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Chapter 14 : Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter
Category: Bacterial Pathogenesis
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This chapter discusses the mechanisms involved in Campylobacter resistance to various antibiotics, with particular emphasis on new information obtained during the last few years. One's understanding of the resistance mechanisms is limited to Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and little information is available on antimicrobial resistance in other Campylobacter spp. Fluoroquinolone (FQ) antimicrobials are important in the treatment of enteric infections including campylobacteriosis. Macrolide antibiotics, such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, and telithromycin, are important drugs for the treatment of respiratory tract infections and gastric diseases caused by Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter in humans. To date, two mechanisms have been described for Campylobacter resistance to tetracyclines. The first mechanism involves a ribosomal protection protein termed Tet(O). The second mechanism of tetracycline resistance in Campylobacter involves the efflux system. Several studies reported that the majority of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates produce β-lactamases. The multidrug efflux pump CmeABC has been shown to contribute to both intrinsic and acquired resistance to tetracycline. The contribution of efflux pumps to antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter is increasingly recognized. Inhibition of the efflux systems may not only control antibiotic resistance but also prevent Campylobacter colonization in vivo. Future efforts should be directed for understanding the interplay of various mechanisms in conferring antimicrobial resistance and the molecular basis underlying the emergence and transmission of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter.