Chapter 14 : Rhabdoviruses and Mechanisms of Type I Interferon Antagonism

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Rhabdoviruses and Mechanisms of Type I Interferon Antagonism, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815561/9781555814366_Chap14-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815561/9781555814366_Chap14-2.gif


The genus includes typical rhabdoviruses from fish, such as viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, which infects numerous marine and freshwater fish species. Rhabdoviruses that infect plants are separated into the genera and , based on their sites of replication and morphogenesis. The leader RNA of rhabdoviruses is the prime target candidate for recognition by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I). Defective interfering (DI) particle RNAs are generated notoriously in fast-replicating rhabdoviruses like vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Rhabdoviruses are being recognized by nucleic acid pattern receptors, although most of their RNA is shielded by N protein, and at the latest when they start gene expression by synthesis of leader RNA. The crucial point is therefore to limit the consequential interferon (IFN) production and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) as long and as far as possible by expression of “IFN antagonists.” This chapter analyzes the rhabdoviruses with respect to type I IFN antagonism. Characterization of the mechanisms involved in IFN escape of rhabdoviruses will help to better explain how self and nonself are distinguished and how host signaling networks are connected and regulated and how they function. Furthermore, studies on rhabdoviruses like VSV in its vector host, and of other rhabdoviruses of fish, insects, and plants, will undoubtedly provide further intriguing insights into the host defense mechanisms and the intricate relationship with viruses.

Citation: Brzózka K, Conzelmann K. 2009. Rhabdoviruses and Mechanisms of Type I Interferon Antagonism, p 211-227. In Brasier A, García-Sastre A, Lemon S (ed), Cellular Signaling and Innate Immune Responses to RNA Virus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815561.ch14

Key Concept Ranking

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus
Bovine ephemeral fever virus
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Transcription and replication products of rhabdoviruses. The full-length triphosphate genome and antigenome RNAs are present exclusively in an NC RNP. The genome NC is the template for production of a short triphosphate leader RNA and sequential transcription of five monocistronic capped and polyadenylated mRNAs. Since the polymerase complex P/L eventually dissociates from the template, a transcription gradient is generated. Replicative synthesis of full-length antigenomes involves concurrent packaging by N/P complexes into an NC.

Citation: Brzózka K, Conzelmann K. 2009. Rhabdoviruses and Mechanisms of Type I Interferon Antagonism, p 211-227. In Brasier A, García-Sastre A, Lemon S (ed), Cellular Signaling and Innate Immune Responses to RNA Virus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815561.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

IFN antagonists of RV and VSV. Rhabdovirus triphosphate RNAs are recognized by RIG-I, resulting in association of the CARD domains of RIG-I and IPS-1 and recruitment of a complex in which IRF3 is phosphorylated by TBK1. Phosphorylation results in dimerization of IRF3, import into the nucleus, and transcriptional activation of the IFN-β gene. In the presence of RV P, IRF3 phosphorylation is prevented. RV P binds also to phosphorylated Stat1 and Stat2, preventing expression of ISGs after IFN stimulation of the IFN receptor (IFNAR). VSV M causes a shutdown of Pol II transcription, thereby preventing transcription of both IFN genes and ISGs. In addition, VSV M interferes with the nuclear export of mRNAs by blocking Nup98 (see text for details).

Citation: Brzózka K, Conzelmann K. 2009. Rhabdoviruses and Mechanisms of Type I Interferon Antagonism, p 211-227. In Brasier A, García-Sastre A, Lemon S (ed), Cellular Signaling and Innate Immune Responses to RNA Virus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815561.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abraham, G., and, A. K. Banerjee. 1976. Sequential transcription of the genes of vesicular stomatitis virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73:15041508.
2. Ahmed, M.,, K. L. Brzoza, and, E. M. Hiltbold. 2006. Matrix protein mutant of vesicular stomatitis virus stimulates maturation of myeloid dendritic cells. J. Virol. 80:21942205.
3. Ahmed, M.,, S. D. Cramer, and, D. S. Lyles. 2004. Sensitivity of prostate tumors to wild type and M protein mutant vesicular stomatitis viruses. Virology 330:3449.
4. Ahmed, M.,, M. O. McKenzie,, S. Puckett,, M. Hojnacki,, L. Poliquin, and, D. S. Lyles. 2003. Ability of the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus to suppress beta interferon gene expression is genetically correlated with the inhibition of host RNA and protein synthesis. J. Virol. 77:46464657.
5. Ahne, W.,, H. V. Bjorklund,, S. Essbauer,, N. Fijan,, G. Kurath, and, J. R. Winton. 2002. Spring viremia of carp (SVC). Dis. Aquat. Organ. 52:261272.
6. Akira, S., and, K. Takeda. 2004. Functions of Toll-like receptors: lessons from KO mice. C. R. Biol. 327:581589.
7. Albertini, A. A.,, A. K. Wernimont,, T. Muziol,, R. B. Ravelli,, C. R. Clapier,, G. Schoehn,, W. Weissenhorn, and, R. W. Ruigrok. 2006. Crystal structure of the rabies virus nucleoprotein-RNA complex. Science 313:360363.
8. Andrejeva, J.,, K. S. Childs,, D. F. Young,, T. S. Carlos,, N. Stock,, S. Goodbourn, and, R. E. Randall. 2004. The V proteins of paramyxoviruses bind the IFN-inducible RNA helicase, mda-5, and inhibit its activation of the IFN-beta promoter. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:1726417269.
9. Balachandran, S.,, P. C. Roberts,, L. E. Brown,, H. Truong,, A. K. Pattnaik,, D. R. Archer, and, G. N. Barber. 2000. Essential role for the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR in innate immunity to viral infection. Immunity 13:129141.
10. Ball, L. A.,, C. R. Pringle,, B. Flanagan,, V. P. Perepelitsa, and, G. W. Wertz. 1999. Phenotypic consequences of rearranging the P, M, and G genes of vesicular stomatitis virus. J. Virol. 73:47054712.
11. Barchet, W.,, M. Cella,, B. Odermatt,, C. Asselin-Paturel,, M. Colonna, and, U. Kalinke. 2002. Virus-induced interferon alpha production by a dendritic cell subset in the absence of feedback signaling in vivo. J. Exp. Med. 195:507516.
12. Basak, S.,, A. Mondal,, S. Polley,, S. Mukhopadhyay, and, D. Chattopadhyay. 2007. Reviewing Chandipura: a vesiculovirus in human epidemics. Biosci. Rep. 27:275298.
13. Bitko, V., and, S. Barik. 2001. Phenotypic silencing of cytoplasmic genes using sequence-specific double-stranded short interfering RNA and its application in the reverse genetics of wild type negative-strand RNA viruses. BMC Microbiol. 1:34.
14. Black, B. L., and, D. S. Lyles. 1992. Vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein inhibits host cell-directed transcription of target genes in vivo. J. Virol. 66:40584064.
15. Blondel, D.,, G. G. Harmison, and, M. Schubert. 1990. Role of matrix protein in cytopathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis virus. J. Virol. 64:17161725.
16. Blondel, D.,, T. Regad,, N. Poisson,, B. Pavie,, F. Harper,, P. P. Pandolfi,, H. De The, and, M. K. Chelbi-Alix. 2002. Rabies virus P and small P products interact directly with PML and reorganize PML nuclear bodies. Oncogene 21:79577970.
17. Blumberg, B. M., and, D. Kolakofsky. 1981. Intracellular vesicular stomatitis virus leader RNAs are found in nucleocapsid structures. J. Virol. 40:568576.
18. Both, G. W.,, A. K. Banerjee, and, A. J. Shatkin. 1975. Methylation-dependent translation of viral messenger RNAs in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72:11891193.
19. Boxel-Dezaire, A. H.,, M. R. Rani, and, G. R. Stark. 2006. Complex modulation of cell type-specific signaling in response to type I interferons. Immunity 25:361372.
20. Brzózka, K.,, S. Finke, and, K. K. Conzelmann. 2005. Identification of the rabies virus alpha/beta interferon antagonist: phosphoprotein P interferes with phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3. J. Virol. 79:76737681.
21. Brzózka, K.,, S. Finke, and, K. K. Conzelmann. 2006. Inhibition of interferon signaling by rabies virus phosphoprotein P: activation-dependent binding of STAT1 and STAT2. J. Virol. 80:26752683.
22. Brzózka, K.,, C. Pfaller, and, K. K. Conzelmann. 2007. Signal transduction in the type I interferon system and viral countermeasures. Signal Transduction 7:519.
23. Buckler, C. E., and, S. Baron. 1966. Antiviral action of mouse interferon in heterologous cells. J. Bacteriol. 91:231235.
24. Chelbi-Alix, M. K.,, F. Quignon,, L. Pelicano,, M. H. Koken, and, H. De The. 1998. Resistance to virus infection conferred by the interferon-induced promyelocytic leukemia protein. J. Virol. 72:10431051.
25. Chenik, M.,, K. Chebli, and, D. Blondel. 1995. Translation initiation at alternate in-frame AUG codons in the rabies virus phosphoprotein mRNA is mediated by a ribosomal leaky scanning mechanism. J. Virol. 69:707712.
26. Chenik, M.,, K. Chebli,, Y. Gaudin, and, D. Blondel. 1994. In vivo interaction of rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) and nucleoprotein (N): existence of two N-binding sites on P protein. J. Gen. Virol. 75(Pt. 11):28892896.
27. Chenik, M.,, M. Schnell,, K. K. Conzelmann, and, D. Blondel. 1998. Mapping the interacting domains between the rabies virus polymerase and phosphoprotein. J. Virol. 72:19251930.
28. Colonno, R. J., and, A. K. Banerjee. 1976. A unique RNA species involved in initiation of vesicular stomatitis virus RNA transcription in vitro. Cell 8:197204.
29. Colonno, R. J., and, A. K. Banerjee. 1978. Complete nucleotide sequence of the leader RNA synthesized in vitro by vesicular stomatitis virus. Cell 15:93101.
30. Conzelmann, K. K. 2004. Reverse genetics of mononegavirales. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 283:141.
31. Cui, S.,, K. Eisenächer,, A. Kirchhofer,, K. Brzózka,, A. Lammens,, K. Lammens,, T. Fujita,, K. K. Conzelmann,, A. Krug, and, K. Hopfner. 2008. The C-terminal regulatory domain is the RNA 5′-triphosphate sensor of RIG-I. Mol. Cell 29:169179.
32. Deleris, A.,, J. Gallego-Bartolome,, J. Bao,, K. D. Kasschau,, J. C. Carrington, and, O. Voinnet. 2006. Hierarchical action and inhibition of plant Dicer-like proteins in antiviral defense. Science 313:6871.
33. Ebert, O.,, K. Shinozaki,, T. G. Huang,, M. J. Savontaus,, A. Garcia-Sastre, and, S. L. Woo. 2003. Oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus for treatment of orthotopic hepato-cellular carcinoma in immune-competent rats. Cancer Res. 63:36053611.
34. Edelmann, K. H.,, S. Richardson-Burns,, L. Alexopoulou,, K. L. Tyler,, R. A. Flavell, and, M. B. Oldstone. 2004. Does Toll-like receptor 3 play a biological role in virus infections? Virology 322:231238.
35. Enninga, J.,, D. E. Levy,, G. Blobel, and, B. M. Fontoura. 2002. Role of nucleoporin induction in releasing an mRNA nuclear export block. Science 295:15231525.
36. Eriguchi, Y.,, H. Toriumi, and, A. Kawai. 2002. Studies on the rabies virus RNA polymerase: 3. Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of the multiplicity of non-catalytic subunit (P protein). Microbiol. Immunol. 46:463474.
37. Everett, R. D., and, M. K. Chelbi-Alix. 2007. PML and PML nuclear bodies: implications in antiviral defence. Biochimie 89:819830.
38. Faria, P. A.,, P. Chakraborty,, A. Levay,, G. N. Barber,, H. J. Ezelle,, J. Enninga,, C. Arana,, J. van Deursen, and, B. M. Fontoura. 2005. VSV disrupts the Rae1/mrnp41 mRNA nuclear export pathway. Mol. Cell 17:93102.
39. Ferran, M. C., and, J. M. Lucas-Lenard. 1997. The vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein inhibits transcription from the human beta interferon promoter. J. Virol. 71:371377.
40. Field, A. K.,, A. A. Tytell,, G. P. Lampson, and, M. R. Hilleman. 1967. Inducers of interferon and host resistance. II. Multistranded synthetic polynucleotide complexes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 58:10041010.
41. Finke, S.,, K. Brzózka, and, K. K. Conzelmann. 2004. Tracking fluorescence-labeled rabies virus: enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged phosphoprotein P supports virus gene expression and formation of infectious particles. J. Virol. 78:1233312343.
42. Finke, S., and, K. K. Conzelmann. 1997. Ambisense gene expression from recombinant rabies virus: random packaging of positive- and negative-strand ribonucleoprotein complexes into rabies virions. J. Virol. 71:72817288.
43. Finke, S., and, K. K. Conzelmann. 1999. Virus promoters determine interference by defective RNAs: selective amplification of mini-RNA vectors and rescue from cDNA by a 3′ copy-back ambisense rabies virus. J. Virol. 73:38183825.
44. Finke, S., and, K. K. Conzelmann. 2005. Replication strategies of rabies virus. Virus Res. 111:120131.
45. Finke, S.,, J. H. Cox, and, K. K. Conzelmann. 2000. Differential transcription attenuation of rabies virus genes by intergenic regions: generation of recombinant viruses overexpressing the polymerase gene. J. Virol. 74:72617269.
46. Finke, S.,, R. Mueller-Waldeck, and, K. K. Conzelmann. 2003. Rabies virus matrix protein regulates the balance of virus transcription and replication. J. Gen. Virol. 84:16131621.
47. Fitzgerald, K. A.,, D. C. Rowe,, B. J. Barnes,, D. R. Caffrey,, A. Visintin,, E. Latz,, B. Monks,, P. M. Pitha, and, D. T. Golenbock. 2003. LPS-TLR4 signaling to IRF-3/7 and NF-kappaB involves the Toll adapters TRAM and TRIF. J. Exp. Med. 198:10431055.
48. Fu, Z. F. 2005. Genetic comparison of the rhabdoviruses from animals and plants. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 292:124.
49. Galiana-Arnoux, D.,, C. Dostert,, A. Schneemann,, J. A. Hoffmann, and, J. L. Imler. 2006. Essential function in vivo for Dicer-2 in host defense against RNA viruses in drosophila. Nat. Immunol. 7:590597.
50. Georgel, P.,, Z. Jiang,, S. Kunz,, E. Janssen,, J. Mols,, K. Hoebe,, S. Bahram,, M. B. Oldstone, and, B. Beutler. 2007. Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G activates a specific antiviral Toll-like receptor 4-dependent pathway. Virology 362:304313.
51. Gitlin, L.,, W. Barchet,, S. Gilfillan,, M. Cella,, B. Beutler,, R. A. Flavell,, M. S. Diamond, and, M. Colonna. 2006. Essential role of mda-5 in type I IFN responses to polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid and encephalomyocarditis picornavirus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:84598464.
52. Grandvaux, N.,, M. J. Servant,, B. tenOever,, G. C. Sen,, S. Balachandran,, G. N. Barber,, R. Lin, and, J. Hiscott. 2002. Transcriptional profiling of interferon regulatory factor 3 target genes: direct involvement in the regulation of interferon-stimulated genes. J. Virol. 76:55325539.
53. Green, T. J.,, X. Zhang,, G. W. Wertz, and, M. Luo. 2006. Structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus nucleoprotein-RNA complex. Science 313:357360.
54. Gupta, A. K.,, D. Blondel,, S. Choudhary, and, A. K. Banerjee. 2000. The phosphoprotein of rabies virus is phosphorylated by a unique cellular protein kinase and specific isomers of protein kinase C. J. Virol. 74:9198.
55. Haller, O.,, G. Kochs, and, F. Weber. 2007. Interferon, Mx, and viral countermeasures. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 18:425433.
56. Haller, O.,, P. Staeheli, and, G. Kochs. 2007. Interferon-induced Mx proteins in antiviral host defense. Biochimie 89:812818.
57. Honda, K., and, T. Taniguchi. 2006. IRFs: master regulators of signalling by Toll-like receptors and cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 6:644658.
58. Hornung, V.,, J. Ellegast,, S. Kim,, K. Brzózka,, A. Jung,, H. Kato,, H. Poeck,, S. Akira,, K. K. Conzelmann,, M. Schlee,, S. Endres, and, G. Hartmann. 2006. 5′-Triphosphate RNA is the ligand for RIG-I. Science 314:994997.
59. Hornung, V.,, S. Rothenfusser,, S. Britsch,, A. Krug,, B. Jahrsdorfer,, T. Giese,, S. Endres, and, G. Hartmann. 2002. Quantitative expression of Toll-like receptor 1–10 mRNA in cellular subsets of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and sensitivity to CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. J. Immunol. 168:45314537.
60. Hornung, V.,, J. Schlender,, M. Guenthner-Biller,, S. Rothenfusser,, S. Endres,, K. K. Conzelmann, and, G. Hartmann. 2004. Replication-dependent potent IFN-alpha induction in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells by a single-stranded RNA virus. J. Immunol. 173:59355943.
61. Huang, A. S., and, R. R. Wagner. 1965. Inhibition of cellular RNA synthesis by nonreplicating vesicular stomatitis virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 54:15791584.
62. Izaguirre, A.,, B. J. Barnes,, S. Amrute,, W. S. Yeow,, N. Megjugorac,, J. Dai,, D. Feng,, E. Chung,, P. M. Pitha, and, P. Fitzgerald-Bocarsly. 2003. Comparative analysis of IRF and IFN-alpha expression in human plasmacytoid and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. J. Leukoc. Biol. 74:11251138.
63. Jackson, A. O.,, R. G. Dietzgen,, M. M. Goodin,, J. N. Bragg, and, M. Deng. 2005. Biology of plant rhabdoviruses. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 43:623660.
64. Jacob, Y.,, E. Real, and, N. Tordo. 2001. Functional interaction map of lyssavirus phosphoprotein: identification of the minimal transcription domains. J. Virol. 75:96139622.
65. Janeway, C. A., Jr. 1989. Approaching the asymptote? Evolution and revolution in immunology. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 54(Pt. 1):113.
66. Janeway, C. A., Jr., and, R. Medzhitov. 2002. Innate immune recognition. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 20:197216.
67. Jarrous, N., and, R. Reiner. 2007. Human RNase P: a tRNA-processing enzyme and transcription factor. Nucleic Acids Res. 35:35193524.
68. Johnson, N.,, C. S. McKimmie,, K. L. Mansfield,, P. R. Wakeley,, S. M. Brookes,, J. K. Fazakerley, and, A. R. Fooks. 2006. Lyssavirus infection activates interferon gene expression in the brain. J. Gen. Virol. 87:26632667.
69. Kato, H.,, S. Sato,, M. Yoneyama,, M. Yamamoto,, S. Uematsu,, K. Matsui,, T. Tsujimura,, K. Takeda,, T. Fujita,, O. Takeuchi, and, S. Akira. 2005. Cell type-specific involvement of RIG-I in antiviral response. Immunity 23:1928.
70. Kato, H.,, O. Takeuchi,, S. Sato,, M. Yoneyama,, M. Yamamoto,, K. Matsui,, S. Uematsu,, A. Jung,, T. Kawai,, K. J. Ishii,, O. Yamaguchi,, K. Otsu,, T. Tsujimura,, C. S. Koh,, C. Reis e Sousa,, Y. Matsuura,, T. Fujita, and, S. Akira. 2006. Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses. Nature 441:101105.
71. Kawai, T., and, S. Akira. 2007. TLR signaling. Semin. Immunol. 19:2432.
72. Kawai, T.,, K. Takahashi,, S. Sato,, C. Coban,, H. Kumar,, H. Kato,, K. J. Ishii,, O. Takeuchi, and, S. Akira. 2005. IPS-1, an adaptor triggering RIG-I- and Mda5-mediated type I interferon induction. Nat. Immunol. 6:981988.
73. Kerr, I. M.,, R. E. Brown, and, L. A. Ball. 1974. Increased sensitivity of cell-free protein synthesis to double-stranded RNA after interferon treatment. Nature 250:5759.
74. Kim, D. H.,, M. Longo,, Y. Han,, P. Lundberg,, E. Cantin, and, J. J. Rossi. 2004. Interferon induction by siRNAs and ssRNAs synthesized by phage polymerase. Nat. Biotechnol. 22:321325.
75. Kumar, H.,, T. Kawai,, H. Kato,, S. Sato,, K. Takahashi,, C. Coban,, M. Yamamoto,, S. Uematsu,, K. J. Ishii,, O. Takeuchi, and, S. Akira. 2006. Essential role of IPS-1 in innate immune responses against RNA viruses. J. Exp. Med. 203:17951803.
76. Kumar, H.,, T. Kawai,, H. Kato,, S. Sato,, K. Takahashi,, C. Coban,, M. Yamamoto,, S. Uematsu,, K. J. Ishii,, O. Takeuchi, and, S. Akira. 2006. Essential role of IPS-1 in innate immune responses against RNA viruses. J. Exp. Med. 203:17951803.
77. Lafon, M. 2005. Modulation of the immune response in the nervous system by rabies virus. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 289:239258.
78. Lafon, M.,, F. Megret,, M. Lafage, and, C. Prehaud. 2006. The innate immune facet of brain: human neurons express TLR-3 and sense viral dsRNA. J. Mol. Neurosci. 29:185194.
79. Lazzarini, R. A.,, J. D. Keene, and, M. Schubert. 1981. The origins of defective interfering particles of the negative-strand RNA viruses. Cell 26:145154.
80. Lebleu, B.,, G. C. Sen,, S. Shaila,, B. Cabrer, and, P. Lengyel. 1976. Interferon, double-stranded RNA, and protein phosphorylation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73:31073111.
81. Lee, H. K.,, J. M. Lund,, B. Ramanathan,, N. Mizushima, and, A. Iwasaki. 2007. Autophagy-dependent viral recognition by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Science 315:13981401.
82. Lee, S. B.,, R. Bablanian, and, M. Esteban. 1996. Regulated expression of the interferon-induced protein kinase p68 (PKR) by vaccinia virus recombinants inhibits the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus but not that of poliovirus. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 16:10731078.
83. Leroy, M.,, G. Pire,, E. Baise, and, D. Desmecht. 2006. Expression of the interferon-alpha/beta-inducible bovine Mx1 dynamin interferes with replication of rabies virus. Neurobiol. Dis. 21:515521.
84. Li, J.,, J. T. Wang, and, S. P. Whelan. 2006. A unique strategy for mRNA cap methylation used by vesicular stomatitis virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:84938498.
85. Limbach, P. A.,, P. F. Crain, and, J. A. McCloskey. 1994. Summary: the modified nucleosides of RNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 22:21832196.
86. Loo, Y. M.,, J. Fornek,, N. Crochet,, G. Bajwa,, O. Perwitasari,, L. Martinez-Sobrido,, S. Akira,, M. A. Gill,, A. Garcia-Sastre,, M. G. Katze, and, M. Gale, Jr. 2007. Distinct RIG-I and MDA5 Signaling by RNA Viruses in innate Immunity. J. Virol. 82:335345.
87. Lund, J. M.,, L. Alexopoulou,, A. Sato,, M. Karow,, N. C. Adams,, N. W. Gale,, A. Iwasaki, and, R. A. Flavell. 2004. Recognition of single-stranded RNA viruses by Toll-like receptor 7. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:55985603.
88. Luo, M.,, T. J. Green,, X. Zhang,, J. Tsao, and, S. Qiu. 2007. Conserved characteristics of the rhabdovirus nucleoprotein. Virus Res. 129:246251.
89. Marcovistz, R.,, J. Galabru,, H. Tsiang, and, A. G. Hovanessian. 1986. Neutralization of interferon produced early during rabies virus infection in mice. J. Gen. Virol. 67(Pt. 2):387390.
90. Marcovistz, R.,, E. C. Leal,, D. C. Matos, and, H. Tsiang. 1994. Interferon production and immune response induction in apathogenic rabies virus-infected mice. Acta Virol. 38:193197.
91. Marcus, P. I., and, M. J. Sekellick. 1977. Defective interfering particles with covalently linked [+/-]RNA induce interferon. Nature 266:815819.
92. Mavrakis, M.,, A. A. McCarthy,, S. Roche,, D. Blondel, and, R. W. Ruigrok. 2004. Structure and function of the C-terminal domain of the polymerase cofactor of rabies virus. J. Mol. Biol. 343:819831.
93. Mavrakis, M.,, S. Mehouas,, E. Real,, F. Iseni,, D. Blondel,, N. Tordo, and, R. W. Ruigrok. 2006. Rabies virus chaperone: identification of the phosphoprotein peptide that keeps nucleoprotein soluble and free from non-specific RNA. Virology 349:422429.
94. Meylan, E.,, J. Curran,, K. Hofmann,, D. Moradpour,, M. Binder,, R. Bartenschlager, and, J. Tschopp. 2005. Cardif is an adaptor protein in the RIG-I antiviral pathway and is targeted by hepatitis C virus. Nature 437:11671172.
95. Munoz-Fontela, C.,, M. A. Garcia,, M. Collado,, L. Marcos-Villar,, P. Gallego,, M. Esteban, and, C. Rivas. 2007. Control of virus infection by tumour suppressors. Carcinogenesis 28:11401144.
96. Naeve, C. W.,, C. M. Kolakofsky, and, D. F. Summers. 1980. Comparison of vesicular stomatitis virus intracellular and virion ribonucleoproteins. J. Virol. 33:856865.
97. Noser, J. A.,, A. A. Mael,, R. Sakuma,, S. Ohmine,, P. Marcato,, P. W. Lee, and, Y. Ikeda. 2007. The RAS/Raf1/ MEK/ERK signaling pathway facilitates VSV-mediated oncolysis: implication for the defective interferon response in cancer cells. Mol. Ther. 15:15311536.
98. Novella, I. S.,, L. A. Ball, and, G. W. Wertz. 2004. Fitness analyses of vesicular stomatitis strains with rearranged genomes reveal replicative disadvantages. J. Virol. 78:98379841.
99. Obuchi, M.,, M. Fernandez, and, G. N. Barber. 2003. Development of recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses that exploit defects in host defense to augment specific oncolytic activity. J. Virol. 77:88438856.
100. Ogino, T., and, A. K. Banerjee. 2007. Unconventional mechanism of mRNA capping by the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of vesicular stomatitis virus. Mol. Cell 25:8597.
101. Onoguchi, K.,, M. Yoneyama,, A. Takemura,, S. Akira,, T. Taniguchi,, H. Namiki, and, T. Fujita. 2007. Viral infections activate types I and III interferon genes through a common mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. 282:75767581.
102. Oshiumi, H.,, M. Matsumoto,, K. Funami,, T. Akazawa, and, T. Seya. 2003. TICAM-1, an adaptor molecule that participates in Toll-like receptor 3-mediated interferon-beta induction. Nat. Immunol. 4:161167.
103. Ostertag, D.,, T. M. Hoblitzell-Ostertag, and, J. Perrault. 2007. Cell-type-specific growth restriction of vesicular stomatitis virus polR mutants is linked to defective viral polymerase function. J. Virol. 81:492502.
104. Pasdeloup, D.,, N. Poisson,, H. Raux,, Y. Gaudin,, R. W. Ruigrok, and, D. Blondel. 2005. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the rabies virus P protein requires a nuclear localization signal and a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal. Virology 334:284293.
105. Perrault, J. 1981. Origin and replication of defective interfering particles. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 93:151207.
106. Petersen, J. M.,, L. S. Her, and, J. E. Dahlberg. 2001. Multiple vesiculoviral matrix proteins inhibit both nuclear export and import. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:85908595.
107. Petersen, J. M.,, L. S. Her,, V. Varvel,, E. Lund, and, J. E. Dahlberg. 2000. The matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus inhibits nucleocytoplasmic transport when it is in the nucleus and associated with nuclear pore complexes. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20:85908601.
108. Pichlmair, A., and, C. Reis e Sousa. 2007. Innate recognition of viruses. Immunity 27:370383.
109. Pichlmair, A.,, O. Schulz,, C. P. Tan,, T. I. Naslund,, P. Liljestrom,, F. Weber, and, C. Reis e Sousa. 2006. RIG-I-mediated antiviral responses to single-stranded RNA bearing 5′-phosphates. Science 314:9971001.
110. Platanias, L. C. 2005. Mechanisms of type-I- and type-II-interferon-mediated signalling. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 5:375386.
111. Plumet, S.,, F. Herschke,, J. M. Bourhis,, H. Valentin,, S. Longhi, and, D. Gerlier. 2007. Cytosolic 5′-triphosphate ended viral leader transcript of measles virus as activator of the RIG I-mediated interferon response. PLoS ONE 2:e279.
112. Pringle, C. R. 1997. The order Mononegavirales—current Status. Arch. Virol. 142:23212326.
113. Publicover, J.,, E. Ramsburg,, M. Robek, and, J. K. Rose. 2006. Rapid pathogenesis induced by a vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein mutant: viral pathogenesis is linked to induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha. J. Virol. 80:70287036.
114. Redinbaugh, M. G., and, S. A. Hogenhout. 2005. Plant rhabdoviruses. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 292:143163.
115. Regad, T., and, M. K. Chelbi-Alix. 2001. Role and fate of PML nuclear bodies in response to interferon and viral infections. Oncogene 20:72747286.
116. Rothenfusser, S.,, N. Goutagny,, G. DiPerna,, M. Gong,, B. G. Monks,, A. Schoenemeyer,, M. Yamamoto,, S. Akira, and, K. A. Fitzgerald. 2005. The RNA helicase Lgp2 inhibits TLR-independent sensing of viral replication by retinoic acid-inducible gene-I. J. Immunol. 175:52605268.
117. Russell, S. J., and, K. W. Peng. 2007. Viruses as anti-cancer drugs. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 28:326333.
118. Saito, T.,, R. Hirai,, Y. M. Loo,, D. Owen,, C. L. Johnson,, S. C. Sinha,, S. Akira,, T. Fujita, and, M. Gale, Jr. 2007. Regulation of innate antiviral defenses through a shared repressor domain in RIG-I and LGP2. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:582587.
119. Saitoh, T.,, A. Tun-Kyi,, A. Ryo,, M. Yamamoto,, G. Finn,, T. Fujita,, S. Akira,, N. Yamamoto,, K. P. Lu, and, S. Yamaoka. 2006. Negative regulation of interferon-regulatory factor 3-dependent innate antiviral response by the prolyl isomerase Pin1. Nat. Immunol. 7:598605.
120. Sandrock, M.,, M. Frese,, O. Haller, and, G. Kochs. 2001. Interferon-induced rat Mx proteins confer resistance to Rift Valley fever virus and other arthropod-borne viruses. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 21:663668.
121. Schlender, J.,, V. Hornung,, S. Finke,, M. Gunthner-Biller,, S. Marozin,, K. Brzozka,, S. Moghim,, S. Endres,, G. Hartmann, and, K. K. Conzelmann. 2005. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 7- and 9-mediated alpha/beta interferon production in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells by respiratory syncytial virus and measles virus. J. Virol. 79:55075515.
122. Sekellick, M. J., and, P. I. Marcus. 1982. Interferon induction by viruses. VIII. Vesicular stomatitis virus: [+/-]DI-011 particles induce interferon in the absence of standard virions. Virology 117:280285.
123. Sen, G. C., and, G. A. Peters. 2007. Viral stress-inducible genes. Adv. Virus Res. 70:233263.
124. Seth, R. B.,, L. Sun,, C. K. Ea, and, Z. J. Chen. 2005. Identification and characterization of MAVS, a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein that activates NF-kappaB and IRF 3. Cell 122:669682.
125. Silverman, R. H. 2007. Viral encounters with 2′, 5′-oligodenylate synthetase and RNase L during the interferon antiviral response. J. Virol. 81:1272012729.
126. Skall, H. F.,, N. J. Olesen, and, S. Mellergaard. 2005. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in marine fish and its implications for fish farming—a review. J. Fish. Dis. 28:509529.
127. Stetson, D. B., and, R. Medzhitov. 2006. Antiviral defense: interferons and beyond. J. Exp. Med. 203:18371841.
128. Stetson, D. B., and, R. Medzhitov. 2006. Recognition of cytosolic DNA activates an IRF3-dependent innate immune response. Immunity 24:93103.
129. Stojdl, D. F.,, N. Abraham,, S. Knowles,, R. Marius,, A. Brasey,, B. D. Lichty,, E. G. Brown,, N. Sonenberg, and, J. C. Bell. 2000. The murine double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR is required for resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus. J. Virol. 74:95809585.
130. Stojdl, D. F.,, B. Lichty,, S. Knowles,, R. Marius,, H. Atkins,, N. Sonenberg, and, J. C. Bell. 2000. Exploiting tumor-specific defects in the interferon pathway with a previously unknown oncolytic virus. Nat. Med. 6:821825.
131. Strahle, L.,, D. Garcin, and, D. Kolakofsky. 2006. Sendai virus defective-interfering genomes and the activation of interferon-beta. Virology 351:101111.
132. Strahle, L.,, J. B. Marq,, A. Brini,, S. Hausmann,, D. Kolakofsky, and, D. Garcin. 2007. Activation of the beta interferon promoter by unnatural Sendai virus infection requires RIG-I and is inhibited by viral C proteins. J. Virol. 81:1222712237.
133. Sun, Q.,, L. Sun,, H. H. Liu,, X. Chen,, R. B. Seth,, J. Forman, and, Z. J. Chen. 2006. The specific and essential role of MAVS in antiviral innate immune responses. Immunity 24:633642.
134. Takaoka, A.,, Z. Wang,, M. K. Choi,, H. Yanai,, H. Negishi,, T. Ban,, Y. Lu,, M. Miyagishi,, T. Kodama,, K. Honda,, Y. Ohba, and, T. Taniguchi. 2007. DAI (DLM-1/ZBP1) is a cytosolic DNA sensor and an activator of innate immune response. Nature 448:501505.
135. Talon, J.,, M. Salvatore,, R. E. O’Neill,, Y. Nakaya,, H. Zheng,, T. Muster,, A. Garcia-Sastre, and, P. Palese. 2000. Influenza A and B viruses expressing altered NS1 proteins: a vaccine approach. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:43094314.
136. Taylor, A.,, A. J. Easton, and, A. C. Marriott. 1999. Matrix protein of Chandipura virus inhibits transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter. Virus Genes 19:223228.
137. Uematsu, S., and, S. Akira. 2007. Toll-like receptors and type I interferons. J. Biol. Chem. 282:1531915323.
138. Valarcher, J. F.,, J. Furze,, S. Wyld,, R. Cook,, K. K. Conzelmann, and, G. Taylor. 2003. Role of alpha/beta interferons in the attenuation and immunogenicity of recombinant bovine respiratory syncytial viruses lacking NS proteins. J. Virol. 77:84268439.
139. Venkataraman, T.,, M. Valdes,, R. Elsby,, S. Kakuta,, G. Caceres,, S. Saijo,, Y. Iwakura, and, G. N. Barber. 2007. Loss of DExD/H box RNA helicase LGP2 manifests disparate antiviral responses. J. Immunol. 178:64446455.
140. Vidy, A.,, M. Chelbi-Alix, and, D. Blondel. 2005. Rabies virus P protein interacts with Stat1 and inhibits interferon signal transduction pathways. J. Virol. 79:1441114420.
141. Vidy, A.,, J. El Bougrini,, M. K. Chelbi-Alix, and, D. Blondel. 2007. The nucleocytoplasmic rabies virus P protein counteracts interferon signaling by inhibiting both nuclear accumulation and DNA binding of Stat1. J. Virol. 81:42554263.
142. von Kobbe, C.,, J. M. van Deursen,, J. P. Rodrigues,, D. Sitterlin,, A. Bachi,, X. Wu,, M. Wilm,, M. Carmo-Fonseca, and, E. Izaurralde. 2000. Vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein inhibits host cell gene expression by targeting the nucleoporin Nup98. Mol. Cell 6:12431252.
143. Wang, T.,, T. Town,, L. Alexopoulou,, J. F. Anderson,, E. Fikrig, and, R. A. Flavell. 2004. Toll-like receptor 3 mediates West Nile virus entry into the brain causing lethal encephalitis. Nat. Med. 10:13661373.
144. Wang, X. H.,, R. Aliyari,, W. X. Li,, H. W. Li,, K. Kim,, R. Carthew,, P. Atkinson, and, S. W. Ding. 2006. RNA interference directs innate immunity against viruses in adult Drosophila. Science 312:452454.
145. Wang, Z. W.,, L. Sarmento,, Y. Wang,, X. Q. Li,, V. Dhingra,, T. Tseggai,, B. Jiang, and, Z. F. Fu. 2005. Attenuated rabies virus activates, while pathogenic rabies virus evades, the host innate immune responses in the central nervous system. J. Virol. 79:1255412565.
146. Weber, F.,, V. Wagner,, S. B. Rasmussen,, R. Hartmann, and, S. R. Paludan. 2006. Double-stranded RNA is produced by positive-strand RNA viruses and DNA viruses but not in detectable amounts by negative-strand RNA viruses. J. Virol. 80:50595064.
147. Wertz, G. W., and, J. S. Youngner. 1970. Interferon production and inhibition of host synthesis in cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus. J. Virol. 6:476484.
148. Whelan, S. P.,, J. N. Barr, and, G. W. Wertz. 2004. Transcription and replication of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 283:61119.
149. Wickersham, I. R.,, S. Finke,, K. K. Conzelmann, and, E. M. Callaway. 2007. Retrograde neuronal tracing with a deletion-mutant rabies virus. Nat. Methods 4:4749.
150. Wickersham, I. R.,, D. C. Lyon,, R. J. Barnard,, T. Mori,, S. Finke,, K. K. Conzelmann,, J. A. Young, and, E. M. Callaway. 2007. Monosynaptic restriction of transsynaptic tracing from single, genetically targeted neurons. Neuron 53:639647.
151. Wiegand, M. A.,, S. Bossow,, S. Schlecht, and, W. J. Neubert. 2007. De novo synthesis of N and P proteins as a key step in Sendai viral gene expression. J. Virol. 81:138351384
152. Williams, B. R. 1999. PKR; a sentinel kinase for cellular stress. Oncogene 18:61126120.
153. Xu, L. G.,, Y. Y. Wang,, K. J. Han,, L. Y. Li,, Z. Zhai, and, H. B. Shu. 2005. VISA is an adapter protein required for virus-triggered IFN-beta signaling. Mol. Cell 19:727740.
154. Yamamoto, M.,, S. Sato,, H. Hemmi,, K. Hoshino,, T. Kaisho,, H. Sanjo,, O. Takeuchi,, M. Sugiyama,, M. Okabe,, K. Takeda, and, S. Akira. 2003. Role of adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-independent Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Science 301:640643.
155. Yamamoto, M.,, S. Sato,, H. Hemmi,, S. Uematsu,, K. Hoshino,, T. Kaisho,, O. Takeuchi,, K. Takeda, and, S. Akira. 2003. TRAM is specifically involved in the Toll-like receptor 4-mediated MyD88-independent signaling pathway. Nat. Immunol. 4:11441150.
156. Yoneyama, M., and, T. Fujita. 2007. Function of RIG-I-like receptors in antiviral innate immunity. J. Biol. Chem. 282:1531515318.
157. Yoneyama, M.,, M. Kikuchi,, K. Matsumoto,, T. Imaizumi,, M. Miyagishi,, K. Taira,, E. Foy,, Y. M. Loo,, M. Gale, Jr.,, S. Akira,, S. Yonehara,, A. Kato, and, T. Fujita. 2005. Shared and unique functions of the DExD/ H-box helicases RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2 in antiviral innate immunity. J. Immunol. 175:28512858.
158. Yoneyama, M.,, M. Kikuchi,, T. Natsukawa,, N. Shinobu,, T. Imaizumi,, M. Miyagishi,, K. Taira,, S. Akira, and, T. Fujita. 2004. The RNA helicase RIG-I has an essential function in double-stranded RNA-induced innate antiviral responses. Nat. Immunol. 5:730737.
159. Yuan, H.,, B. K. Yoza, and, D. S. Lyles. 1998. Inhibition of host RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription by vesicular stomatitis virus results from inactivation of TFIID. Virology 251:383392.
160. Zhou, S.,, E. A. Kurt-Jones,, K. A. Fitzgerald,, J. P. Wang,, A. M. Cerny,, M. Chan, and, R. W. Finberg. 2007. Role of MyD88 in route-dependent susceptibility to vesicular stomatitis virus infection. J. Immunol. 178:51735181.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error