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3 : Human Metapneumovirus

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Abstract:

Acute respiratory infections are the most common illnesses experienced by people of all ages worldwide. Based on these similarities, the virus was classified as the first mammalian member of the genus ; hence its name, human metapneumovirus (hMPV). Virus neutralization assays using virus lineage-specific ferret antisera collected shortly after infection demonstrated a 12- to more than 100-fold difference in virus neutralization titers between viruses from the two main lineages. Serological tests based on prototype viruses from one lineage are less sensitive in detecting viruses with different antigenic properties, indicating that mixtures of antigens should be used in developing diagnostic tests. For RT-PCR assays, it is important to design primers based on regions that are conserved between viruses of the four genetic lineages. Like Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus infections, hMPV infections also account for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in the elderly and in patients with underlying disease or impaired immunity. hMPV causes yearly epidemics of RTI; however, the incidences vary from year to year or between locations, as is seen for RSV epidemics. To study host responses and the virological, immunological, and pathological features of hMPV infections, several animal models are available. Only RSV, and occasionally influenza virus, was detected more frequently in the studies that included surveys for other respiratory viruses. In addition, the preliminary results on the association between asthma and hMPV infections and the possible consequences of coinfection of hMPV and RSV (and other respiratory viruses) for the severity of disease warrant further research.

Citation: van den Hoogen B, M. E. Osterhaus A, Fouchier R. 2007. Human Metapneumovirus, p 51-68. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch3
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Figure 1.

Phylogenetic analysis of the polymerase open reading frames of hMPV and selected paramyxoviruses. The tree was generated by maximum likelihood analyses using 100 bootstraps and three jumbles. The scale bars roughly represent 10% nucleotide changes between close relatives. NiV, Nipah virus; HeV, Hendra virus; TuV, Tupaia virus; PDV, phocine distemper virus; CDV, canine distemper virus; RPV, rinderpest virus; MeV, measles virus; SeV, Sendai virus; NDV, Newcastle disease virus; LPMV, porcine rubulavirus; MuV, mumps virus; Sv5, simian virus 5; Sv41, simian virus 41; APV-A, avian pneumovirus type A; B, bovine; H, human.

Citation: van den Hoogen B, M. E. Osterhaus A, Fouchier R. 2007. Human Metapneumovirus, p 51-68. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch3
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Risk populations for hMPV-induced severe disease.

Citation: van den Hoogen B, M. E. Osterhaus A, Fouchier R. 2007. Human Metapneumovirus, p 51-68. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch3
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Tables

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Table 1.

Percent amino acid sequence identities between the putative proteins of prototype viruses belonging to the different lineages of hMPV

Citation: van den Hoogen B, M. E. Osterhaus A, Fouchier R. 2007. Human Metapneumovirus, p 51-68. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Virus-neutralizing antibody titers using ferret antisera obtained 21 days after infection with hMPV isolates belonging to different genetic hMPV lineages

Citation: van den Hoogen B, M. E. Osterhaus A, Fouchier R. 2007. Human Metapneumovirus, p 51-68. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Detection of hMPV in studies conducted on samples obtained in a variety of study groups, seasons, and locations

Citation: van den Hoogen B, M. E. Osterhaus A, Fouchier R. 2007. Human Metapneumovirus, p 51-68. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch3

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