8 : Emergence of Novel Retroviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Emergence of Novel Retroviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815585/9781555813772_Chap08-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815585/9781555813772_Chap08-2.gif


Retroviruses are a large and diverse group of enveloped RNA viruses in the family that replicate in a unique way, using a viral reverse transcriptase enzyme to transcribe the RNA genome into linear double-stranded DNA. Among viruses capable of causing zoonotic infections, defined for the purposes of this chapter as primary infections resulting from direct animal exposure, only some are capable of secondary spread. The approach advocated focuses on the study of individuals who are highly exposed to the blood and body fluids of primates, either through contact in laboratories and primate centers or through the hunting and butchering of wild non-human primate (NHP) game, and the detailed follow-up of individuals with zoonotic infections and their contacts for evidence of secondary transmission. The gorilla simian foamy virus (SFV)-infected persons in this study reported having received significant bite wounds from gorillas. Researchers have recently examined the diversity of human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs) among primate bushmeat hunters in Cameroon who had documented SFV infections and who thus may be at risk for infection with additional simian retroviruses. Three new retroviruses previously undocumented in humans, including the simian foamy viruses, HTLV-3, and HTLV-4, have all been identified in persons exposed to the blood and body fluids of NHPs.

Citation: Wolfe N, Switzer W, Heneine W. 2007. Emergence of Novel Retroviruses, p 139-152. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch8
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Diagram representing the process of viral emergence. Step 1 (bottom) is primary infection or successful cross-species transmission from the wild-animal reservoir to humans. Step 2 is local secondary transmission between humans, leading to regional spread. Step 3 is pandemic spread from a regional epidemic into the global population. Examples of various zoonotic infections, including simian retroviruses, are shown, with arrows indicating the level of transmission at each step (represented by horizontal dashed lines).

Citation: Wolfe N, Switzer W, Heneine W. 2007. Emergence of Novel Retroviruses, p 139-152. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

SFVs found in occupationally and naturally exposed persons. Shown is the phylogenetic analysis of SFV polymerase () sequences derived from peripheral blood lymphocytes by PCR and sequence analysis described in detail elsewhere ( ). Zoonotic human infections with SFVs are shown in bold italics, with CAM indicating those from Cameroon. The numbers shown at branch nodes represent bootstrap percentages from 1,000 replicates; only values greater than 70% are shown. Branch lengths are proportional to the evolutionary distances (scale bar) between the taxa. The primate taxonomic nomenclature used here is defined elsewhere ( ). NHPs were coded by using the first letter of the genus and the first two letters of the species names, with their house names or codes within parentheses. Asterisks indicate NHPs native to Cameroon. Cmo, (mona monkey); Cal, (Sykes monkey); Cce, (red-eared guenon); Cpy, (vervet); Clh, (L’Hoest’s monkey); Cne, (De Brazza’s guenon); Lal, (grey-cheeked mangabey); Pcy, (yellow baboon); Pan, (olive baboon); Cto, (red-capped mangabey); Cag, (agile mangabey); Mta, (talapoin monkey); Mle, (drill); Msp, (mandrill); Cgu, (mantled guereza); Mmu, (rhesus macaque); Mcy, (Formosan rock macaque); Ppy, (Bornean orangutan); Hpi, (pileated gibbon); Ggo, (Western lowland gorilla); Ppn, (bonobo); Psc, (East African chimpanzee); Pvl, (Nigerian chimpanzee); Ptr, (Central African chimpanzee); Pvr, (West African chimpanzee); Asp, sp. (spider monkey).

Citation: Wolfe N, Switzer W, Heneine W. 2007. Emergence of Novel Retroviruses, p 139-152. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Identification of HTLV-3 and HTLV-4, two novel human viruses. Shown are the phylogenetic relationships of HTLV and STLV polymerase () sequences (614 bp) by neighbor-joining analysis as described in detail elsewhere ( ). The sequences of the new HTLV-3 and HTLV-4 viruses are shown in boxes. Support for the branching order was determined by 1,000 bootstrap replicates; only values of 60% or more are shown. Branch lengths are proportional to the evolutionary distances (scale bar) between the taxa.

Citation: Wolfe N, Switzer W, Heneine W. 2007. Emergence of Novel Retroviruses, p 139-152. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Achong, B. G.,, P. W. A. Mansell,, M. A. Epstein, and, P. Clifford., 1971. An unusual virus in cultures from a human nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 46:299302.
2. Ali, M.,, G. P. Taylor,, R. J. Pitman,, D. Parker,, A. Rethwilm,, R. Cheingsong-Popov,, J. N. Weber,, P. D. Bieniasz,, J. Bradley, and, M. O. McClure. 1996. No evidence of antibody to human foamy virus in widespread human populations. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 12:14731483.
3. Antia, R.,, R. R. Regoes,, J. C. Koella, and, C. T. Bergstrom. 2003. The role of evolution in the emergence of infectious diseases. Nature 426:658661.
4. Apetrei, C.,, D. L. Robertson, and, P. Marx. 2004. The history of SIVs and AIDS: epidemiology, phylogeny, and biology of isolates from naturally SIV infected non-human primates (NHP) in Africa. Front. Biosci. 9:225254.
5. Araujo, A., and, W. W. Hall. 2004. Human T-lymphotropic virus type II and neurological disease. Ann. Neurol. 56:1019.
6. Bailes, E.,, F. Gao,, F. Bibollet-Ruche,, V. Courgnaud,, M. Peeters,, P. A. Marx,, B. H. Hahn, and, P. M. Sharp. 2003. Hybrid origin of SIV in chimpanzees. Science 300:1713.
7. Blewett , E. L.,, D. H. Black,, N. W. Lerche,, G. White, and, R. Eberle. 2000. Simian foamy virus infections in a baboon breeding colony. Virology 278:183193.
8. Boneva, R. S.,, A. Grindon,, S. Horton,, W. M. Switzer,, V. Shanmugam,, A. Hussain,, V. Bhullar,, W. Heneine,, M. Chamberland,, T. M. Folks, and, L. E. Chapman. 2002. Simian foamy virus infection in a blood donor. Transfusion 42:886891.
9. Brooks, J. I.,, E. W. Rudd,, R. G. Pilon,, J. M. Smith,, W. M. Switzer, and, P. A. Sandstrom. 2002. Cross-species retroviral transmission from macaques to human beings. Lancet 360:387388.
10. Broussard, S. R.,, A. G. Comuzzie,, K. L. Leighton,, M. M. Leland,, E. M. Whitehead, and, J. S. Allan. 1997. Characterization of new simian foamy viruses from African nonhuman primates. Virology 237:349359.
11. Calattini, S.,, S. A. Chevalier,, R. Duprez,, S. Bassot,, A. Froment,, R. Mahieux, and, A. Gessain. 2005. Discovery of a new human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-3) in Central Africa. Retrovirology 2:30.
12. Calattini, S.,, P. Mauclere,, P. Tortevoye,, A. Froment,, A. Saib, and, A. Gessain. 2004. Interspecies transmission of simian foamy viruses from chimpanzees and gorillas to Bantous and Pygmy hunters in southern Cameroon, p. 78. In Abstracts of the 5th International Foamy Virus Conference.
13. Calattini, S.,, E. Nerrienet,, P. Mauclere,, M. C. Georges-Courbot,, A. Saib, and, A. Gessain. 2004. Natural simian foamy virus infection in wild-caught gorillas, mandrills and drills from Cameroon and Gabon. J. Gen. Virol. 85:33133317.
14. Courgnaud, V.,, S. Van Dooren,, F. Liegeois,, X. Pourrut,, B. Abela,, S. Loul,, E. Mpoudi-Ngole,, A. Vandamme,, E. Delaporte, and, M. Peeters. 2004. Simian T-cell leukemia virus (STLV) infection in wild primate populations in Cameroon: evidence for dual STLV type 1 and type 3 infection in agile monkeys. J. Virol. 78:47004709.
15. Delebecque, F.,, R. Suspene,, S. Calattini,, N. Casartelli,, A. Saib,, A. Froment,, S. Wain-Hobson,, A. Gessain,, J. P. Vartanian, and, O. Schwartz. 2006. Restriction of foamy viruses by APOBEC cytidine deaminases. J. Virol. 80:605614.
16. Digilio, L.,, A. Giri,, N. Cho,, J. Slattert,, P. Markham, and, G. Franchini. 1997. The simian T-lymphotropic/leukemia virus from Pan paniscus belongs to the type 2 family and infects Asian macaques. J. Virol. 71:36843692.
17. Falcone, V.,, J. Leupold,, J. Clotten,, E. Urbanyi,, O. Herchenroder,, W. Spatz,, B. Volk,, N. Bohm,, A. Toniolo,, D. Neumann-Haefelin, and, M. Schweizer. 1999. Sites of simian foamy virus persistence in naturally infected African green monkeys: latent provirus is ubiquitous, whereas viral replication is restricted to the oral mucosa. Virology 257:714.
18. Fultz, P. N., 1994. Simian T-lymphotropic virus type 1, p. 111131. In J. A. Levy(ed.), The Retroviridae, vol., 3. Plenum Press, New York, N.Y.
19. Gessain, A., and, R. Mahieux. 2000. Epidemiology, origin and genetic diversity of HTLV-1 retrovirus and STLV-1 simian affiliated retrovirus. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 93:163171.
20. Goubau, P.,, M. Van Brussel,, A. M. Vandamme,, H. F. Liu, and, J. Desmyter. 1994. A primate T-lymphotropic virus, PTLV-L, different from human T-lymphotropic viruses types I and II, in a wild-caught baboon (Papio hamadryas). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:28482852.
21. Groves, C., 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
22. Hahn, B. H.,, G. M. Shaw,, K. M. De Cock, and, P. M. Sharp. 2000. AIDS as a zoonosis: scientific and public health implications. Science 287:607614.
23. Harris, R. S., and, M. T. Liddament. 2004. Retroviral restriction by APOBEC proteins. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 4:868877.
24. Heneine, W.,, M. Schweizer,, P. Sandstrom, and, T. Folks. 2003. Human infection with foamy viruses. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 277:181196.
25. Herchenröder, O.,, R. Renne,, D. Loncar,, E. K. Cobb,, K. K. Murthy,, J. Schneider,, A. Mergia, and, P. A. Luciw. 1994. Isolation, cloning, and sequencing of simian foamy viruses from chimpanzees (SFVcpz): High homology to human foamy virus (HFV). Virology 201:187199.
26. Hubbard, G. B.,, J. P. Mone,, J. S. Allan,, K. J. Davis,, M. M. Leland,, P. M. Banks, and, B. Smir. 1993. Spontaneously generated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in twenty-seven simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 antibody-positive baboons. Lab. Anim. Sci. 43:301309.
27. Hussain, A. I.,, V. Shanmugam,, V. B. Bhullar,, B. E. Beer,, D. Vallet,, A. Gautier-Hion,, N. Wolfe,, W. B. Karesh,, A. M. Kilbourn,, Z. Tooze,, W. Heneine, and, W. M. Switzer. 2003. Screening for simian foamy virus infection by using a combined antigen Western blot assay: evidence for a wide distribution among Old World primates and identification of four new divergent viruses. Virology 309:248257.
28. Jones-Engel, L.,, G. A. Engel,, M. A. Schillaci,, A. Rompis,, A. Putra,, K. G. Suaryana,, A. Fuentes,, B. Beer,, S. Hicks,, R. White,, B. Wilson, and, J. S. Allan. 2005. Primate to human retroviral transmission in Asia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:10281035.
29. Leendertz, F. H.,, S. Junglen,, C. Boesch,, P. Formenty,, E. Couacy-Hymann,, V. Courgnaud,, G. Pauli, and, H. Ellerbrok. 2004. High variety of different simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 strains in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Tai National Park, Cote d’Ivoire. J. Virol. 78:43524356.
30. Linial, M. L.,, H. Fan,, B. Hahn,, R. Löwer,, J. Neil,, S. Quackenbush,, A. Rethwilm,, P. Sonigo,, J. Stoye, and, M. Tristem. 2004. Retroviridae, p. 421440. In C. M. Fauquet,, M. A. Mayo,, J. Maniloff,, U. Desselberger, and, L. A. Ball (ed.), Virus Taxonomy Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier, London, United Kingdom.
31. Liu, W.,, M. L. Santiago,, B. F. Keele,, Y. Li,, F. Bibollet-Ruche,, Y. Chen,, P. A. Goepfert,, W. M. Switzer,, S. Clifford,, E. Mpoudi,, C. Sanz,, M. L. Wilson,, N. Gross-Camp,, H. M. McClure,, E. Bailes,, P. M. Sharp,, C. Boesch,, V. Smith,, M. Worobey,, R. Wrangham,, M. Peeters,, J. F. Y. Brookfield,, G. M. Shaw, and, B. H. Hahn. 2005. Simian foamy virus infection in wild chimpanzees, abstr. 259. HIV Pathogenesis Keystone Symposium.
32. Mahieux, R.,, C. Chappey,, M. C. Georges-Courbot,, G. Dubreuil,, P. Mauclere,, A. Georges, and, A. Gessain. 1998. Simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 from Mandrillus sphinx as a simian counterpart of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 subtype D. J. Virol. 72:1031610322.
33. McClure, M. O.,, P. D. Bieniaz,, T .F. Schulz,, I. L. Chrystie,, G. Simpson,, A. Aguzzi,, J. G. Hoad,, A. Cunningham,, J. Kirkwood, and, R. A. Weiss. 1994. Isolation of a new foamy retrovirus from orangutans. J. Virol. 68:71247130.
34. Meertens, L., and, A. Gessain. 2003. Divergent simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 (STLV-3) in wild-caught Papio hamadryas papio from Senegal: widespread distribution of STLV-3 in Africa. J. Virol. 77:782789.
35. Meertens, L.,, R. Mahieux,, P. Mauclere,, J. Lewis, and, A. Gessain. 2002. Complete sequence of a novel highly divergent simian T-cell lymphotropic virus from wild caught red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) from Cameroon: a new primate T-lymphotropic virus type 3 subtype. J. Virol. 76:259268.
36. Meertens, L.,, V. Shanmugam,, A. Gessain,, B. E. Beer,, Z. Tooze,, W. Heneine, and, W. M. Switzer. 2003. A novel, divergent simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 in a wild-caught red-capped mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) from Nigeria. J. Gen. Virol. 84:27232727.
37. Meiering, C. D., and, M. L. Linial. 2001. Historical perspective of foamy virus epidemiology and infection. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14:165176.
38. Moya, A.,, E. C. Holmes, and, F. Gonzalez-Candelas. 2004. The population genetics and evolutionary epidemiology of RNA viruses. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2:279288.
39. Murray, S. M.,, L. J. Picker,, M. K. Axthelm, and, M. L. Linial. 2006. Expanded tissue targets for foamy virus replication with simian immunodeficiency virus-induced immunosuppression. J. Virol. 80:663670.
40. Russell, R. A.,, H. L. Wiegand,, M. D. Moore,, A. Schafer,, M. O. McClure, and, B. R. Cullen. 2005. Foamy virus Bet proteins function as novel inhibitors of the APOBEC3 family of innate antiretroviral defense factors. J. Virol. 79:87248731.
41. Salemi, M.,, J. Desmyter, and, A. M. Vandamme. 2000. Tempo and mode of human and simian T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV/STLV) evolution revealed by analyses of full-genome sequences. Mol. Biol. Evol. 17:374386.
42. Salemi, M.,, S. Van Dooren,, E. Audenaert,, E. Delaporte,, P. Goubau,, J. Desmyter, and, A. M. Vandamme. 1998. Two new human T-lymphotropic virus type I phylogenetic subtypes in seroindeterminates, a Mbuti pygmy and a Gabonese, have closest relatives among African STLV-I strains. Virology 246:277287.
43. Salemi, M.,, S. Van Dooren, and, A. M. Vandamme. 1999. Origin and evolution of human and simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses. AIDS Rev. 1:131139.
44. Sandstrom, P. A.,, K. O. Phan,, W. M. Switzer,, T. Fredeking,, L. Chapman,, W. Heneine, and, T. M. Folks. 2000. Simian foamy virus infection among zoo keepers. Lancet 355:551552.
45. Schweizer M.,, V. Falcone,, J. Gange,, R. Turek, and, D. Neumann-Haefelin. 1997. Simian foamy virus isolated from an accidentally infected human individual. J. Virol. 71:48214824.
46. Schweizer, M.,, R. Turek,, H. Hahn,, A. Schliephake,, K. O. Netzer,, G. Eder,, M. Reinhardt,, A. Rethwilm, and, D. Neumann-Haefelin. 1995. Markers of foamy virus (FV) infections in monkeys, apes, and accidentally infected humans: appropriate testing fails to confirm suspected FV prevalence in man. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 11:161170.
47. Slattery, J. P.,, G. Franchini, and, A. Gessain. 1999. Genomic evolution, patterns of global dissemination, and interspecies transmission of human and simian T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic viruses. Genome Res. 9:525540.
48. Song, B.,, H. Javanbakht,, M. Perron,, D. H. Park,, M. Stremlau, and, J. Sodroski. 2005. Retrovirus restriction by TRIM5 alpha variants from Old World and New World primates. J. Virol. 79:39303937.
49. Sotir, M.,, W. Switzer,, C. Schable,, J. Schmitt,, C. Vitek, and, R. F. Khabbaz. 1997. Risk of occupational exposure to potentially infectious nonhuman primate materials and to simian immunodeficiency virus. J. Med. Primatol. 26:233240.
50. Switzer, W. M.,, V. Bhullar,, V. Shanmugam,, M. Cong,, B. Parekh,, N. W. Lerche,, J. L. Yee,, J. J. Ely,, R. Boneva,, L. E. Chapman,, T. M. Folks, and, W. Heneine. 2004. Frequent simian foamy virus infection in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates. J. Virol. 78:27802789.
51. Switzer, W. M.,, M. Salemi,, V. Shanmugam,, V. Bhullar,, F. Gao,, B. Beer,, D. Vallet,, A. Gautier-Hion,, Z. Tooze,, C. Kuilken,, F. Villinger, and, W. Heneine. 2005. Ancient co-speciation of simian foamy virus and primates. Nature 434:376380.
52. Takemura, T.,, M. Yamashita,, M. K. Shimada,, S. Ohkura,, T. Shotake,, M. Ikeda,, T. Miura, and, M. Hayami. 2002. High prevalence of simian T-lymphotropic virus type L in wild Ethiopian baboons. J. Virol. 76:16421648.
53. Vandamme, A. M.,, M. Salemi, and, J. Desmyter. 1998. The simian origins of the pathogenic human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. Trends Microbiol. 6:477483.
54. Van Dooren, S.,, V. Shanmugam,, V. Bhullar,, B. Parekh,, A. M. Vandamme,, W. Heneine, and, W. M. Switzer. 2004. Identification in gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada) of a distinct simian T-cell lymphotropic virus 3 with a broad range of Western blot reactivity. J. Gen. Virol. 85:507551.
55. Voevodin, A.,, E. Samilchuk,, H. Schatzl,, E. Boeri, and, G. Frachini. 1996. Interspecies transmission of macaque simian T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 in baboons results in an outbreak of malignant lymphoma. J. Virol. 70:16331639.
56. Weiss, R. A., 1988. Foamy retroviruses: a virus in search of a disease. Nature 333:497498.
57. Wolfe, N. D.,, W. Heneine,, J. K. Carr,, A. D. Garcia,, V. Shanmugan,, U. Tamoufe,, J. N. Torimiro,, A. T. Prosser,, M. LeBreton,, E. Mpoudi-Ngole,, F. E. McCutchan,, D. L. Birx,, T. M. Folks,, D. S. Burke, and, W. M. Switzer. 2005. Emergence of unique primate T-lymphotropic viruses among central African bushmeat hunters. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:79947999.
58. Wolfe, N. D.,, T. A. Prosser,, J. K. Carr,, U. Tamoufe,, E. Mpoudi-Ngole,, J. N. Torimiro,, M. LeBreton,, F. E. McCutchan,, D. L. Birx, and, D. S. Burke. 2004. Exposure to nonhuman primates in rural Cameroon. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:20942099.
59. Wolfe, N. D.,, W. M. Switzer,, J. K. Carr,, V. B. Bhullar,, V. Shanmugan,, U. Tamoufe,, A. T. Prosser,, J. N. Torimiro,, A. Wright,, E. Mpoudi-Ngole,, F. E. McCutchan,, D. L. Birx,, T. M. Folks,, D. S. Burke, and, W. Heneine. 2004. Naturally acquired simian retrovirus infections in central African hunters. Lancet 363:932937.
60. Yamashita, M.,, E. Ido,, T. Miura, and, M. Hayami. 1996. Molecular epidemiology of HTLV-I in the world. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 13(Suppl. 1):S124S131.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error