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Chapter 36 : Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance from Food Animals to Humans

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Abstract:

Food of animal origin is considered the most important sources of causing infections in humans. This chapter reviews the current knowledge on antimicrobial susceptibility, occurrence of antimicrobial resistance, and transmission of antimicrobial resistant from food animals. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in is important for assessing the association between antimicrobial use and occurrence of antibiotic resistance. A total of 4,953 isolates from humans received by the Minnesota Department of Health were tested for resistance to nalidixic acid. Because fluoroquinolones (FQs) use in humans can lead to resistance in during therapy, it can be difficult to determine whether increased resistance in human strains is mainly caused by veterinary or human drug use. There are no known biological reasons why resistant should not transmit from animals to humans as well as susceptible . Several studies have shown that infections with quinolone-resistant in humans are associated with adverse effects for human health, mainly measured by prolonged diarrhea. Campylobacteriosis is one of the most common causes of diarrhea in humans worldwide. Studies aimed at the human health consequences of infections with antimicrobialresistant strains should help guide interventions aimed at limiting the spread of the most important types of resistant strains. The effects of successful intervention measures can be used to direct similar in interventions in other countries and have the potential to considerably improve food safety worldwide.

Citation: Aarestrup F, McDermott P, Wegener H. 2008. Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance from Food Animals to Humans, p 645-665. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch36

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Campylobacter jejuni
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Figure 1.

Occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among and from U.S. chickens during 2002 to 2006.

Citation: Aarestrup F, McDermott P, Wegener H. 2008. Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance from Food Animals to Humans, p 645-665. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch36
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Macrolide resistance among from pigs and consumption of tylosin for growth promotion and therapy in Denmark, 1995 to 2006.

Citation: Aarestrup F, McDermott P, Wegener H. 2008. Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance from Food Animals to Humans, p 645-665. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch36
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among from U.S. chickens, 1998 to 2006.

Citation: Aarestrup F, McDermott P, Wegener H. 2008. Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance from Food Animals to Humans, p 645-665. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch36
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Epidemiological cutoff values recommended by CLSI (http://www.clsi.org) and EUCAST (http://www.eucast.org)

Citation: Aarestrup F, McDermott P, Wegener H. 2008. Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance from Food Animals to Humans, p 645-665. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch36
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Antimicrobial resistance mechanism in Campylobacter

Citation: Aarestrup F, McDermott P, Wegener H. 2008. Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance from Food Animals to Humans, p 645-665. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch36
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Experimental studies on the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in after treatment

Citation: Aarestrup F, McDermott P, Wegener H. 2008. Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance from Food Animals to Humans, p 645-665. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch36
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among and isolated from broiler chickens in Denmark from 1997 to 2001

Citation: Aarestrup F, McDermott P, Wegener H. 2008. Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance from Food Animals to Humans, p 645-665. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch36
Generic image for table
Table 5.

Recent data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among from broilers in different countries

Citation: Aarestrup F, McDermott P, Wegener H. 2008. Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance from Food Animals to Humans, p 645-665. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch36
Generic image for table
Table 6.

Recent data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among from pigs in different countries

Citation: Aarestrup F, McDermott P, Wegener H. 2008. Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance from Food Animals to Humans, p 645-665. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch36
Generic image for table
Table 7.

Recent data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among from cattle in different countries

Citation: Aarestrup F, McDermott P, Wegener H. 2008. Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance from Food Animals to Humans, p 645-665. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch36
Generic image for table
Table 8.

Recent data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among from broiler meat in different countries

Citation: Aarestrup F, McDermott P, Wegener H. 2008. Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance from Food Animals to Humans, p 645-665. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch36
Generic image for table
Table 9.

Case-control studies evaluating risk factors for quinolone resistant infections

Citation: Aarestrup F, McDermott P, Wegener H. 2008. Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance from Food Animals to Humans, p 645-665. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch36

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