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Chapter 38 : Bacteriophage Therapy and

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Abstract:

This chapter discusses efforts to exploit -specific bacteriophages to reduce the numbers of and colonizing poultry and contaminating poultry meat products. All the phages reported by investigators in two studies had icosahedral heads and long contractile tails that were classified as members of the . Two phages with head diameters of 140.6 and 143.8 nm and large genome sizes of 320 kb were classified as group I. Five phages classified into group II had average head diameters of 99 nm and average genome sizes of 184 kb. A fourth phage had an icosahedral head that was classified as morphotype B1 of the , while a fifth phage had an icosahedral head with a short tail of morphotype C1 in the . phages on the skin of retail chicken portions have been recovered at levels of 2 X 103 PFU/10 cm and this study found that phage could be isolated from chicken skin only when detectable levels of their host were also present. The spontaneous production of CampMu bacteriophages after bacteriophage therapy is of concern because Mu bacteriophages are potential agents of mutation. Attempts to utilize bacteriophage, initially for typing purposes and more recently for their biocontrol potential, have led to a greater awareness of the role that phage play in the complex ecology of . It should be noted that bacteriophage can shape the evolution of genomes as they do in other bacterial genera.

Citation: Connerton I, Connerton P, Barrow P, Seal B, Atterbury R. 2008. Bacteriophage Therapy and , p 679-693. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch38

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Transmission Electron Microscopy
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Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Transmission electron micrographs of bacteriophage. (A) Bacteriophage CP8 used for phage therapy trials ( ). (B) Bacteriophage CP220 empty capsid after DNA insertion. (C) Bacteriophage NCTC 12677, which is one of the large phage used for phage typing ( ). (D) Bacteriophage CampMu observed by ).

Citation: Connerton I, Connerton P, Barrow P, Seal B, Atterbury R. 2008. Bacteriophage Therapy and , p 679-693. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch38
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Comparison of different phage/host combinations in cecal contents, 48 h after phage was administered to precolonized chickens ( ≥ 5 birds per sample point) together with controls. A single log 7 PFU dose was administered to the treatment group at 25 days of age. Adapted from and ).

Citation: Connerton I, Connerton P, Barrow P, Seal B, Atterbury R. 2008. Bacteriophage Therapy and , p 679-693. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch38
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Advantages and disadvantages of bacteriophage therapy over conventional antimicrobial treatments

Citation: Connerton I, Connerton P, Barrow P, Seal B, Atterbury R. 2008. Bacteriophage Therapy and , p 679-693. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch38
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Practical considerations for phage therapy

Citation: Connerton I, Connerton P, Barrow P, Seal B, Atterbury R. 2008. Bacteriophage Therapy and , p 679-693. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch38
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Comparison of the effect of different phage/host combinations

Citation: Connerton I, Connerton P, Barrow P, Seal B, Atterbury R. 2008. Bacteriophage Therapy and , p 679-693. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch38

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