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5 : Monkeypox Virus: Insights on Its Emergence in Human Populations

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on epidemiologic, ecologic, and biologic observations made since the publication of which enhance the understanding of Human monkeypox, zoonotic disease and the pathogen that causes it. Ecologic studies, usually using convenient samples of animals collected in areas surrounding human patients in West Africa and central Africa, demonstrated orthopoxvirus- and sometimes monkeypox virus-specific seroprevalence in various members of these species, but it was not reported for Cricetomys species. In 2003, two concurrent outbreaks of disease, one in the United States and one in the Republic of the Congo, permitted additional analyses and studies which have substantially amplified the understanding of monkeypox viruses and their pathogeneses in various animal species, which in turn will allow the design of public health control measures. Gambian rats ( sp.) and rope squirrels ( spp.) separated from the shipment immediately on arrival in the United States, discovered moribund and later dead in Texas and New Jersey, respectively, were found positive for monkeypox virus. As the animal distribution was traced across the United States, African dormice ( spp.) were also found moribund, and on autopsy they were positive for the presence of monkeypox virus. Monkeypox virus continues to emerge in new populations; recent reports from Sudan indicate that the virus has the capacity to cause human illness in yet another ecologically distinct environment.

Citation: Damon I. 2007. Monkeypox Virus: Insights on Its Emergence in Human Populations, p 85-97. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch5
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Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

The squares indicate georeferenced locations of West African clade human isolates of monkeypox virus. The circles indicate georeferenced locations of Congo basin isolates of monkeypox virus.

Citation: Damon I. 2007. Monkeypox Virus: Insights on Its Emergence in Human Populations, p 85-97. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch5
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Phylogeny of monkeypox viruses (adapted from reference ). The phylogeny was based on the whole-genome alignments of five monkeypox virus (MPXV) genomes, rooted with the cowpox virus (CPXV) strain Grishak-90 (CPXV-GRI) and vaccinia virus Copenhagen (VAC-COP). MPXV-USA 2003-044 and MPXV-LIB-1970-184 are of U.S. origin imported from Ghana (isolated in 2003) and Liberia (isolated in 1970); MPXVRCG-2003-358 is a 2003 isolate from the Republic of the Congo; MPXV-ZAI-1979-005 and MPXV-ZAI-1996-016 are isolates from the DRC obtained in 1979 and 1996.

Citation: Damon I. 2007. Monkeypox Virus: Insights on Its Emergence in Human Populations, p 85-97. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch5
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