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Chapter 12 : Diagnosis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Species†
Category: Bacterial Pathogenesis
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Patients with Campylobacter infection may manifest signs and symptoms of acute appendicitis and result in unnecessary surgery. Bacteremia, endocarditis, meningitis, urinary tract infection, and other extraintestinal diseases may result from Campylobacter infections. Fecal samples should routinely be submitted to the laboratory for isolation of Campylobacter species from patients with diarrheal illness. Commercial blood culture systems such as the BACTEC system (aerobic bottles) and Septi-Chek system support the growth of the common Campylobacter species. Advantages of molecular approaches over culture include same-day detection, additional data regarding mixed infections, and uncommonCampylobacter species that are often missed when routine culture and procedures that are amenable to automation and high-throughput capabilities are used. A microaerobic atmosphere containing approximately 5% O2, 10% CO2, and 85% N2 is required for optimal recovery of most Campylobacter species. Campylobacter species are difficult to identify phenotypically because of relative biochemical inactivity, special growth requirements, and complex taxonomy. The 16S rRNA gene and 23S rRNA gene are two widely used targets for the design of species-specific tests; PCR assays based on these targets have been described for 12 different Campylobacter species. Fluoroquinolones had good in vitro activity for all Campylobacter species as well as for members of the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Little information is available on the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. concisus. Multidrug resistance in Campylobacter appears to be occurring more frequently and poses the risk that an effective antimicrobial regimen to treat infection may be lacking.
Commonly used gene targets and PCR assays for genus and species differentiation of Campylobacter spp.