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Chapter 21 : Animal Models of Campylobacter jejuni Infections
Category: Bacterial Pathogenesis
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Early studies have been conducted to test various inbred and outbred strains of mice as colonization and disease models. The infecting strain of Campylobacter jejuni will influence the outcome of infection even in inbred mice. Therefore, C. jejuni strain and history in the laboratory should be taken into consideration. Murine models of colonization and enteritis induced by primary oral C. jejuni challenge have long been needed to explore the genetics of resistance to this pathogen and the genetics of virulence of the pathogen; however, the basis for why most immunocompetent mice are refractory to C. jejuni induced disease is still unknown. Typhlocolitis is the main pathological lesion that can be observed by either gross or histopathological examination, although inflammation is observed in other GI tissues, including the stomach and liver. Severe combined immunodeficient mice have been tested for colonization and enteritis induced by C. jejuni. Researchers showed that wild-type C3H mice with normal enteric flora were colonized inconsistently and inefficiently by C. jejuni 81-176. Models for C. jejuni vaccine development are dependent on animals capable of expressing disease after challenge and mounting an adaptive immune response after vaccination. The greater the volume of feces that is cultured, the higher the probability will be that an accurate identification of colonization status is made. Despite progress in development of tractable murine models for study of C. jejuni colonization and enteritis, gaps in model development still exist.