line, the remainder being subsp. . The correlation among ST and type is marked; solid line, A; dashed line, B. A radial neighbor-joining tree constructed by using the same data (inset) is shown to indicate the corresponding treelike phylogenies obtained by both methods. This supports the idea that subsp. and subsp. evolved recently, with little (if any) evidence of recombination, and that genetic changes have accumulated by the vertical transmission of point mutations, yielding a clonal structure to the population. Reprinted from the ( ).

Citation: van Bergen M, van Putten J, Dingle K, Blaser M, Wagenaar J. 2008. Isolation, Identification, Subspecies Differentiation, and Typing of , p 213-225. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch11
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Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Schematic of proposed ancestral relationships and pathogenicities for based on previous and recent studies. strains colonize a variety of animals and/or are pathogens of these species. Infection of humans usually reflects direct contact with such animals or exposure to –contaminated foods. The widths of the arrows indicate the relative frequencies of human infection with these strains. Reprinted from the ( ).

Citation: van Bergen M, van Putten J, Dingle K, Blaser M, Wagenaar J. 2008. Isolation, Identification, Subspecies Differentiation, and Typing of , p 213-225. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch11
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Tables

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Table 1.

Overview of the subspecies and their host preference and their clinical importance

Citation: van Bergen M, van Putten J, Dingle K, Blaser M, Wagenaar J. 2008. Isolation, Identification, Subspecies Differentiation, and Typing of , p 213-225. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Comparison of historic classification and nomenclature of

Citation: van Bergen M, van Putten J, Dingle K, Blaser M, Wagenaar J. 2008. Isolation, Identification, Subspecies Differentiation, and Typing of , p 213-225. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch11

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