Chapter 12 : Diagnosis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Species

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Diagnosis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Species, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815554/9781555814373_Chap12-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815554/9781555814373_Chap12-2.gif


Patients with infection may manifest signs and symptoms of acute appendicitis and result in unnecessary surgery. Bacteremia, endocarditis, meningitis, urinary tract infection, and other extraintestinal diseases may result from infections. Fecal samples should routinely be submitted to the laboratory for isolation of species from patients with diarrheal illness. Commercial blood culture systems such as the BACTEC system (aerobic bottles) and Septi-Chek system support the growth of the common species. Advantages of molecular approaches over culture include same-day detection, additional data regarding mixed infections, and uncommon species that are often missed when routine culture and procedures that are amenable to automation and high-throughput capabilities are used. A microaerobic atmosphere containing approximately 5% O, 10% CO, and 85% N is required for optimal recovery of most species. species are difficult to identify phenotypically because of relative biochemical inactivity, special growth requirements, and complex taxonomy. The 16S rRNA gene and 23S rRNA gene are two widely used targets for the design of species-specific tests; PCR assays based on these targets have been described for 12 different species. Fluoroquinolones had good in vitro activity for all species as well as for members of the family of . Little information is available on the antimicrobial susceptibility of . Multidrug resistance in appears to be occurring more frequently and poses the risk that an effective antimicrobial regimen to treat infection may be lacking.

Citation: Fitzgerald C, Whichard J, Nachamkin I. 2008. Diagnosis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Species, p 227-243. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch12

Key Concept Ranking

Campylobacter jejuni
Campylobacter fetus
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Aarestrup, F. M.,, E. M. Nielsen,, M. Madsen, and, J. Engberg. 1997. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from humans, pigs, cattle, and broilers in Denmark. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:22442250.
2. Adler, M.,, H. Luthy,, L. Martinetti,, A. Burnens, and, M. Altwegg. 1991. Development of resistance to quinolones in five patients with campylobacteriosis treated with norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 10:953957.
3. Aho, M.,, M. Kauppi, and, J. Hirn. 1988. The stability of small number of campylobacteria in four different transport media. Acta Vet. Scand. 29:437442.
4. Alfredson, D. A., and, V. Korolik. 2005. Isolation and expression of a noval molecular class D B-lactamase, OXA-61, from Campylobacter jejuni. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:25152518.
5. Allos, B. M.,, A. J. Lastovica, and, M. J. Blaser. 1995. Atypical campylobacters and related organisms, p. 849865. In M. J. Blaser,, P. D. Smith,, J. I. Ravdin,, H. B. Greenberg, and, R. L. Guerrant (ed.), Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Raven Press, New York.
6. Alm, R. A.,, P. Guerry,, M. E. Power,, H. Lior, and, T. J. Trust. 1991. Analysis of the role of flagella in the heat-labile Lior serotyping scheme of thermophilic campylobacters by mutant allele exchange. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:24382445.
7. Al Rashid, S. T.,, I. Dakuna,, H. Louie,, D. Ng,, P. Vandamme,, W. Johnson, and, V. L. Chan. 2000. Identification of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, C. upsaliensis, Arcobacter butzleri, and A. butzleri–like species based on the glyA gene. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:14881494.
8. Amar, C. F.,, C. L. East,, J. Gray,, M. Iturriza-Comara,, E. A. Maclure, and, J. McLauchlin. 2007. Detection by PCR of eight groups of enteric pathogens in 4,627 faecal samples: reexamination of the English case-control Infectious Intestinal Disease Study (1993–1996). Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 26:311323.
9. Ashimoto, A.,, C. Chen,, I. Bakker, and, J. Slots. 1996. Polymerase chain reaction detection of 8 putative periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque of gingivitis and advanced periodontitis lesions. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 11:266273.
10. Aspinall, S. T.,, D. R. Wareing,, P. G. Hayward, and, D. N. Hutchinson. 1996. A comparison of a new selective medium (CAT) with membrane filtration for the isolation of thermophilic campylobacters including Campylobacter upsaliensis. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 80:645650.
11. Bachoual, R.,, S. Ouakdesselam,, F. Mory,, C. Lascols,, C. J. Soussy, and, J. Tankovic. 2001. Single or double mutational alterations of GyrA associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Microb. Drug Resist. 7:257261.
12. Baker, C. N. 1992. The E-test and Campylobacter jejuni. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:469472.
13. Barrett, T. J.,, C. M. Patton, and, G. K. Morris. 1988. Differentiation of Campylobacter species using phenotypic characterization. Lab. Med. 19:96102.
14. Bastyns, K.,, S. Chapelle,, P. Vandamme,, H. Goossens, and, R. De Wachter. 1995. Specific detection of Campylobacter concisus by PCR amplification of 23S rDNA areas. Mol. Cell. Probes 9:247250.
15. Best, E. L.,, A. J. Fox,, R. J. Owen,, J. Cheesbrough, and, F. J. Bolton. 2007. Specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni from faeces using single nucleotide polymorphisms. Epidemiol. Infect. 135:839846.
16. Black, R. E.,, D. Perlman,, M. L. Clements,, M. M. Levine, and, M. J. Blaser. 1992. Human volunteer studies with Campylobacter jejuni, p. 207215. In I. Nachamkin,, M. J. Blaser, and, L. S. Tompkins (ed.), Campylobacter jejuni: Current Status and Future Trends. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
17. Blaser, M. J. 1995. Campylobacter and related species. p. 19481956. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett, and, R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Churchill Livingstone, New York.
18. Blaser, M. J.,, B. Cravens,, B. W. Powers, and, W. L. Wang. 1978. Campylobacter enteritis associated with canine infection. Lancet ii:979981.
19. Bolton, F. 2001. Methods for isolation of Campylobacter from humans, animals, food and water, p. 8793. In World Health Organization (ed.), The Increasing Incidence of Human Campylobacteriosis. Report and Proceedings of a WHO Consultation of Experts. Copenhagen, Denmark, 21–25 November 2000. Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, World Health Organization, Geneva.
20. Bolton, F. J., and, L. Robertson. 1982. A selective medium for isolating Campylobacter jejuni/coli. J. Clin. Pathol. 35:462467.
21. Boonmar, S.,, Y. Morita,, M. Fujita,, L. Sangsuk,, K. Suthivarakom,, P. Padungtod,, S. Maruyama,, H. Kabeya,, M. Kato,, K. Kozawa,, S. Yamamoto, and, H. Kimura. 2007. Serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility, and gyrA gene mutation of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from humans and chickens in Thailand. Microbiol. Immunol. 51:531537.
22. Boonmar, S.,, L. Sanqsuk,, K. Suthivarakom,, P. Padunqtod, and, Y. Morita. 2005. Serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from humans and animals in Thailand. S. Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 36:130134.
23. Boswell, T. C. J., and, G. Kudesia. 1992. Serological cross-reactions between Legionella pneumophila and Campylobacter in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Epidemiol. Infect. 109:291295.
24. Bourke, B.,, V. L. Chan, and, P. Sherman. 1998. Campylobacter upsaliensis: waiting in the wings. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11:440449.
25. Bruneau, B.,, L. Burc,, C. Bizet,, Z. Lambert, and, C. Branger. 1998. Purulent pleurisy caused by Campylobacter lari. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 17:185188.
26. Burnett, T. A.,, A. Hornitzky,, P. Kuhnert, and, S. P. Djordjevic. 2002a. Speciating Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from poultry and humans using six PCR-based assays. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 216:201209.
27. Burnett, T. A.,, A. H. M. P. Kuhnert, and, S. P. Djordjevic. 2002b. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from poultry and humans using six PCR-based assays. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 216:201209.
28. Cary, S. G., and, E. B. Blair. 1964. New transport medium for shipment of clinical specimens. I. Fecal specimens. J. Bacteriol. 88:9698.
29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System NARMS—1997 Annual Report Revised. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
30. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007. NARMS Human Isolates Final Report, 2004. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
31. Chatzipanagiotou, S.,, E. Papavasiliou, and, L. Malamou. 1993. Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni strains resistant to nalidixic acid and fluoroquinolones from children with diarrhea in Athens, Greece. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 12:566568. (Letter.)
32. Chiu, C. H.,, C. Y. Kuo, and, J. T. Ou. 1995. Chronic diarrhea and bacteremia caused by Campylobacter lari in a neonate. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:700701.
33. Clark, C. G.,, L. Bryden,, W. R. Cuff,, P. L. Johnson,, F. Jamieson,, B. Ciebin, and, G. Wang. 2005. Use of the oxford multilocus sequence typing protocol and sequencing of the flagellin short variable region to characterize isolates from a large outbreak of waterborne Campylobacter sp. strains in Walkerton, Ontario, Canada. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:20802091.
34. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2005. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; 15th informational supplement. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA
35. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2006. Methods for antimicrobial dilution and disk susceptibility testing of infrequently isolated or fastidious bacteria; approved guideline. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
36. Danish Zoonosis Centre. 1998. DANMAP 97. Consumption of Antimicrobial Agents and Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Food Animals, Food and Humans in Denmark, p. 359. Danish Zoonosis Centre, Copenhagen.
37. Danish Zoonosis Centre. 2006. DANMAP 2005. Use of Antimicrobial Agents and Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Food Animals, Foods and Humans in Denmark. Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP), Copenhagen, Denmark. http://www.food.dtu.dk/Default.aspx?ID-10436.
38. Dediste, A.,, O. Vandenberg,, L. Vlaes,, A. Ebraert,, N. Douat,, P. Bahwere, and, J. -P. Butzler. 2003. Evaluation of the ProSpecT microplate assay for detecton of Campylobacter: a routine laboratory perspective. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 9:10851090.
39. Denis, M.,, C. Soumet,, K. Rivoal,, G. Ermel,, D. Blivet,, G. Salvat, and, P. Colin. 1999. Development of a m-PCR assay for simultaneous identification of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 29:406410.
40. Dingle, K. E.,, F. M. Colles,, D. R. Wareing,, R. Ure,, A. J. Fox,, F. E. Bolton,, H. J. Bootsma,, R. J. Willems,, R. Urwin, and, M. C. Maiden. 2001. Multilocus sequence typing system for Campylobacter jejuni. J. Clin. Micriobol. 39:1423.
41. Dronda, F.,, I. Garcia-Arata,, E. Navas, and, L. de Rafael. 1998. Meningitis in adults due to Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:906907.
42. Elharrif, Z.,, F. Megraud, and, A. M. Marchand. 1985. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to macrolides and related compounds. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 28:695697.
43. Ellis-Pegler, R. B.,, L. K. Hyman,, R. J. Ingram, and, M. McCarthy. 1995. A placebo controlled evaluation of lomefloxacin in the treatment of bacterial diarrhoea in the community. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 36:259263.
44. Endtz, H. P.,, C. W. Ang,, N. Van Den Braak,, A. Luijendijk,, B. C. Jacobs,, P. de Man,, J. M. van Duin,, A. van Belkum, and, H. A. Verbrugh. 2000. Evaluation of a new commercial immunoassay for rapid detection of Campylobacter jejuni in stool samples. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 19:794797.
45. Endtz, H. P.,, G. J. Ruijs,, A. H. Zwinderman,, T. van der Reijden,, M. Biever, and, R. P. Mouton. 1991. Comparison of six media, including a semisolid agar, for the isolation of various Campylobacter species from stool specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:10071010.
46. Engberg, J.,, S. L. W. On,, C. S. Harrington, and, P. Gerner-Smidt. 2000. Prevalence of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter, and Sutterella spp. in human fecal samples as estimated by a reevaluation of isolation methods for Campylobacter. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:286291.
47. Englen, M. D.,, A. E. Hill,, D. A. Dargatz,, S. R. Ladely, and, P. Fedorka-Cray. 2007. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in US dairy cattle. J. Appl. Microbiol. 102:15701577.
48. Evans, T. G., and, D. Riley. 1992. Campylobacter laridis colitis in a human immunodeficiency virus–positive patient treated with a quinolone. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:172173. (Letter.)
49. Fermer, C., and, E. O. Engvall. 1999. Specific PCR identification and differentiation of the thermophilic campylobacters, Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:33703373.
50. Fitzgerald, C., and, I. Nachamkin. 2007. Campylobacter and Arcobacter, p. 933946. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry, and, M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
51. Fitzgerald, C.,, A. Sails, and, B. Swaminathan. 2005. Genetic techniques: molecular subtyping methods, p. 271293. In T. McMeekin (ed.), Detecting Pathogens in Food. Woodhouse Publishing, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
52. Font, C.,, A. Cruceta,, A. Moreno,, O. Miro,, B. Coll-Vinent,, M. Almela, and, J. Mensa. 1997. Estudio de 30 pacientes con bacteriemia por Campylobacter spp. Med. Clin. (Barc.) 108:336340.
53. Francioli, P.,, J. Herzstein,, J. Grob,, J. J. Valloton,, G. Mombelli, and, M. P. Glauser. 1985. Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus bacteremia. Arch. Intern. Med. 145:289292.
54. Frost, J. A., and, R. T. Thwaites. 1998. Drug resistance in C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari isolated from humans in Wales and North West England during 1997. Working Paper 20.10b. World Health Organization, Geneva.
55. Funke, G.,, R. Baumann,, J. L. Penner, and, M. Altwegg. 1994. Development of resistance to macrolide antibiotics in an AIDS patient treated with clarithromycin for Campylobacter jejuni diarrhea. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 13:612615.
56. Gallardo, F.,, J. Gascon,, J. Ruiz,, M. Corachan,, M. T. de Anta, and, J. Vila. 1998. Campylobacter jejuni as a cause of traveler’s diarrhea: clinical features and antimicrobial susceptibility. J. Travel Med. 5:2326.
57. Gallay, A.,, V. Prouzet-Mauléon,, I. Kempf,, P. Lehours,, L. Labadi,, C. Camou,, M. Denis,, H. de Valk,, J. C. Desenclos, and, F. Mégraud. 2007. Campylobacter antimicrobial drug resistance among humans, broiler chickens, and pigs, France. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:259266.
58. Gaudreau, C., and, H. Gilbert. 2003. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni strains isolated from humans in 1998 to 2001 in Montreal, Canada. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:20272029.
59. Gaudreau, C., and, H. Gilbert. 1998. Antimicrobial resistance of clinical strains of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isolated from 1985 to 1997 in Quebec, Canada. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:21062108.
60. Gaudreau, C., and, S. Michaud. 2003. Cluster of erythromycinand ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni from 1999 to 2001 in men who have sex with men, Quebec, Canada. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:131136.
61. Gaunt, P. N., and, L. J. Piddock. 1996. Ciprofloxacin resistant Campylobacter spp. in humans: an epidemiological and laboratory study. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 37:747757.
62. Gibreel, A., and, D. E. Taylor. 2006. Macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 58:243255.
63. Gomez, G.,, R. Cogollos, and, J. L. Alos. 1995. Susceptibilities of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Campylobacter jejuni to 11 oral antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:542544.
64. Gonzalez, I.,, K. A. Grant,, P. T. Richardson,, S. F. Park, and, M. D. Collins. 1997. Specific identification of the enteropathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using a PCR test based on the ceu E gene encoding a putative virulence determinant. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:759763.
65. Goossens, H.,, H. Coignau,, L. Vlaes, and, J. P. Butzler. 1989. Invitro evaluation of antibiotic combinations against Campylobacter fetus. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 24:195201.
66. Goossens, H.,, M. De Boeck,, H. Coignau,, L. Vlaes,, C. Van den Borre, and, J. -P. Butzler. 1986. Modified selective medium for isolation of Campylobacter spp. from feces: comparison with Preston medium, a blood-free medium, and a filtration system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24:840843.
67. Goossens, H.,, B. Pot,, L. Vlaes,, C. Van den Borre,, R. Van den Abbeele,, C. Van Naelten,, H. Cogniau,, P. Marbehant, and, J. Verhoef. 1990a. Characterization and description of “Campylobacter upsaliensis: isolated from human feces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:10391046.
68. Goossens, H.,, L. Vlaes,, M. De Boeck,, B. Pot,, K. Kersters,, J. Levy,, P. de Mol,, J. P. Butzler, and, P. Vandamme. 1990b. Is “Campylobacter upsaliensis” an unrecognised cause of human diarrhoea? Lancet 335:584586.
69. Greig, A.,, D. Hanslo,, E. Le Roux, and, A. Lastovica. 1993. In-vitro activity of eight antimicrobial agents against paediatric isolates of C. concisus and C. mucosalis. Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. 56:12.
70. Guerrant, R. L.,, T. Van Gilder,, T. S. Steiner,, N. M. Thielman,, L. Slutsker,, R. V. Tauxe,, T. Hennessy,, P. M. Griffin,, H. DuPont,, R. B. Sack,, P. Tarr,, M. Neill,, I. Nachamkin,, L. B. Reller,, M. T. Osterholm,, M. L. Bennish, and, L. K. Pickering, for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2001. Practice guidelines for managing infectious diarrhea. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:331351.
71. Guevremont, E.,, E. Nadeau,, M. Sirois, and, S. Quessy. 2006. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of thermophilic Campylobacter from humans, swine, and chicken broilers. Can. J. Vet. Res. 70:8186.
72. Gun-Monro, J.,, R. P. Rennie,, J. H. Thornley,, H. L. Richardson,, D. Hodge, and, J. Lynch. 1987. Laboratory and clinical evaluation of isolation media for Campylobacter jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:22742277.
73. Gupta, A.,, J. M. Nelson,, T. J. Barrett,, R. V. Tauxe,, S. P. Rossiter,, C. R. Friedman,, K. W. Joyce,, K. E. Smith,, T. F. Jones,, M. A. Hawkins,, B. Shiferaw,, J. L. Beebe,, D. J. Vugia,, T. Rabatsky-Ehr,, J. A. Benson,, T. P. Root, and, F. J. Angulo, for the NARMS Working Group. 2004. Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter strains, United States, 1997–2001. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:11021109.
74. Hakanen, A. J.,, M. Lehtopolku,, A. Siitonen,, P. Huovinen, and, P. Kotilainen. 2003. Multidrug resistance in Campylobacter jejuni strains collected from Finnish patients during 1995–2000. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 52:10351039.
75. Hani, E., and, V. L. Chan. 1995. Expression and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni benzoylglycine amidohydrolase (hippuricase) gene in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 177:23962402.
76. Harnett, N.,, S. Mcleod,, Y. A. Yong,, C. Hewitt,, M. Vearncombe, and, C. Krishnan. 1995. Quinolone resistance in clinical strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 36:269270. (Letter.)
77. Hindiyeh, M.,, S. Jense,, S. Hohmann,, H. Benett,, C. Edwards,, W. Aldeen,, A. Croft,, J. Daly,, S. Mottice, and, K. C. Carroll. 2000. Rapid detection of Campylobacter jejuni in stool specimens by an enzyme immunoassay and surveillance for Campylobacter upsaliensis in the greater Salt Lake City area. J. Clin. Micriobol. 38:30763079.
78. Hines, J., and, I. Nachamkin. 1996. Effective use of the clinical microbiology laboratory for diagnosing diarrheal diseases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:12921301.
79. Hoge, C. W.,, J. M. Gambel,, A. Srijan,, C. Pitarangsi, and, P. Echeverria. 1998. Trends in antibiotic resistance among diarrheal pathogens isolated in Thailand over 15 years. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:341345.
80. Houf, K.,, L. A. Devriese,, F. Haesebrouck,, O. Vandenberg,, J. -P. Butzler,, J. Van Hoof, and, P. Vandamme. 2004. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattersn of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus strains isolated from humans and broilers. Microb. Drug Resist. 10:243247.
81. Hum, S.,, K. Quinn,, J. Brunner, and, S. L. On. 1997. Evaluation of a PCR assay for identification and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies. Aust. Vet. J. 75:827831.
82. Hurtado, A., and, R. J. Owen. 1997. A molecular scheme based on 23S rRNA gene polymorphisms for rapid identification of Campylobacter and Arcobacter species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:24012404.
83. Hutchinson, D. N., and, F. J. Bolton. 1984. Improved blood free selective medium for the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from faecal specimens. J. Clin. Pathol. 37:956957.
84. Inglis, G. D., and, L. D. Kalischuk. 2003. Use of PCR for direct detection of Campylobacter species in bovine feces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:34353447.
85. Jenkin, G. A., and, W. Tee. 1998. Campylobacter upsaliensis–associated diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus–infected patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:816821.
86. Jesse, T. W.,, M. D. Englen,, L. G. Pittenger-Alley, and, P. Fedorka-Cray. 2006. Two distinct mutations in gyrA lead to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolated from chickens and beef cattle. J. Appl. Microbiol. 100:682688.
87. Karlyshev, A. V.,, D. Linton,, N. A. Gregson,, A. J. Lastovica, and, B. W. Wren. 2000. Genetic and biochemical evidence of a Campylobacter jejuni capsular polysaccharide that accounts for Penner serotype specificity. Mol. Microbiol. 35:529541.
88. Karmali, M. A.,, S. De Grandis, and, P. C. Fleming. 1981. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni with special reference to resistance patterns of Canadian isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 19:593597.
89. Karmali, M. A., and, P. C. Fleming. 1979. Campylobacter enteritis in children. J. Pediatr. 94:527533.
90. Karmali, M. A.,, A. E. Simor,, M. Roscoe,, P. C. Flemming,, S. S. Smith, and, J. Lane. 1986. Evaluation of a blood-free, charcoal based, selective medium for the isolation of Campylobacter organisms from feces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23:456459.
91. Kasten, M. J.,, F. Allerberger, and, J. P. Anhalt. 1991. Campylobacter bacteremia: clinical experience with three different blood culture systems at Mayo Clinic 1984–1990. Infection 19:8890.
92. Keramas, G.,, D. D. Bang,, M. Lund,, M. Madsen,, S. E. Rasmussen,, H. Bunkenborg,, P. Telleman, and, C. B. Christensen. 2003. Development of a sensitive DNA microarray suitable for rapid detection of Campylobacter spp. Mol. Cell. Probes 17:187196.
93. Kiehlbauch, J. A.,, C. N. Baker, and, I. K. Wachsmuth. 1992. In vitro susceptibilities of aerotolerant Campylobacter isolates to 22 antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:717722.
94. Kiehlbauch, J. A.,, D. J. Brenner,, M. A. Nicholson,, C. N. Baker,, C. M. Patton,, A. G. Steigerwalt, and, I. K. Wachsmuth. 1991. Campylobacter butzleri sp. nov. isolated from humans and animals with diarrheal illness. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:376385.
95. Kinana, A. D.,, E. Cardinale,, F. Tall,, I. Bahsoun,, J. M. Sire,, B. Garin,, S. Breurec,, C. S. Boye, and, J. D. Perrier-Gros-Claude. 2006. Genetic diversity and quinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from poultry in Senegal. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:33093313.
96. Klena, J. D., and, M. E. Konkel. 2005. Methods for epidemiologic analysis of Campylobacter jejuni, p. 165179. In J. M. Ketley and, M. E. Konkel (ed.), Campylobacter: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Horizon Bioscience, Norfolk, United Kingdom.
97. Klena, J. D.,, C. T. Parker,, K. Knibb,, J. C. Ibbitt,, P. M. Devane,, S. T. Horn,, W. G. Miller, and, M. E. Konkel. 2004. Differentiation of Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter upsaliensis by a multiplex PCR developed from the nucleotide sequence of the lipid A gene lpxA. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:55495557.
98. Kulkarni, S. P.,, S. Lever,, J. M. Logan,, A. J. Lawson,, J. Stanley, and, M. S. Shafi. 2002. Detection of campylobacter species: a comparison of culture and polymerase chain reaction based methods. J. Clin. Pathol. 55:749753.
99. Kuschner, R. A.,, A. F. Trofa,, R. J. Thomas,, C. W. Hoge,, C. Pitarangsi,, S. Amato,, R. P. Olafson,, P. Echeverria,, J. C. Sadoff, and, D. N. Taylor. 1995. Use of azithromycin for the treatment of Campylobacter enteritis in travelers to Thailand, an area where ciprofloxacin resistance is prevalent. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:536541.
100. Kwon, S. Y.,, D. H. Cho,, S. Y. Lee,, K. Lee, and, Y. Chong. 1994. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus isolated from blood and synovial fluid. Yonsei Med. J. 35:314319.
101. la Scola, B.,, S. Chambourlier,, C. Mercier, and, J. P. Casalta. 1998. Abdominal aortic aneurysm infected by Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 4:527529.
102. Lachance, N.,, C. Gaudreau,, F. Lamothe, and, L. A. Lariviere. 1991. Role of the B-lactamase of Campylobacter jejuni in resistance to beta-lactam agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:813818.
103. Lachance, N.,, C. Gaudreau,, F. Lamothe, and, F. Turgeon. 1993. Susceptibilities of beta-lactamase-positive and -negative strains of Campylobacter coli to beta-lactam agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:11741176.
104. Lastovica, A. J. 2006. Emerging Campylobacter spp.: the tip of the iceburg. Clin. Microbiol. News 28:4955.
105. Lastovica, A. J.,, E. Le Roux, and, J. L. Penner. 1989. “Campylobacter upsaliensis”: isolated from blood cultures of pediatric patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:657659.
106. Lastovica, A. J., and, M. B. Skirrow. 2000. Clinical significance of Campylobacter and related species other than Campylobacter jejuni, p. 89121. In I. Nachamkin and, M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
107. Lawson, A. J.,, D. Linton, and, J. Stanley. 1998. 16S rRNA gene sequences of “Candidatus Campylobacter hominis,” a novel uncultivated species, are found in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans. Microbiology 144(Pt. 8):20632071.
108. Lawson, A. J.,, J. M. J. Logan,, G. L. O’Neill,, M. Desai, and, J. Stanley. 1999. Large scale survey of Campylobacter species in human gastroenteritis by PCR and PCR-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:38603864.
109. Le Roux, E., and, A. J. Lastovica. 1998. The Cape Town protocol: how to isolate the most campylobacters for your dollar, pound, franc, yen, etc., p. 3033. In A. L. Lastovica,, D. G. Newell, and, E. E. Lastovica (ed.), Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Related Organisms. Institute of Child Health, Cape Town.
110. Lerner, J.,, V. Brumberger, and, M. Preac. 1994. Severe diarrhea associated with Arcobacter butzleri. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 13:660662.
111. Li, C. C.,, C. H. Chiu,, J. L. Wu,, Y. C. Huang, and, T. Y. Lin. 1998. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and coli by using E-test in Taiwan. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 30:3942.
112. Li, X. -Z.,, M. Mehrotra,, S. Ghimire, and, L. Adewoye. 2007. â-lactam resistance and â-lactamases in bacteria of animal origin. Vet. Microbiol. 121:197214.
113. Lim, Y. S., and, L. Tay. 1992. A one-year study of enteric Campylobacter infections in Singapore. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 95:119123.
114. Linton, D.,, A. J. Lawson,, R. J. Owen, and, J. Stanley. 1997a. PCR detection, identification to species level, and fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli direct from diarrheic samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:25682572.
115. Linton, D.,, A. J. Lawson,, R. J. Owen, and, J. Stanley. 1997b. PCR detection, identification to species level, and fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli direct from diarrheic samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:25682572.
116. Linton, D.,, R. J. Owen, and, J. Stanley. 1996. Rapid identification by PCR of the genus Campylobacter and of five Campylobacter species enteropathogenic for man and animals. Res. Microbiol. 147:707718.
117. Lior, H.,, D. L. Woodward,, J. A. Edgar,, L. J. Laroche, and, P. Gill. 1982. Serotyping of Campylobacter jejuni by slide agglutination based on heat-labile antigenic factors. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:761768.
118. Logan, J. M. J.,, A. Burnens,, D. Linton,, A. J. Lawson, and, J. Stanley. 2000. Campylobacter lanienae sp. nov., a new species isolated from workers in an abattoir. Int. J. Sys. Evol. Microbiol. 50:865872.
119. Luechtefeld, N. W.,, L. B. Reller,, M. J. Blaser, and, W. -L. L. Wang. 1982. Comparison of atmospheres of incubation for primary isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from animal specimens:5% oxygen versus candle jar. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:5357.
120. MacFaddin, J. F. 2000a. Hippurate hydrolysis test, p. 188204. In J. F. MacFaddin (ed.), Biochemical Tests for Identification of Medical Bacteria. Lippincott Williams, and Wilkins, Philadelphia.
121. MacFaddin, J. F. 2000b. Indoxyl substrate hydrolysis tests, p. 233238. In J. F. MacFaddin (ed.), Biochemical Tests for Identification of Medical Bacteria. Lippincott Williams, and Wilkins, Philadelphia.
122. Maher, M.,, C. Finnegan,, E. Collins,, B. Ward,, C. Carroll, and, M. Cormican. 2003. Evaluation of culture methods and a DNA probe-based PCR assay for detection of Campylobacter species in clinical specimens of feces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:29802986.
123. Mandal, B. K.,, M. E. Ellis,, E. M. Dunbar, and, K. Whale. 1984. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of erythromycin in the treatment of clinical campylobacter infection. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 13:619623.
124. Martin, W. T.,, C. M. Patton,, G. K. Morris,, M. E. Potter, and, N. D. Puhr. 1983. Selective enrichment broth for isolation of Campylobacter jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 17:853855.
125. Matsheka, M. I.,, A. J. Lastovica, and, B. G. Elisha. 2001. Molecular identification of Campylobacter concisus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:36843689.
126. McDermott, P. F.,, S. M. Bodeis,, F. M. Aarestrup,, S. Brown,, M. Traczewski,, P. Fedorka-Cray,, M. Wallace,, I. A. Critchley,, C. Thornsberry,, S. Graff,, R. Flamm,, J. Beyer,, D. Shortridge,, L. J. Piddock,, V. Ricci,, M. M. Johnson,, R. N. Jones,, B. Reller,, S. Mirrett,, J. Aldrobi,, R. Rennie,, C. Brosnikoff,, L. Turnbull,, G. Stein,, S. Schooley,, R. A. Hanson, and, R. D. Walker. 2005a. Development of a standardized susceptibility test for Campylobacter with quality-control ranges for ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin and meropenem. Microb. Drug Resist. 10:124131.
127. McDermott, P. F.,, S. M. Bodeis-Jones,, T. R. Fritsche,, R. N. Jones, and, R. D. Walker. 2005b. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing of Campylobacter jejuni and the determination of quality control ranges for fourteen antimicrobial agents. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:61366138.
128. McGill, K.,, D. Cowley,, L. Moran,, P. Scates,, A. O’Leary,, R. H. Madden,, C. Carroll,, E. McNamara,, J. E. Moore,, S. Fanning,, J. D. Collins, and, P. Whyte. 2006. Antibiotic resistance of retail food and human Campylobacter isolates on the island of Ireland from 2001–2002. Epidemiol. Infect. 134:12821291.
129. McNulty, C. A. 1987. The treatment of campylobacter infections in man. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 19:281284.
130. Megraud, F.,, D. Chevrier,, N. Desplaces,, A. Sedallian, and, J. L. Guesdon. 1988. Urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (Campylobacter laridis variant) isolated from an appendix and from human feces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:10501051.
131. Menard, A.,, F. Dachet,, V. Prouzet-Mauleon,, M. Oleastro, and, F. Megraud. 2005. Development of a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR to identify the main pathogenic Campylobacter spp. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 11:281287.
132. Miller, W. G.,, C. T. Parker,, S. Heath, and, A. J. Lastovica. 2007. Identification of genomic differences between Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and C. jejuni subsp. doylei at the nap locus leads to the development of a C. jejuni subspeciation multiplex PCR method. BMC Microbiol. 7:11.
133. Mohran, Z. S.,, R. R. Arthur,, B. A. Oyofo,, L. F. Peruski,, M. O. Wasfy,, T. F. Ismail, and, J. R. Murphy. 1998. Differentiation of Campylobacter isolates on the basis of sensitivity to boiling in water as measured by PCR-detectable DNA. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:363365.
134. Molina, J.,, I. Casin,, P. Hausfater,, E. Giretti,, Y. Welker,, J. Decazes,, V. Garrait,, P. Lagrange, and, J. Modai. 1995. Campylobacter infections in HIV-infected patients: clinical and bacteriological features. AIDS 9:881885.
135. Morris, G. K., and, C. M. Patton. 1985. Campylobacter, p. 302308. In E. Lennette,, A. Balows,, W. J. Hausler Jr., and, H. J. Shadomy (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
136. Murphy, G. S., Jr.,, P. Echeverria,, L. R. Jackson,, M. K. Arness,, C. LeBron, and, C. Pitarangsi. 1996. Ciprofloxacin- and azithromycin-resistant Campylobacter causing traveler’s diarrhea in U.S. troops deployed to Thailand in 1994. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:868869.
137. Nachamkin, I. 1994. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline from 1982 to 1992. Med. Microbiol. Lett. 3:300305.
138. Nachamkin, I. 1997. Microbiologic approaches for studying Campylobacter in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 176(Suppl. 2):S106S114.
139. Nachamkin, I., and, S. Barbagallo. 1990. Culture confirmation of Campylobacter spp. by latex agglutination. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:817818.
140. Nachamkin, I.,, C. Stowell,, D. Skalina,, A. M. Jones,, R. M. Roop, and, R. M. Smibert. 1984. Campylobacter laridis causing bacteremia in an immunosuppressed patient. Ann. Intern. Med. 101:5557.
141. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. 2006. Enteric Bacteria. NARMS 2003 Executive Report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Md.
142. Nelson, J. M.,, T. M. Chiller,, J. H. Powers, and, F. J. Angulo. 2007. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species and the withdrawal of fluoroquinolones from use in poultry: a public health success story. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:977980.
143. Newell, D. G.,, J. A. Frost,, B. Duim,, J. A. Wagenaar,, R. H. Madden,, J. van der Plas, and, S. L. W. On. 2000. New developments in the subtyping of Campylobacter species, p. 2744. In I. Nachamkin and, M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
144. Ng, L. -K.,, D. E. Taylor, and, M. E. Stiles. 1988. Characterization of freshly isolated Campylobacter coli strains and suitability of selective media for their growth. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:518523.
145. Nolan, C. M.,, K. E. Johnson,, M. B. Coyle, and, K. Faler. 1983. Campylobacter jejuni enteritis: efficacy of antimicrobial and antimotility drugs. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 78:621626.
146. Olsen, S. J.,, G. R. Hansen,, L. Bartlett,, C. Fitzgerald,, A. Sonder,, R. Manjrekar,, T. Riggs,, J. Kim,, R. Flahart,, G. Pezzino, and, D. L. Swerdlow. 2001. An outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infections associated with food handler contamination: the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J. Infect. Dis. 183:164167.
147. On, S. L. 1996. Identification methods for campylobacters, helicobacters, and related organisms. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9:405422.
148. On, S. L., and, P. J. Jordan. 2003. Evaluation of 11 PCR assays for species-level identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:330336.
149. On, S. L. W. 2005. Taxonomy, phylogeny and methods for the identification of Campylobacter species, p. 1342. In J. M. K. Konkel (ed.), Campylobacter Molecular and Cellular Biology. Horizon Bioscience, Norfolk, United Kingdom.
150. Paisley, J. W.,, S. Mirrett,, b. A. Lauer,, M. Roe, and, L. B. Reller. 1982. Dark-field microscopy of human feces for presumptive diagnosis of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni enteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:6163.
151. Papavasileiou, E.,, A. Voyatzi,, K. Papavasileiou,, A. Makri,, I. Andrianopoulou, and, S. Chatzipanagiotou. 2007. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from hospitalized children in Athens, Greece, collected during. 2004–2005. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 22:7778.
152. Park, C. H.,, D. L. Hixon,, A. S. Polhemus,, C. B. Ferguson,, S. L. Hall,, C. C. Risheim, and, C. B. Cook. 1983. A rapid diagnosis of campylobacter enteritis by direct smear examination. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 80:388390.
153. Patton, C. M., and, I. K. Wachsmuth. 1992. Typing schemes: are current methods useful? p. 10128. In I. Nachamkin,, M. J. Blaser, and, L. S. Tompkins (ed.), Campylobacter jejuni: Current Status and Future Trends. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
154. Penner, J. L., and, J. N. Hennessy. 1980. Passive hemagglutination technique for serotyping Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni on the basis of soluble heat-stable antigens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 12:732737.
155. Perlman, D. M.,, N. M. Ampel,, R. B. Schifman,, D. L. Cohn,, C. M. Patton,, M. L. Aguirre,, W. -L. L. Wang, and, M. J. Blaser. 1988. Persistent Campylobacter jejuni infections in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Ann. Intern. Med. 108:540546.
156. Persson, S., and, K. E. Olsen. 2005. Multiplex PCR for identification of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni from pure cultures and directly on stool samples. J. Med. Microbiol. 54:10431047.
157. Piddock, L. J. 1997. Quinolone resistance and Campylobacter, p. 191199. In WHO (ed.), The Medical Impact of the Use of Antimicrobial Use in Food Animals. Report and proceedings of a WHO meeting, 13 to 17 October 1997, Berlin, Germany. Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control, WHO, Geneva.
158. Piddock, L. J. 1995. Quinolone resistance and Campylobacter spp. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 36:891898.
159. Pigrau, C.,, R. Bartolome,, B. Almirante,, A. M. Planes,, J. Gavalda, and, A. Pahissa. 1997. Bacteremia due to Campylobacter species: clinical findings and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:14141420.
160. Pitkanen, T.,, T. Pettersson,, A. Pomka, and, T. U. Kosunen. 1982. Effect of erythromycin on the fecal excretion of Campylobacter fetus subspecies jejuni. J. Infect. Dis. 145:128.
161. Popovic-Uroic, T.,, C. M. Patton,, I. K. Wachsmuth, and, P. Roeder. 1991. Evaluation of an oligonucleotide probe for identification of Campylobacter species. Lab. Med. 22:533539.
162. Preston, M. A.,, A. E. Simor,, S. L. Walmsley,, S. A. Fuller,, A. J. Lastovica,, K. Sandstedt, and, J. L. Penner. 1990. In vitro susceptibility of “Campylobacter upsaliensis” to twenty-four antimicrobial agents. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 9:822824.
163. Quinones, B.,, C. T. Parker,, J. M. Janda, Jr.,, W. G. Miller, and, R. E. Mandrell. 2007. Detection and genotyping of Arcobacter and Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken samples by use of DNA oligonucleotide arrays. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:36453655.
164. Rautelin, H.,, O. V. Renkonen, and, T. U. Kosunen. 1991. Emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in subjects from Finland. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:20652069.
165. Reller, L. B.,, S. Mirrett, and, L. G. Reimer. 1983. Controlled evaluation of an improved selective medium for isolation of Campylobacter jejuni, abstr. C-274. Abst. Ann. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol.
166. Reina, J.,, N. Borrell, and, A. Serra. 1992. Emergence of resistance to erythromycin and fluoroquinolones in thermotolerant Campylobacter strains isolated from feces 1987–1991. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 11:11631166.
167. Reina, J.,, M. J. Ros, and, A. Munoz-Lopez. 1996. Isolation of a strain of Campylobacter jejuni resistant to fluoroquinolones and sensitive to nalidixic acid. Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin. 14:124125.
168. Reina, J.,, M. J. Ros, and, A. Serra. 1994. Susceptibilities to 10 antimicrobial agents of 1,220 Campylobacter strains isolated from. 1987 to. 1993 from feces of pediatric patients. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:29172920.
169. Ribot, E. M.,, C. Fitzgerald,, K. Kubota,, B. Swaminathan, and, T. J. Barrett. 2001. Rapid pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for subtyping Campylobacter jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:18891894.
170. Rodriguez-Avial, I.,, C. Rodriguez-Avail,, O. Lopez,, E. Culebras, and, J. J. Picazo. 2006. In vitro activity of tigecycline (GAR-936) and other antimicrobials against tetracycline- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter clinical isolates. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 27:303306.
171. Rubin, S. J., and, M. Woodard. 1983. Enhanced isolation of Campylobacter jejuni by cold enrichment in Campy-thio broth. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:10081010.
172. Ruiz, J.,, P. Goni,, F. Marco,, F. Gallardo,, B. Mirelis,, D. A. Jimenez, and, J. Vila. 1998. Increased resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni: a genetic analysis of gyrA gene mutations in quinolone-resistant clinical isolates. Microbiol. Immunol. 42:223226.
173. Sails, A. D.,, B. Swaminathan, and, P. I. Fields. 2003. Utility of multilocus sequence typing as an epidemiological tool for investigation of outbreaks of gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:47334739.
174. Sanchez, R.,, B. Fernandez,, M. D. Diaz,, P. Munoz,, C. Rodriguez, and, E. Bouza. 1994. Evolution of susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. to quinolones and macrolides. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:18791882.
175. Sazie, E. S. M., and, A. E. Titus. 1982. Rapid diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis. Ann. Intern. Med. 96:6263.
176. Schwartz, D.,, H. Goossens,, J. Levy,, J. P. Butzler, and, J. Goldhar. 1993. Plasmid profiles and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from Israeli children with diarrhea. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. Virol. Parasitol. Infect. Dis. 279:368376.
177. Segreti, J.,, T. D. Gootz,, L. J. Goodman,, G. W. Parkhurst,, J. P. Quinn,, B. A. Martin, and, G. M. Trenholme. 1992. High-level quinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Campylobacter jejuni. J. Infect. Dis. 165:667670.
178. Siemer, B. L.,, E. M. Nielsen, and, S. L. On. 2005. Identification and molecular epidemiology of Campylobacter coli isolates from human gastroenteritis, food, and animal sources by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and Penner serotyping. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:19531958.
179. Simor, A. E., and, L. Wilcox. 1987. Enteritis associated with Campylobacter laridis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:1012.
180. Siqueira, J. F., Jr., and, I. N. Rocas. 2003. Campylobacter gracilis and Campylobacter rectus in primary endodontic infections. Int. Endodon. J. 36:174180.
181. Sjogren, E.,, G. B. Lindblom, and, B. Kaijser. 1997. Norfloxacin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from Swedish patients. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 40:257261.
182. Skirrow, M. B. 1977. Campylobacter enteritis: a “new” disease. Br. Med. J. ii:911.
183. Skirrow, M. B., and, M. J. Blaser. 1995. Campylobacter jejuni, p. 825848. In M. J. Blaser,, P. D. Smith,, J. I. Ravdin,, H. B. Greenberg, and, R. L. Guerrant (ed.), Infections of Gastrointestinal Tract. New York: Raven Press.
184. Skirrow, M. B.,, D. M. Jones,, E. Sutcliffe, and, J. Benjamin. 1993. Campylobacter bacteremia in England and Wales, 1981–1991. Epidemiol. Infect. 110:567573.
185. Snijders, F.,, E. J. Kuijper,, B. de Wever,, L. van der Hoek,, S. A. Danner, and, J. Dankert. 1997. Prevalence of Campylobacter-associated diarrhea among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:11071113.
186. Steinbruckner, B.,, J. Fehrenbach,, G. Philippczik,, M. Kist, and, T. M. Bauer. 1999. Clinical significance of pure or predominant growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in faecal specimens of medical patients. J. Hosp. Infect. 43:164165.
187. Stucki, U.,, J. Frey,, J. Nicolet, and, A. P. Burnens. 1995. Identification of Campylobacter jejuni on the basis of a species-specific gene that encodes a membrane protein. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:855859.
188. Tajada, P.,, G. Gomez,, J. I. Alos,, D. Balas, and, R. Cogollos. 1996. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to 12 beta-lactam agents and combinations with beta-lactamase inhibitors. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:19241925.
189. Taylor, B. V.,, J. Williamson,, J. Luck,, D. Coleman,, D. Jones, and, A. McGregor. 2004. Sensitivity and specificity of serology in determining recent acute Campylobacter infection. Internal. Med. J. 34:250258.
190. Taylor, D. N. 1992. Campylobacter infections in developing countries, p. 2030. In I. Nachamkin,, M. J. Blaser, and, L. S. Tompkins (ed.), Campylobacter jejuni: Current Status and Future Trends. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
191. Taylor, D. N.,, M. J. Blaser,, P. Echeverria,, C. Pitarangsi,, L. Bodhidatta, and, W. L. Wang. 1987. Erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter infections in Thailand. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:438442.
192. Taylor, D. N.,, D. M. Perlman,, P. D. Echeverria,, U. Lexomboon, and, M. J. Blaser. 1993. Campylobacter immunity and quantitative excretion rates in Thai children. J. Infect. Dis. 168:754758.
193. Tee, W., and, A. Mijch. 1998. Campylobacter jejuni bacteremia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non-HIV-infected patients: comparison of clinical features and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:9196.
194. Tee, W.,, A. Mijch,, E. Wright, and, A. Yung. 1995. Emergence of multidrug resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from three patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:634638.
195. Tenover, F. C.,, L. Carlson,, S. Barbagallo, and, I. Nachamkin. 1990. DNA probe culture confirmation assay for identification of thermophilic Campylobacter species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:12841287.
196. Thompson, J. S.,, D. S. Hodge,, D. E. Smith, and, Y. A. Yong. 1990. Use of tri-gas incubator for routine culture of Campylobacter species from fecal specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:28022803.
197. Thwaites, R. T., and, J. A. Frost. 1999. Drug resistance in Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari isolated from humans in north west England and Wales,. 1997. J. Clin. Pathol. 52:812814.
198. Tissari, P., and, H. Rautelin. 2007. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay-based stool antigen test to detect Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 58:171175.
199. Tolcin, R.,, M. M. LaSalvia,, B. A. Kirkley,, E. A. Vetter,, F. Cockerill, and, G. W. Procop. 2000. Evaluation of the Alexon-Trend ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate assay. J. Clin. Micriobol. 38:38533855.
200. Totten, P. A.,, C. M. Patton,, F. C. Tenover,, T. J. Barrett,, W. E. Stamm,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, J. Y. Lin,, K. K. Holmes, and, D. J. Brenner. 1987. Prevalence and characterization of hippurate-negative Campylobacter jejuni in King County, Washington. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:17471752.
201. Tremblay, C., and, C. Gaudreau. 1998. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 59 strains of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:18471849.
202. Tremblay, C.,, C. Gaudreau, and, M. Lorange. 2003. Epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of 111 Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus strains isolated in Quebec, Canada, from 1983 to 2000. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:463466.
203. Unicomb, L. E.,, J. Ferguson,, R. J. Stafford,, R. Ashbolt,, M. D. Kirk,, N. G. Becker,, M. S. Patel,, G. L. Gilbert,, M. Valcanis, and, L. Mickan, for the Australian Campylobacter Subtyping Study Group. 2006. Low-level fluoroquinolone resistance among Campylobacter jejuni isolates in Australia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:13681374.
204. Valenstein, P.,, M. Pfaller, and, M. Yungbluth. 1996. The use and abuse of routine stool microbiology: a College of American Pathologists Q-probes study of 601 institutions. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 120:206211.
205. van Bergen, M. A.,, G. Simons,, van der Graaf-van Bloois, J. P., van Putten,, J. Rombout,, I. Wesley, and, J. A. Wagenaar. 2005. Amplified fragment length polymorphism based identification of genetic markers and novel PCR assay for differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies. J. Med. Microbiol. 54:12171224.
206. Van der Auwera, P., and, B. Scorneaux. 1985. In vitro susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni to 27 antimicrobial agents and various combinations of beta-lactams with clavulanic acid or sulbactam. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 28:3740.
207. van Doorn, L. J.,, A. V. Van Haperen,, A. Burnens,, M. Huysmans,, P. Vandamme,, B. A. J. Giesendorf,, M. J. Blaser, and, W. G. V. Quint. 1999. Rapid identification of thermotolerant Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter upsaliensis from various geographic regions by a GTPase-based PCR-reverse hybridization assay. J. Clin. Micriobol. 37:17901796.
208. van Hees, B. C.,, M. J. Veldman-Ariesen,, B. M. de Jongh,, M. Tersmette, and, W. van Pelt. 2007. Regional and seasonal differences in incidence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter from a nationwide surveillance study in the Netherlands: an overview of 2000–2004. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 13:305310.
209. Vandamme, P. 2000. Taxonomy of the Family Campylobacteraceae, p. 326. In I. Nachamkin and, M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
210. Vandamme, P., and, J. De Ley. 1991. Proposal for a new family, Campylobacteraceae. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41:451455.
211. Vandamme, P.,, E. Falsen,, R. Rossau,, B. Hoste,, P. Segers,, R. Tytgat, and, J. De Ley. 1991. Revision of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Wolinella taxonomy: emendation of generic descriptions and proposal of Arcobacter gen. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41:81103.
212. Vandamme, P.,, L. J. van Doorn,, S. T. Al Rashid,, W. G. Quint,, J. van der Plas,, V. L. Chan, and, S. L. On. 1997. Campylobacter hyoilei Alderton et al.. 1995 and Campylobacter coli Veron and Chatelain 1973 are subjective synonyms. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:10551060.
213. Vandamme, P.,, M. Vancanneyt,, B. Pot,, L. Mels,, B. Hoste,, D. Dewettinck,, L. Vlaes,, C. van den Borre,, R. Higgins,, J. Hommez,, K. Kersters,, J. P. Butzler, and, H. Goossens. 1992. Polyphasic taxonomic study of the emended genus Arcobacter with Arco-bacter butzleri comb. nov. and Arcobacter skirrowii sp. nov., an aerotolerant bacterium isolated from veterinary specimens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42:344356.
214. Vandenberg, O.,, A. Dediste,, K. Houf,, S. Ibekwem,, H. Souayah,, S. Cadranel,, N. Douat,, G. Zissis,, J. P. Butzler, and, P. Vandamme. 2004. Arcobacter species in humans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:18631867.
215. Vandenberg, O.,, K. Houf,, N. Douat,, L. Vlaes,, P. Retore,, J. P. Butzler, and, A. Dediste. 2006. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of non-jejuni/coli campylobacters and arcobacters from Belgium. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 57:908913.
216. Vanhoof, R.,, M. P. Vanderlinden,, R. Dierickx,, S. Lauwers,, E. Yourassowsky, and, J. P. Butzler. 1978. Susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni to twenty-nine antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 14:553556.
217. Vanniasinkam, T.,, J. A. Lanser, and, M. D. Barton. 1999. PCR for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in clinical specimens. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 28:5256.
218. Varela, N. P.,, R. Friendship, and, C. Dewey. 2007. Prevalence of resistance to 11 antimicrobials among C. coli isolated from pigs on 80 grower-finisher farms in Ontario. Can. J. Vet. Res. 71:189194.
219. Volokhov, D.,, V. Chizhikov,, K. Chumakov, and, A. Rasooly. 2003. Microarray-based identification of thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:40714080.
220. Wang, H., and, D. R. Murdoch. 2004. Detection of Campylobacter species in faecal samples by direct gram stain microscopy. Pathology 36:343344.
221. Wang, W. -L. L., and, M. J. Blaser. 1986. Detection of pathogenic Campylobacter species in blood culture systems. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23:709714.
222. Wang, W. -L. L.,, L. B. Reller,, B. Smallwood,, N. W. Luechtefeld, and, M. J. Blaser. 1983. Evaluation of transport media for Campylobacter jejuni in human fecal specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:803807.
223. Wasfy, M.,, B. Oyofo,, A. Elgindy, and, A. Churilla. 1995. Comparison of preservation media for storage of stool samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:21762178.
224. Wells, J. G., N. D. Puhr,, C. M. Patton,, M. A. Nicholson,, M. A. Lambert, and, R. Jerris. 1989. Comparison of selective media and filtration for the isolation of Campylobacter from feces, abstr. C231. Abstr. Ann. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol.
225. Wistrom, J., and, S. R. Norrby. 1995. Fluoroquinolones and bacterial enteritis, when and for whom? J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 36:2339.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

Commonly used gene targets and PCR assays for genus and species differentiation of spp.

Citation: Fitzgerald C, Whichard J, Nachamkin I. 2008. Diagnosis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Species, p 227-243. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch12

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error