1887

13 : subsp. and Crohn’s Disease

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

subsp. and Crohn’s Disease, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815585/9781555813772_Chap13-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815585/9781555813772_Chap13-2.gif

Abstract:

Crohn’s disease is an idiopathic chronic granulomatous ileocolitis. Although this inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was initially described as a segmental disease of the small intestine, it has more recently been found to be associated with the mouth, larynx, esophagus, stomach, colon, skin, muscle, synovial tissue, and bone. The only true population-based data concerning the incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease come from Olmsted County, Minnesota. The most disturbing evidence to come out of Olmsted County concerned the increasing incidence of Crohn's disease among young children. Treatment of Crohn’s disease depends on the location and severity of disease, complications, and response to previous treatment. The most common complication is stricture of the intestine, and surgery to remove the obstructed intestinal area is often performed. Genetic factors could also be involved in intestinal-permeability defects, based on the observation that patients with quiescent Crohn's disease and two-thirds of their healthy relatives have increased permeability to inert markers. The parallels between Crohn's disease and bovine paratuberculosis infection, or Johne's disease, remain one of the best arguments for this hypothesis. A multicenter blind study aimed at analysis of blood samples from Crohn's disease patients and controls is under way. If subsp. causes Crohn’s disease, the inclination is to treat patients with antibiotics and to monitor them for clinical improvement. The problem is that mycobacteria are very difficult to treat, and is harder to treat than most due to the development of multiply drug-resistant strains.

Citation: Naser S, Naser N. 2007. subsp. and Crohn’s Disease, p 225-245. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch13
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

In situ identification of subsp. systemic infection in Crohn’s disease tissue. subsp. DNA was detected in inflamed tissue (right) and in neighboring healthy tissue (left) from the same patient with active Crohn’s disease using an IS-derived DNA probe. The probe was labeled with fluorescein, and hybridization with subsp. DNA was visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The arrows indicate the presence of subsp. DNA in tissue.

Citation: Naser S, Naser N. 2007. subsp. and Crohn’s Disease, p 225-245. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch13
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Phagocytosis of subspecies by PMNCs from a Crohn’s disease patient. In vitro exposure of PMNCs from a Crohn’s disease patient and a healthy control to fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled subsp. illustrates a clear decrease in the numbers of subsp. cells phagocytosed by PMNCs from a Crohn’s disease patient (A) compared to cells from a healthy control (C) following a 20-min incubation. Similar results were observed when the exposure was extended to 2 h (B and D). subsp. colocalization in PMNCs from Crohn’s disease patients was concentrated in phagosomes close to the cytoplasmic membrane in contrast to PMNCs from healthy subjects, in which subsp. cells were scattered throughout the cytoplasm. The images were taken using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

Citation: Naser S, Naser N. 2007. subsp. and Crohn’s Disease, p 225-245. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch13
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815585.ch13
1. Al-Shamali, M.,, I. Khan,, B. Al-Nakib,, F. Al-Hassan, and, A. S. Mustafa. 1997. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis DNA in Crohn’s disease tissue. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 32:819823.
2. Baksh, F. K.,, S. D. Finkelstein,, S. M. Ariyananyagam-Baksh,, P. A. Swalsky,, E. C. Klein, and, J. C. Dunn. 2004. Absence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the microdissected granulomas of Crohn’s disease. Mod. Pathol. 17:12891294.
3. Bayless, T. M.,, A. Z. Tokayer,, J. M. PolitoII,, S. A. Quaskey,, E. D. Mellits, and, M. L. Harris. 1996. Crohn’s disease: concordance for site and clinical type in affected family. Gastroenterology 111: 573579.
4. Bernstein, C. N.,, J. F. Blanchard,, P. Rawsthorne, and, M. T. Collins. 2004. Population-based case control study of seroprevalence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:11291135.
5. Borody, T. J.,, S. Leis,, E. F. Warren, and, R. Surace. 2002. Treatment of severe Crohn’s disease using antimycobacterial triple therapy—approaching a cure? Dig. Liver Dis. 34:2938.
6. Bull, T. J.,, E. J. McMinn,, K. Sidi-Boumedine,, A. Skull,, D. Durkin,, P. Neild,, G. Rhodes,, R. Pickup, and, J. Hermon-Taylor. 2003. Detection and verification of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in fresh ileocolonic mucosal biopsy specimens from individuals with and without Crohn’s disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:29152923.
7. Burnham, W. R.,, J. E. Lennard-Jones,, J. L. Stanford, and, R. G. Bird. 1978. Mycobacteria as a possible cause of inflammatory bowel disease. Lancet ii:693696.
8. Cellier, C.,, H. De Beenhouwer,, A. Berger,, C. Penna,, F. Carbonnel,, R. Pare,, P. H. Cugnenc,, Y. Le Quintrec,, J. P. Gendre,, J. P. Barbier, and, F. Portaels. 1998. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum DNA cannot be detected by PCR in Crohn’s disease tissue. Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol. 22:675678.
9. Chacon, O.,, L. B. Bermudez, and, R. G. Barletta. 2004. Johne’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and Mycobactrium paratuberculosis. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 58:329363.
10. Chadwick, N.,, I. J. Bruce,, S. Schepelmann,, R. E. Pounder, and, A. J. Wakefield. 1998. Measles virus RNA is not detected in inflammatory bowel disease using hybrid capture and reverse transcriptase followed by polymerase chain reaction. J. Med. Virol. 55:305311.
11. Chamberlin, W.,, D. Y. Graham,, K. Hulten,, H. M. T. El-Zimaity,, M. R. Schwartz,, S. A. Naser,, I. Shafran, and, F. A. K. El-Zaatari. 2001. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as one cause of Crohn’s disease. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 15:337346.
12. Chiba, M.,, T. Fukushima,, Y. Horie,, M. Iizuka, and, O. Masamune. 1998. No Mycobacterium paratuberculosis detected in intestinal tissue, including Peyer’s patches and lymph follicles, of Crohn’s disease. J. Gastroenterol. 33:482487.
13. Chiodini, R. J., 1989. Crohn’s disease and the mycobacterioses: a review and comparison of two disease entities. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2:90117.
14. Chiodini, R. J.,, H. J. Van Kruiningen,, R. S. Merkal,, W. R. Thayer, Jr.,and, J. A. Coutu. 1984. Characteristics of an unclassified Mycobacterium species isolated from patients with Crohn’s disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:966971.
15. Chiodini, R. J.,, H. J. Van Kruiningen,, W. R. Thayer,, R. S. Merkal, and, J. A. Coutu. 1984. Possible role of mycobacteria in inflammatory bowel disease. I. An unclassified Mycobacterium species isolated from patients with Crohn’s disease. Dig. Dis. Sci. 29:10731079.
16. Clarkson, W. K.,, M. E. Presti,, P. F. Petersen,, P. E. Zachary,, W. X. Fan,, C. L. Leonardi,, A. M. Vernava,, W. E. Longo, and, J. M. Kreeger. 1998. Role of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in Crohn’s disease. Dis. Colon Rectum 41:195199.
17. Collins, M. T., 1996. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Food Anim. Pract. 12:357371.
18. Collins, M. T.,, G. Lisby,, C. Moser,, D. Chicks,, S. Christensen,, M. Reichelderfer,, N. Hoiby,, B. A. Harms,, O. O. Thomsen,, U. Skibsted, and, V. Binder. 2000. Results of multiple diagnostic tests for Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in controls. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 43734381.
19. Cosgrove, M., 1996. The epidemiology of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Arch. Dis. Child. 74:460461.
20. Crohn, B. B.,, K. Ginzburg, and, G. D. Oppenheimer. 1932. Regional ileitis: a pathological and clinical entity. JAMA 9:13231329.
21. Dalziel, T. K., 1913. Chronic interstitial enteritis. Br. Med. J. 2:10681070.
22. Dell’Isola, B.,, C. Poyart,, O. Goulet,, J. F. Mougenot,, E. Sadoun-Journo,, N. Brousse,, J. Schmitz,, C. Ricour, and, P. Berche. 1994. Detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction in children with Crohn’s disease. J. Infect. Dis. 169:449451.
23. Del Prete, R.,, M. Quaranta,, A. Lippolis,, V. Giannuzzi,, A. Mosca,, E. Jirillo, and, G. Miragliotta. 1998. Detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in stool samples of patients with inflammatory bowel disease by IS900-based PCR and colorimetric detection of amplified DNA. J. Microbiol. Methods 33:105114.
24. Dieckgraefe, B. K., and, J. R. Korzenik. 2002. Treatment of active Crohn’s disease with recombinant human-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Lancet 360:14781480.
25. Dumonceau, J. M.,, A. Van Gossum,, M. Adler,, P. A. Fonteyne,, J. P. Van Vooren,, J. Deviere, and, F. Portaels. 1996. No Mycobacterium paratuberculosis found in Crohn’s disease using the polymerase chain reaction. Dig. Dis. Sci. 41:421426.
26. Ellingson, J. L.,, J. L. Anderson,, J. J. Koziczkowski,, R. P. Radcliff,, S. J. Sloan,, S. E. Allen, and, N. M. Sullivan. 2005. Detection of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in retail pasteurized whole milk by two culture methods and PCR. J. Food Prot. 68:966972.
27. El-Zaatari, F. A.,, S. A. Naser,, L. Engstrand,, C. Y. Hachem, and, D. Y. Graham. 1994. Identification and characterization of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis recombinant proteins expressed in E. coli. Curr. Microbiol. 29:177184.
28. El-Zaatari, F. A. K.,, S. A. Naser,, L. Engstrand,, P. E. Burch,, C. Y. Hachem,, D. L. Whipple, and, D. Y. Graham. 1995. Nucleotide sequence analysis and seroreactivities of the 65K heat shock protein from Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 2:657664.
29. El-Zaatari, F. A. K.,, S. A. Naser, and, D. Y. Graham. 1997. Characterization of a specific Mycobacterium paratuberculosis recombinant clone expressing 35,000-molecular-weight antigen and reactivity with sera from animals with clinical and subclinical Johne’s disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:17941799.
30. El-Zaatari, F. A. K.,, S. A. Naser,, D. C. Markesich,, D. C. Kalter,, L. Engstand, and, D. Y. Graham. 1996. Identification of Mycobacterium avium complex in sarcoidosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:22402245.
31. El-Zaatari, F. A.,, S. A. Naser,, K. Hulten,, P. Burch, and, D. Y. Graham. 1999. Characterization of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis p36 antigen and its seroreactivities in Crohn’s disease. Curr. Microbiol. 39: 115119.
32. Erasmus, D. L.,, T. C. Victor,, P. J. Van Eeden,, V. Falck, and, P. Van Helden. 1995. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Crohn’s disease. Gut 36:942.
33. Fidler, H. M.,, W. Thurrell,, N. M. J. Johnson,, G. A. W. Rook, and, J. J. McFadden. 1994. Specific detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis DNA associated with granulomatous tissue in Crohn’s disease. Gut 35:506510.
34. Frank, T. S., and, S. M. Cook. 1996. Analysis of paraffin sections of Crohn’s disease for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis using polymerase chain reaction. Mod. Pathol. 9:3235.
35. Friedman, S., and, R. S. Blumberg. 1999. Inflammatory bowel disease, p. 16791691. In E. Braunwald,, S. A. Fauci,, D. L. Kasper,, S. L. Hauser, and, D. L. Longo(ed.), Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 15th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y.
36. Fujita, H.,, Y. Eishi, and, I. Ishige. 2002. Quantitative analysis of bacterial DNA from Mycobacterium spp., Bacteroides vulgatus and Escherichia coli in tissue samples from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. J. Gastroenterol. 37:509516.
37. Gan, H.,, Q. Ouyang, and, H. Bu. 1997. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in the intestine of patients with Crohn’s disease. Chung Hua Nei Ko Tsa Chih 36:228230.
38. Ghadiali, A. H.,, M. Strother,, S. A. Naser,, E. J. Manning, and, S. Sreevatsan. 2004. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains isolated from Crohn’s disease patients and animal species exhibit similar polymorphic locus patterns. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 53455348.
39. Gitnick, G.,, J. Collins,, B. Beaman,, D. Brooks,, M. Arthur,, T. Imaeda, and, M. Palieschesky. 1989. Preliminary report on isolation of mycobacteria from patients with Crohn’s disease. Dig. Dis. Sci. 34:925932.
40. Grant, I., 2005. Zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: the current position. J. Appl. Microbiol. 98:12821293.
41. Grant, I. R.,, H. J. Ball, and, M. T. Rowe. 2002. Incidence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in bulk raw and commercially pasteurized cows’ milk from approved dairy processing establishments in the United Kingdom. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:24282435.
42. Greenstein, A. J.,, P. Lachman,, D. B. Sachar,, J. Springhorn,, T. Heimann,, H. D. Janowitz, and, A. H. Aufses. 1988. Perforating and non-perforating indications for repeated operations in Crohn’s disease: evidence for two clinical forms. Gut 29:588592.
43. Greenstein, R. J., and, A. J. Greenstein. 1995. Is there clinical, epidemiological, and molecular evidence for two forms of Crohn’s disease? Mol. Med. Today 1:343348.
44. Gui, G. P.,, P. R. Thomas,, M. L. Tizard,, J. Lake,, J. D. Sanderson, and, J. Hermon-Taylor. 1997. Two-year-outcomes analysis of Crohn’s disease treated with rifabutin and macrolide antibiotics. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 39:393400.
45. Haagsma, J.,, C. J. J. Mulder,, A. Eger, and, G. N. J. Tytgat. 1991. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis isole chez des patients atteints de maladie de Crohn. Resultats preliminaires. Acta Endosc. 21:255260.
46. Harvey, R. F., and, J. M. Bradshaw. 1980. A simple index of Crohn’s-disease activity. Lancet i:514.
47. Hermon-Taylor, J.,, N. Barnes,, C. Clarke, and, C. Finlayson. 1998. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis cervical lymphadenitis followed five years later by terminal ileitis similar to Crohn’s disease. Br. Med. J. 316:449453.
48. Holland, S. M., 2000. Cytokine therapy of mycobacterial infections. Adv. Intern. Med. 45:431452.
49. Hollander, D.,, C. M. Vadheim,, E. Brettholz,, G. M. Petersen,, T. Delahunty, and, J. I. Rotter. 1986. Increased intestinal permeability in patients with Crohn’s disease and their relatives. Ann. Intern. Med. 105: 883885.
50. Hugot, J. P.,, C. Alberti,, D. Berrebi,, E. Bingen, and, J. P. Cezard. 2003. Crohn’s disease: the cold chain hypothesis. Lancet 362:20122015.
51. Hugot, J. P.,, H. Zoulai, and, S. Lesage. 2003. Lessons to be learned from the NOD2 gene in Crohn’s disease. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 15:593597.
52. Hulten, K.,, H. M. El-Zimaity,, T. J. Karttunen,, A. Almashhrawi,, M. R. Schwartz,, D. Y. Graham, and, F. A. K. El-Zaatari. 2001. Detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Crohn’s disease tissues by in situ hybridization. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96:32223224.
53. Johne, H. A., and, L. Frothingham. 1895. Ein eigenthumlicher fallvon tuberculose beim rind. Dtsch. Zeitschr. Tiermed. Vergl. Pathol. 21:438454.
54. Kallinowski, F.,, A. Wassmer,, M. A. Hofmann,, D. Harmsen,, J. Heesemann,, H. Karch,, C. H. Herfarth, and, H. J. Buhr. 1998. Prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria in surgically treated chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Hepatol. Gastroenterol. 45:15521558.
55. Kanazawa, K.,, Y. Haga,, O. Funakoshi,, H. Nakajima,, A. Munakata, and, Y. Yoshida. 1999. Absence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis DNA in intestinal tissues from Crohn’s disease by nested polymerase chain reaction. J. Gastroenterol. 34:200206.
56. Kirsner, J., 1984. Crohn’s disease. JAMA 251:8081.
57. Kucharzik, T.,, N. Lugering,, H. Weigelt,, M. Adolf,, W. Domschke, and, R. Stoll. 1996. Immunoregulatory properties of IL-13 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: comparison with IL-4 and IL-10. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 104:483490.
58. Kyle, J., 1992. Crohn’s disease in the Northeastern and Northern Isles of Scotland: an epidemiological review. Gastroenterology 103:392399.
59. Lala, S.,, Y. Ogura,, C. Osborne,, S. Y. Hor,, A. Bromfield,, S. Davies,, O. Ogunbiyi,, G. Nunez, and, S. Keshav. 2003. Crohn’s disease and the NOD2 gene: a role for Paneth cells. Gastroenterology 125:4757.
60. Lisby, C. M. G.,, J. Andersen,, K. Engbaek, and, V. Binder. 1994. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in intestinal tissue from patients with Crohn’s disease demonstrated by a nested primer polymerase chain reaction. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 29:923929.
61. Loftus, E. V.,Jr.,, M. D. Silverstein,, W. J. Sandborn,, W. J. Tremaine,, W. S. Harmsen, and, A. R. Zinsmeister. 1998. Crohn’s disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940–1993: incidence, prevalence, and survival. Gastroenterology 114:11611168.
62. McFadden, J.,, J. Collins,, B. Beaman,, M. Arthur, and, G. Gitnick. 1992. Mycobacteria in Crohn’s disease: DNA probes identify the wood pigeon strain of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from human tissue. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:30703073.
63. Millar, D.,, J. Ford,, J. D. Sanderson,, S. Withey,, M. Tizard,, T. Doran, and, J. Hermon-Taylor. 1996. IS900 PCR to detect Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in retail milk supplies of whole pasteurized cows’ milk in England and Wales. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:34463452.
64. Mishina, D.,, P. Katsel,, S. T. Brown,, E. C. A. M. Gilberts, and, R. J. Greenstein. 1996. On the etiology of Crohn’s disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:98169820.
65. Modigliani, R. J.,, Y. Mary,, J. F. Simon,, A. Cortot,, J. C. Soule, and, J. P. Gendre. 1990. Clinical, biological and endoscopic picture of attacks of Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology 98:811818.
66. Moss, M. T.,, J. D. Sanderson,, M. L. V. Tizard,, J. Hermon-Taylor,, F. A. K. El-Zaatari,, D. C. Markesich, and, D. Y. Graham. 1992. Polymerase chain reaction of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum in long term cultures from Crohn’s disease and control tissues. Gut 33:12091213.
67. Motiwala, A. S.,, M. Strother,, A. Amonsin,, B. Byrum,, S. A. Naser,, J. R. Stabel,, W. P. Shulaw,, J. B. Bannantine,, V. Kapur, and, S. Sreevatsan. 2003. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis: evidence for limited strain diversity, strain sharing, and identification of unique targets for diagnosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:20152026.
68. Murray, A.,, J. Oliaro,, M. M. T. Schlup, and, V. S. Chadwick. 1995. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and inflammatory bowel disease: frequency distribution in serial colonoscopic biopsies using the polymerase chain reaction. Microbios 83:217228.
69. Naser, S. A.,, D. Schwartz, and, I. Shafran. 2000. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from breast milk of Crohn’s disease patients. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95:10941095.
70. Naser, S. A.,, G. Ghobrial,, C. Romero, and, J. F. Valentine. 2004. Culture of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from the blood of patients with Crohn’s disease. Lancet 364:10391044.
71. Naser, S. A.,, I. Shafran,, D. Schwartz,, F. El-Zaatari, and, J. Biggerstaff. 2002. In situ identification of mycobacteria in Crohn’s disease patient tissue using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Mol. Cell. Probes 16:4148.
72. Naser, S. A.,, K. Hulten,, I. Shafran,, D. Y. Graham, and, F. A. El-Zaatari. 2000. Specific seroreactivity of Crohn’s disease patients against p35 and p36 antigens of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Vet. Microbiol. 77:497504.
73. Ogura, Y.,, D. K. Bonen,, N. Inohara,, D. L. Nicolae,, F. F. Chen,, R. Ramos,, H. Britton,, T. Moran,, R. Karaliuskas,, R. H. Duerr,, J. P. Achkar,, S. R. Brant,, T. M. Bayless,, B. S. Kirschner,, S. B. Hanauer,, G. Nunez, and, J. H. Cho. 2001. A frame shift mutation in NOD2 associated with susceptibility to Crohn’s disease. Nature 411:603606.
74. Olsen, I.,, H. G. Wiker,, E. Johnson,, H. Langeggan, and, L. J. Reitan. 2001. Elevated antibody responses in patients with Crohn’s disease against a 14-kDa secreted protein purified from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 53:198203.
75. Pickup, R. W.,, G. Rhodes,, S. Arnott,, K. Sidi-Boumedine,, T. Bull,, A. Weightman,, M. Hurley, and, J. Hermon-Taylor. 2005. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the catchment area and water of the River Taff in South Wales, United Kingdom, and its potential relationship to clustering of Crohn’s disease cases in the city of Cardiff. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:21302139.
76. Postuma, R., and, S. P. Moroz. 1985. Pediatric Crohn’s disease. J. Pediatr. Surg. 20:478482.
77. Present, D. H.,, P. Rutgeerts, and, S. Targan. 1999. Infliximab for the treatment of fistulas in patients with Crohn’s disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 340:13981405.
78. Richter, E.,, J. Wessling,, N. Lugering,, W. Domschke, and, S. Rusch-Gerdes. 2002. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in a patient with HIV, Germany. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:729731.
79. Romero, C.,, A. Hamdi,, J. F. Valentine, and, S. A. Naser. 2005. Evaluation of surgical tissue from patients with Crohn’s disease for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis DNA by in situ hybridization and nested polymerase chain reaction. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 11:116125.
80. Rowbotham, D. S.,, N. P. Mapstone,, L. K. Trejdosiewicz,, P. D. Howdle, and, P. Quirke. 1995. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis DNA not detected in Crohn’s disease tissue by fluorescent polymerase chain reaction. Gut 37:660667.
81. Ryan, P.,, M. W. Bennett,, S. Aarons,, G. Lee,, J. Race K. Collins,, G. C. O’Sullivan,, J. O’Connell, and, F. Shanahan. 2002. PCR detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in Crohn’s disease granulomas isolated by laser capture microdissection. Gut 51:665670.
82. Sanderson, J. D.,, M. T. Moss,, M. L. Tizard, and, J. Hermon-Taylor. 1992. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis DNA in Crohn’s disease tissue. Gut 33:890896.
83. Sands, B. E., 2004. From symptoms to diagnosis: clinical distinctions among various forms of intestinal inflammation. Gastroenterology 126:15181532.
84. Sartor, R. B., 2005. Role of commensal enteric bacteria in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated intestinal inflammation: lessons from animal models and implications for translational research. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 1:3031.
85. Sartor, R. B., 2005. Does Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis cause Crohn’s disease? Gut 54:896898.
86. Satsangi, J.,, D. P. Jeweel,, W. M. C. Rosenberg, and, J. I. Bell. 1994. Genetics of inflammatory bowel disease: a progress report. Gut 35:696700.
87. Schwartz, D.,, I. Shafran,, C. Romero,, C. Piromalli,, J. Biggerstaff,, N. Naser,, W. Chamberlin, and, S. A. Naser. 2000. Use of short-term culture for identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in tissue from Crohn’s disease patients. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 6:303307.
88. Sechi, L. A.,, A. Scanu,, P. Molicotti,, S. Canas,, M. Mura,, G. Dettori,, G. Fadda, and, S. Zanetti. 2005. Detection and isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from intestinal biopsies of patients with Crohn’s disease. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 100:15291536.
89. Sechi, L. A.,, M. Mura,, E. Tanda,, A. Lissia,, G. Fadda, and, S. Zanetti. 2004. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in tissue samples of Crohn’s disease patients. New Microbiol. 27:7577.
90. Sechi, L. A.,, M. Mura,, F. Tanda,, A. Lissia,, A. Solinas,, G. Fadda, and, S. Zanetti. 2001. Identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in biopsy specimens from patients with Crohn’s disease identified by in situ hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:45144517.
91. Shafran, I.,, C. Piromalli,, J. W. Decker,, J. Sandoval,, S. A. Naser, and, F. A. El-Zaatari. 2002. Seroreactivities against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis p35 and p36 antigens in Crohn’s disease patients. Dig. Dis. Sci. 47:20792081.
92. Shafran, I.,, L. Kuqler,, F. A. K. El-Zaatari,, S. A. Naser, and, J. Sandoval. 2002. Open clinical trial of rifabutin and clarithromycin in therapy in Crohn’s disease. Dig. Liver Dis. 34:2228.
93. Suenaga, K.,, Y. Yokoyama,, K. Okazaki, and, Y. Yamamoto. 1995. Mycobacteria in the intestine of Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90:7680.
94. Thorel, M. F.,, M. Krichevsky, and, V. V. Levy-Frebault. 1990. Numerical taxonomy of mycobactindependent mycobacteria, emended description of Mycobacterium avium, and description of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium subsp. nov., Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subsp. nov., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40:254260.
95. Van Kruiningen, H. J.,, M. Joossens,, S. Vermeire,, S. Joossens,, S. Debeugny,, C. Gower-Rousseau,, A. Cortot,, J. F. Colombel,, P. Rutgeerts, and, R. Vlietinck. 2005. Environmental factors in familial Crohn’s disease in Belgium. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 11:360365.
96. Van Kruiningen, H. J.,, R. J. Chiodini,, W. R. Thayer,, J. A. Coutu,, R. S. Merkal, and, P. L. Runnels. 1986. Experimental disease in infant goats induced by a Mycobacterium isolated from a patient with Crohn’s disease. Dig. Dis. Sci. 31:13511360.
97. Wall, S.,, Z. M. Kunze,, S. Saboor,, J. Soufleri,, P. Seechurn,, R. Chiodini, and, J. J. McFadden. 1993. Identification of spheroplast-like agents isolated from tissues of patients with Crohn’s disease and control tissues by polymerase chain reaction. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:12411245.
98. Winthrop, K. L., and, J. N. Siegel. 2004. Tuberculosis cases associated with infliximab and etanercept. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:12561257.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Detection of subsp. DNA in Crohn’s disease patients by PCR (2000 to 2005)

Citation: Naser S, Naser N. 2007. subsp. and Crohn’s Disease, p 225-245. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Detection of subsp. in Crohn’s disease patients’ tissue by fluorescence in situ hybridization (2000 to 2005)

Citation: Naser S, Naser N. 2007. subsp. and Crohn’s Disease, p 225-245. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Culture of subsp. from Crohn’s disease patients using MGIT culture media (2000 to 2005)

Citation: Naser S, Naser N. 2007. subsp. and Crohn’s Disease, p 225-245. In Scheld W, Hooper D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815585.ch13

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error