1887

Chapter 1 : Novel Non-SARS Coronaviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Novel Non-SARS Coronaviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815592/9781555814441_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815592/9781555814441_Chap01-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the novel non-severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronaviruses (CoVs) associated with human disease. In a study using a fragment of the nucleocapsid protein, it was found that human CoVs (HCoVs) -NL63 antibody positivity was lowest, 5%, at 4 to 5 months of age and then increased to 30% to 40% around 1 year of age and to ~50% at 5 to 10 years of age. A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR assay can allow simultaneous detection of the HCoVs, but in many instances some sensitivity is lost with a multiplex assay compared to single-agent PCR assays. Substantial work has been done on developing vaccines and antiviral drugs for SARS-CoV, and this work could provide a foundation for developing similar products for the HCoVs. Infection control is the one preventive measure that is available for CoVs and has proved effective in helping control SARS-CoV transmission. In a study that included the controls needed to establish an association between detection of the virus(es) and illness, a similar rate of detection was noted in ill and non-ill patients, making it clear that detection does not necessarily indicate a role in disease. The frequent finding of novel CoVs in various species of bats, the availability of very good tools to detect novel viruses, and the range of illness associated with CoVs in different animals suggest that investigators should continue to look for novel CoVs in humans in both respiratory and nonrespiratory illnesses as well as in bats and other animals.

Citation: Anderson L, Haynes L. 2008. Novel Non-SARS Coronaviruses, p 1-19. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch1

Key Concept Ranking

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus
0.5067568
Central Nervous System Diseases
0.50170904
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
0.47982648
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
0.47433853
0.5067568
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

CoV particles. The image is a negative stain electron micrograph of a cell culture isolate of a human SARS-CoV. Note the round structure of the virions with surface projections (similar to rods with knobs at their ends). The bar at the bottom right of the figure represents 100 nm. The isolate was provided by Anthony Sanchez of the Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, CDC. The micrograph was prepared by Charles D. Humphrey of the Infectious Disease Pathology Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, CDC.

Citation: Anderson L, Haynes L. 2008. Novel Non-SARS Coronaviruses, p 1-19. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Neighbor-joining tree of CoVs based on the alignment of the nucleocapsid protein amino acid sequences. The following members are included in the alignment. Group 1 viruses: human CoVs HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63; porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV); feline enteric coronavirus (FECoV); feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV); porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV); canine coronavirus (CCoV); bat CoVs bat HKU7, bat HKU8, and bat HKU2, bat CoV1A and bat CoV1B, and bat 512. Group 2 viruses: human CoVs HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1; rat CoV (RCoV); human Urbani strain of SARS-CoV (SARS CoV); palm civet SARS-CoVs (PC413 and SZ3); bat SARS-CoV-like CoVs RF1, HKU3, RP3, 273, and 279; bat CoVs 133, HKU4, HKU5, and HKU9; porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV); bovine CoV (BCoV); murine hepatitis virus (MHV); puffinosis CoV (PUCoV); equine CoV (ECoV). Group 3 viruses: avian infectious bronchitis virus (AIBV); turkey CoV (TCoV); pigeon CoV (PICoV).

Citation: Anderson L, Haynes L. 2008. Novel Non-SARS Coronaviruses, p 1-19. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815592.ch01
1. Arbour, N.,, R. Day,, J. Newcombe,, and P. J. Talbot. 2000. Neuroinvasion by human respiratory coronaviruses. J. Virol. 74:89138921.
2. Arden, K. E.,, M. D. Nissen,, T. P. Sloots,, and I. M. Mackay. 2005. New human coronavirus, HCoV-NL63, associated with severe lower respiratory tract disease in Australia. J. Med. Virol. 75:455462.
3. Bastien, N.,, K. Anderson,, L. Hart,, P. Van Caeseele,, K. Brandt,, D. Milley,, T. Hatchette,, E. C. Weiss,, and Y. Li. 2005. Human coronavirus NL63 infection in Canada. J. Infect. Dis. 191:503506.
4. Beaudette, F. R.,, and C. B. Hudson. 1937. Cultivation of the virus of infectious bronchitis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 990:5160.
5. Benbacer, L.,, E. Kut,, L. Besnardeau,, H. Laude,, and B. Delmas. 1997. Interspecies aminopeptidase-N chimeras reveal species-specific receptor recognition by canine coronavirus, feline infectious peritonitis virus, and transmissible gastroenteritis virus. J. Virol. 71:734737.
6. Bosis, S.,, S. Esposito,, H. G. Niesters,, E. Tremolati,, S. Pas,, N. Principi,, and A. D. Osterhaus. 2007. Coronavirus HKU1 in an Italian pre-term infant with bronchiolitis. J. Clin. Virol. 38:251253.
7. Bruckova, M.,, K. McIntosh,, A. Z. Kapikian,, and R. M. Chanock. 1970. The adaptation of two human coronavirus strains (OC38 and OC43) to growth in cell monolayers. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 135:431435.
8. Chan, K. H.,, L. L. Poon,, V. C. Cheng,, Y. Guan,, I. F. Hung,, J. Kong,, L. Y. Yam,, W. H. Seto,, K. Y. Yuen,, and J. S. Peiris. 2004. Detection of SARS coronavirus in patients with suspected SARS. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:294299.
9. Chang, S. C.,, J. T. Wang,, L. M. Huang,, Y. C. Chen,, C. T. Fang,, W. H. Sheng,, J. L. Wang,, C. J. Yu,, and P. C. Yang. 2005. Longitudinal analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-specific antibody in SARS patients. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 12:14551457.
10. Cheever, F. S.,, J. B. Daniels,, A. M. Pappenheimer,, and O. T. Bailey. 1949. A murine virus (JHM) causing disseminated encephalomyelitis with extensive destruction of myelin. I. Isolation and biologic properties of the virus. J. Exp. Med. 90:181210.
11. Chiu, S. S.,, K. H. Chan,, K. W. Chu,, S. W. Kwan,, Y. Guan,, L. L. Poon,, and J. S. Peiris. 2005. Human coronavirus NL63 infection and other coronavirus infections in children hospitalized with acute respiratory disease in Hong Kong, China. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:17211729.
12. Chu, D. K.,, L. L. Poon,, K. H. Chan,, H. Chen,, Y. Guan,, K. Y. Yuen,, and J. S. Peiris. 2006. Coronaviruses in bent-winged bats (Miniopterus spp.). J. Gen. Virol. 87:24612466.
13. Cox-Foster, D. L.,, S. Conlan,, E. C. Holmes,, G. Palacios,, J. D. Evans,, N. A. Moran,, P. L. Quan,, T. Briese,, M. Hornig,, D. M. Geiser,, V. Martinson,, D. vanEngelsdorp,, A. L. Kalkstein,, A. Drysdale,, J. Hui,, J. Zhai,, L. Cui,, S. K. Hutchison,, J. F. Simons,, M. Egholm,, J. S. Pettis,, and W. I. Lipkin. 2007. A metagenomic survey of microbes in honey bee colony collapse disorder. Science 318:283287.
14. Dare, R. K.,, A. M. Fry,, M. Chittaganpitch,, P. Sawanpanyalert,, S. J. Olsen,, and D. D. Erdman. 2007. Human coronavirus infections in rural Thailand: a comprehensive study using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. J. Infect. Dis. 196:13211328.
15. Delmas, B.,, J. Gelfi,, R. L’Haridon,, L. K. Vogel,, H. Sjostrom,, O. Noren,, and H. Laude. 1992. Aminopeptidase N as a major receptor for the enteropathogenic coronavirus TGEV. Nature 357:417419.
16. Dominguez, S. R.,, T. J. O’Shea,, L. M. Oko,, and K. V. Holmes. 2007. Detection of group 1 coronaviruses in bats in North America. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:12951300.
17. Doyle, L. P.,, and L. M. Hutchings. 1946. A transmissible gastroenteritis in pigs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 108:257259.
18. Drosten, C.,, S. Gunther,, W. Preiser,, S. van der Werf,, H. R. Brodt,, S. Becker,, H. Rabenau,, M. Panning,, L. Kolesnikova,, R. A. Fouchier,, A. Berger,, A. M. Burguiere,, J. Cinatl,, M. Eickmann,, N. Escriou,, K. Grywna,, S. Kramme,, J. C. Manuguerra,, S. Muller,, V. Rickerts,, M. Sturmer,, S. Vieth,, H. D. Klenk,, A. D. Osterhaus,, H. Schmitz,, and H. W. Doerr. 2003. Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 348:19671976.
19. Ebihara, T.,, R. Endo,, X. Ma,, N. Ishiguro,, and H. Kikuta. 2005. Detection of human coronavirus NL63 in young children with bronchiolitis. J. Med. Virol. 75:463465.
20. Emery, S. L.,, D. D. Erdman,, M. D. Bowen,, B. R. Newton,, J. M. Winchell,, R. F. Meyer,, S. Tong,, B. T. Cook,, B. P. Holloway,, K. A. McCaustland,, P. A. Rota,, B. Bankamp,, L. E. Lowe,, T. G. Ksiazek,, W. J. Bellini,, and L. J. Anderson. 2004. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for SARS-associated coronavirus. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:311316.
21. Esper, F.,, C. Weibel,, D. Ferguson,, M. L. Landry,, and J. S. Kahn. 2006. Coronavirus HKU1 infection in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:775779.
22. Esper, F.,, C. Weibel,, D. Ferguson,, M. L. Landry,, and J. S. Kahn. 2005. Evidence of a novel human coronavirus that is associated with respiratory tract disease in infants and young children. J. Infect. Dis. 191:492498.
23. Fouchier, R. A.,, N. G. Hartwig,, T. M. Bestebroer,, B. Niemeyer,, J. C. de Jong,, J. H. Simon,, and A. D. Osterhaus. 2004. A previously undescribed coronavirus associated with respiratory disease in humans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:62126216.
24. Fouchier, R. A.,, T. Kuiken,, M. Schutten,, G. van Amerongen,, G. J. van Doornum,, B. G. van den Hoogen,, M. Peiris,, W. Lim,, K. Stohr,, and A. D. Osterhaus. 2003. Aetiology: Koch’s postulates fulfilled for SARS virus. Nature 423:240.
25. Garbino, J.,, S. Crespo,, J. D. Aubert,, T. Rochat,, B. Ninet,, C. Deffernez,, W. Wunderli,, J. C. Pache,, P. M. Soccal,, and L. Kaiser. 2006. A prospective hospital-based study of the clinical impact of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome (non-SARS)-related human coronavirus infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43:10091015.
26. Gerna, G.,, G. Campanini,, F. Rovida,, E. Percivalle,, A. Sarasini,, A. Marchi,, and F. Baldanti. 2006. Genetic variability of human coronavirus OC43-, 229E-, and NL63-like strains and their association with lower respiratory tract infections of hospitalized infants and immunocompromised patients. J. Med. Virol. 78:938949.
27. Gerna, G.,, E. Percivalle,, A. Sarasini,, G. Campanini,, A. Piralla,, F. Rovida,, E. Genini,, A. Marchi,, and F. Baldanti. 2007. Human respiratory coronavirus HKU1 versus other coronavirus infections in Italian hospitalised patients. J. Clin. Virol. 38:244250.
28. Gillim-Ross, L.,, and K. Subbarao. 2006. Emerging respiratory viruses: challenges and vaccine strategies. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 19:614636.
29. Gonzalez, J. M.,, P. Gomez-Puertas,, D. Cavanagh,, A. E. Gorbalenya,, and L. Enjuanes. 2003. A comparative sequence analysis to revise the current taxonomy of the family Coronaviridae. Arch. Virol. 148:22072235.
30. Gorbalenya, A. E.,, L. Enjuanes,, J. Ziebuhr,, and E. J. Snijder. 2006. Nidovirales: evolving the largest RNA virus genome. Virus Res. 117:1737.
31. Gorbalenya, A. E.,, E. J. Snijder,, and W. J. Spaan. 2004. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus phylogeny: toward consensus. J. Virol. 78:78637866.
32. Gramberg, T.,, H. Hofmann,, P. Moller,, P. F. Lalor,, A. Marzi,, M. Geier,, M. Krumbiegel,, T. Winkler,, F. Kirchhoff,, D. H. Adams,, S. Becker,, J. Munch,, and S. Pohlmann. 2005. LSECtin interacts with filovirus glycoproteins and the spike protein of SARS coronavirus. Virology 340:224236.
33. Groneberg, D. A.,, S. M. Poutanen,, D. E. Low,, H. Lode,, T. Welte,, and P. Zabel. 2005. Treatment and vaccines for severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet Infect. Dis. 5:147155.
34. Guan, Y.,, B. J. Zheng,, Y. Q. He,, X. L. Liu,, Z. X. Zhuang,, C. L. Cheung,, S. W. Luo,, P. H. Li,, L. J. Zhang,, Y. J. Guan,, K. M. Butt,, K. L. Wong,, K. W. Chan,, W. Lim,, K. F. Shortridge,, K. Y. Yuen,, J. S. Peiris,, and L. L. Poon. 2003. Isolation and characterization of viruses related to the SARS coronavirus from animals in southern China. Science 302:276278.
35. Hamre, D.,, and J. J. Procknow. 1966. A new virus isolated from the human respiratory tract. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 121:190193.
36. Haynes, L. M.,, C. Miao,, J. L. Harcourt,, J. M. Montgomery,, M. Q. Le,, S. A. Dryga,, K. I. Kamrud,, B. Rivers,, G. J. Babcock,, J. B. Oliver,, J. A. Comer,, M. Reynolds,, T. M. Uyeki,, D. Bausch,, T. Ksiazek,, W. Thomas,, H. Alterson,, J. Smith,, D. M. Ambrosino,, and L. J. Anderson. 2007. Recombinant protein-based assays for detection of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike and nucleocapsid proteins. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 14:331333.
37. He, Z.,, Q. Dong,, H. Zhuang,, S. Song,, G. Peng,, G. Luo,, and D. E. Dwyer. 2004. Kinetics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-specific antibodies in 271 laboratory-confirmed cases of SARS. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 11:792794.
38. Herrewegh, A. A.,, I. Smeenk,, M. C. Horzinek,, P. J. Rottier,, and R. J. de Groot. 1998. Feline coronavirus type II strains 79-1683 and 79-1146 originate from a double recombination between feline coronavirus type I and canine coronavirus. J. Virol. 72:45084514.
39. Heugel, J.,, E. T. Martin,, J. Kuypers,, and J. A. Englund. 2007. Coronavirus-associated pneumonia in previously healthy children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 26:753755.
40. Hofmann, H.,, K. Pyrc,, L. van der Hoek,, M. Geier,, B. Berkhout,, and S. Pohlmann. 2005. Human coronavirus NL63 employs the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptor for cellular entry. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:79887993.
41. Hofmann, H.,, G. Simmons,, A. J. Rennekamp,, C. Chaipan,, T. Gramberg,, E. Heck,, M. Geier,, A. Wegele,, A. Marzi,, P. Bates,, and S. Pohlmann. 2006. Highly conserved regions within the spike proteins of human coronaviruses 229E and NL63 determine recognition of their respective cellular receptors. J. Virol. 80:86398652.
42. Hsueh, P. R.,, L. M. Huang,, P. J. Chen,, C. L. Kao,, and P. C. Yang. 2004. Chronological evolution of IgM, IgA, IgG and neutralisation antibodies after infection with SARS-associated coronavirus. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 10:10621066.
43. Huang, L. R.,, C. M. Chiu,, S. H. Yeh,, W. H. Huang,, P. R. Hsueh,, W. Z. Yang,, J. Y. Yang,, I. J. Su,, S. C. Chang,, and P. J. Chen. 2004. Evaluation of antibody responses against SARS coronaviral nucleocapsid or spike proteins by immunoblotting or ELISA. J. Med. Virol. 73:338346.
44. Isaacs, D.,, D. Flowers,, J. R. Clarke,, H. B. Valman,, and M. R. MacNaughton. 1983. Epidemiology of coronavirus respiratory infections. Arch. Dis. Child. 58:500503.
45. Kaiser, L.,, N. Regamey,, H. Roiha,, C. Deffernez,, and U. Frey. 2005. Human coronavirus NL63 associated with lower respiratory tract symptoms in early life. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 24:10151017.
46. Kaplan, N. M.,, W. Dove,, S. A. Abd-Eldayem,, A. F. Abu-Zeid,, H. E. Shamoon,, and C. A. Hart. 2008. Molecular epidemiology and disease severity of respiratory syncytial virus in relation to other potential pathogens in children hospitalized with acute respiratory infection in Jordan. J. Med. Virol. 80:168174.
47. Kaye, H. S.,, and W. R. Dowdle. 1975. Seroepidemiologic survey of coronavirus (strain 229E) infections in a population of children. Am. J. Epidemiol. 101:238244.
48. Kistler, A.,, P. C. Avila,, S. Rouskin,, D. Wang,, T. Ward,, S. Yagi,, D. Schnurr,, D. Ganem,, J. L. DeRisi,, and H. A. Boushey. 2007. Pan-viral screening of respiratory tract infections in adults with and without asthma reveals unexpected human coronavirus and human rhinovirus diversity. J. Infect. Dis. 196:817825.
49. Koetz, A.,, P. Nilsson,, M. Linden,, L. van der Hoek,, and T. Ripa. 2006. Detection of human coronavirus NL63, human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in children with respiratory tract infections in south-west Sweden. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 12:10891096.
50. Ksiazek, T. G.,, D. D. Erdman,, C. S. Goldsmith,, S. R. Zaki,, T. C. Peret,, S. Emery,, S. Tong,, C. Urbani,, J. A. Comer,, W. Lim,, P. E. Rollin,, S. F. Dowell,, A. E. Ling,, C. D. Humphrey,, W.-J. Shieh,, J. Guarner,, C. D. Paddock,, P. Rota,, B. Fields,, J. Derisi,, J.-Y. Yang,, N. Cox,, J. M. Hughes,, J. W. LeDuc,, W. J. Bellini,, L. J. Anderson,, and S. W. Group. 2003. A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 348:19531966.
51. Kumar, D.,, D. Erdman,, S. Keshavjee,, T. Peret,, R. Tellier,, D. Hadjiliadis,, G. Johnson,, M. Ayers,, D. Siegal,, and A. Humar. 2005. Clinical impact of community-acquired respiratory viruses on bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplant. Am. J. Transplant. 5:20312206.
52. Kupfer, B.,, A. Simon,, C. M. Jonassen,, S. Viazov,, V. Ditt,, R. L. Tillmann,, A. Muller,, B. Matz,, and O. Schildgen. 2007. Two cases of severe obstructive pneumonia associated with an HKU1-like coronavirus. Eur. J. Med. Res. 12:134138.
53. Lai, M. M. C.,, and D. Cavanagh. 1997. The molecular biology of coronaviruses. Adv. Virus Res. 48:7177.
54. Lai, M. M. C.,, S. Perlman,, and L. J. Anderson. 2006. Coronaviridae, p. 13051335. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 5th ed, vol. 1. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, New York, NY.
55. Lambert, S. B.,, K. M. Allen,, J. D. Druce,, C. J. Birch,, I. M. Mackay,, J. B. Carlin,, J. R. Carapetis,, T. P. Sloots,, M. D. Nissen,, and T. M. Nolan. 2007. Community epidemiology of human metapneumovirus, human coronavirus NL63, and other respiratory viruses in healthy preschool-aged children using parent-collected specimens. Pediatrics 120:e929e937.
56. Larson, H. E.,, S. E. Reed,, and D. A. Tyrrell. 1980. Isolation of rhinoviruses and coronaviruses from 38 colds in adults. J. Med. Virol. 5:221229.
57. Lau, S. K.,, X. Y. Che,, P. C. Woo,, B. H. Wong,, V. C. Cheng,, G. K. Woo,, I. F. Hung,, R. W. Poon,, K. H. Chan,, J. S. Peiris,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2005. SARS coronavirus detection methods. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:11081111.
58. Lau, S. K.,, P. C. Woo,, K. S. Li,, Y. Huang,, H. W. Tsoi,, B. H. Wong,, S. S. Wong,, S. Y. Leung,, K. H. Chan,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2005. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1404014045.
59. Lau, S. K.,, P. C. Woo,, C. C. Yip,, H. Tse,, H. W. Tsoi,, V. C. Cheng,, P. Lee,, B. S. Tang,, C. H. Cheung,, R. A. Lee,, L. Y. So,, Y. L. Lau,, K. H. Chan,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2006. Coronavirus HKU1 and other coronavirus infections in Hong Kong. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:20632071.
60. Legg, J. P.,, J. A. Warner,, S. L. Johnston,, and J. O. Warner. 2005. Frequency of detection of picornaviruses and seven other respiratory pathogens in infants. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 24:611616.
61. Li, W.,, M. J. Moore,, N. Vasilieva,, J. Sui,, S. K. Wong,, M. A. Berne,, M. Somasundaran,, J. L. Sullivan,, K. Luzuriaga,, T. C. Greenough,, H. Choe,, and M. Farzan. 2003. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus. Nature 426:450454.
62. Li, W.,, Z. Shi,, M. Yu,, W. Ren,, C. Smith,, J. H. Epstein,, H. Wang,, G. Crameri,, Z. Hu,, H. Zhang,, J. Zhang,, J. McEachern,, H. Field,, P. Daszak,, B. T. Eaton,, S. Zhang,, and L. F. Wang. 2005. Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. Science 310:676679.
63. Li, W.,, J. Sui,, I. C. Huang,, J. H. Kuhn,, S. R. Radoshitzky,, W. A. Marasco,, H. Choe,, and M. Farzan. 2007. The S proteins of human coronavirus NL63 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus bind overlapping regions of ACE2. Virology 367:367374.
64. Li, W.,, C. Zhang,, J. Sui,, J. H. Kuhn,, M. J. Moore,, S. Luo,, S. K. Wong,, I. C. Huang,, K. Xu,, N. Vasilieva,, A. Murakami,, Y. He,, W. A. Marasco,, Y. Guan,, H. Choe,, and M. Farzan. 2005. Receptor and viral determinants of SARS-coronavirus adaptation to human ACE2. EMBO J. 24:16341643.
65. Liu, X.,, Y. Shi,, P. Li,, L. Li,, Y. Yi,, Q. Ma,, and C. Cao. 2004. Profile of antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus in probable SARS patients. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 11:227228.
66. Maache, M.,, F. Komurian-Pradel,, A. Rajoharison,, M. Perret,, J. L. Berland,, S. Pouzol,, A. Bagnaud,, B. Duverger,, J. Xu,, A. Osuna,, and G. Paranhos-Baccala. 2006. False-positive results in a recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid-based Western blot assay were rectified by the use of two subunits (S1 and S2) of spike for detection of antibody to SARS-CoV. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13:409414.
67. Marra, M. A.,, S. J. Jones,, C. R. Astell,, R. A. Holt,, A. Brooks-Wilson,, Y. S. Butterfield,, J. Khattra,, J. K. Asano,, S. A. Barber,, S. Y. Chan,, A. Cloutier,, S. M. Coughlin,, D. Freeman,, N. Girn,, O. L. Griffith,, S. R. Leach,, M. Mayo,, H. McDonald,, S. B. Montgomery,, P. K. Pandoh,, A. S. Petrescu,, A. G. Robertson,, J. E. Schein,, A. Siddiqui,, D. E. Smailus,, J. M. Stott,, G. S. Yang,, F. Plummer,, A. Andonov,, H. Artsob,, N. Bastien,, K. Bernard,, T. F. Booth,, D. Bowness,, M. Czub,, M. Drebot,, L. Fernando,, R. Flick,, M. Garbutt,, M. Gray,, A. Grolla,, S. Jones,, H. Feldmann,, A. Meyers,, A. Kabani,, Y. Li,, S. Normand,, U. Stroher,, G. A. Tipples,, S. Tyler,, R. Vogrig,, D. Ward,, B. Watson,, R. C. Brunham,, M. Krajden,, M. Petric,, D. M. Skowronski,, C. Upton,, and R. L. Roper. 2003. The genome sequence of the SARS-associated coronavirus. Science 300:13991404.
68. McIntosh, K. 1974. Coronaviruses: a comparative review. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 63:85129.
69. McIntosh, K.,, W. B. Becker,, and R. M. Chanock. 1967. Growth in suckling-mouse brain of “IBV-like” viruses from patients with upper respiratory tract disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 58:22682273.
70. Moes, E.,, L. Vijgen,, E. Keyaerts,, K. Zlateva,, S. Li,, P. Maes,, K. Pyrc,, B. Berkhout,, L. van der Hoek,, and M. Van Ranst. 2005. A novel pancoronavirus RT-PCR assay: frequent detection of human coronavirus NL63 in children hospitalized with respiratory tract infections in Belgium. BMC Infect. Dis. 5:6.
71. Monto, A. S. 1974. Medical reviews. Coronaviruses. Yale J. Biol. Med. 47:234251.
72. Moore, M. J.,, T. Dorfman,, W. Li,, S. K. Wong,, Y. Li,, J. H. Kuhn,, J. Coderre,, N. Vasilieva,, Z. Han,, T. C. Greenough,, M. Farzan,, and H. Choe. 2004. Retroviruses pseudotyped with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein efficiently infect cells expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. J. Virol. 78:1062810635.
73. Papa, A.,, E. Papadimitriou,, L. K. Luna,, M. Al Masri,, E. Souliou,, M. Eboriadou,, A. Antoniadis,, and C. Drosten. 2007. Coronaviruses in children, Greece. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:947949.
74. Payne, C. M.,, C. G. Ray,, V. Borduin,, L. L. Minnich,, and M. D. Lebowitz. 1986. An eight-year study of the viral agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans: ultrastructural observations and seasonal distribution with a major emphasis on coronavirus-like particles. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 5:3954.
75. Peiris, J. S.,, S. T. Lai,, L. L. Poon,, Y. Guan,, L. Y. Yam,, W. Lim,, J. Nicholls,, W. K. Yee,, W. W. Yan,, M. T. Cheung,, V. C. Cheng,, K. H. Chan,, D. N. Tsang,, R. W. Yung,, T. K. Ng,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2003. Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet 361:13191325.
76. Peiris, M.,, L. J. Anderson,, A. D. M. E. Osterhaus,, K. Stohr,, and K. Y. Yuen (ed.). 2005. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Blackwell Publishing, Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom.
77. Pierangeli, A.,, M. Gentile,, P. Di Marco,, P. Pagnotti,, C. Scagnolari,, S. Trombetti,, L. Lo Russo,, V. Tromba,, C. Moretti,, F. Midulla,, and G. Antonelli. 2007. Detection and typing by molecular techniques of respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute respiratory infection in Rome, Italy. J. Med. Virol. 79:463468.
78. Poon, L. L.,, K. H. Chan,, O. K. Wong,, W. C. Yam,, K. Y. Yuen,, Y. Guan,, Y. M. Lo,, and J. S. Peiris. 2003. Early diagnosis of SARS coronavirus infection by real time RT-PCR. J. Clin. Virol. 28:233238.
79. Poon, L. L.,, D. K. Chu,, K. H. Chan,, O. K. Wong,, T. M. Ellis,, Y. H. Leung,, S. K. Lau,, P. C. Woo,, K. Y. Suen,, K. Y. Yuen,, Y. Guan,, and J. S. Peiris. 2005. Identification of a novel coronavirus in bats. J. Virol. 79:20012009.
80. Pyrc, K.,, B. Berkhout,, and L. van der Hoek. 2007. Antiviral strategies against human coronaviruses. Infect. Disord. Drug Targets 7:5966.
81. Pyrc, K.,, M. F. Jebbink,, B. Berkhout,, and L. van der Hoek. 2004. Genome structure and transcriptional regulation of human coronavirus NL63. Virol. J. 1:7.
82. Resta, S.,, J. P. Luby,, C. R. Rosenfeld,, and J. D. Siegel. 1985. Isolation and propagation of a human enteric coronavirus. Science 229:978981.
83. Rota, P. A.,, M. S. Oberste,, S. S. Monroe,, W. A. Nix,, R. Campagnoli,, J. P. Icenogle,, S. Peñaranda,, B. Bankamp,, K. Maher,, M. Chen,, S. Tong,, A. Tamin,, L. Lowe,, M. Frace,, J. L. DeRisi,, Q. Chen,, D. Wang,, D. D. Erdman,, T. C. T. Peret,, C. Burns,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. E. Rollin,, A. Sanchez,, S. Liffick,, B. Holloway,, J. Limor,, K. McCaustland,, M. Olsen-Rasmussen,, R. Fouchier,, S. Günther,, A. D. M. E. Osterhaus,, C. Drosten,, M. A. Pallansch,, L. J. Anderson,, and W. J. Bellini. 2003. Characterization of a novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Science 300:13941399.
84. Schildgen, O.,, M. F. Jebbink,, M. de Vries,, K. Pyrc,, R. Dijkman,, A. Simon,, A. Muller,, B. Kupfer,, and L. van der Hoek. 2006. Identification of cell lines permissive for human coronavirus NL63. J. Virol. Methods 138:207210.
85. Schmidt, O. W.,, M. K. Cooney,, and G. E. Kenny. 1979. Plaque assay and improved yield of human coronaviruses in a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line. J. Clin. Microbiol. 9:722728.
86. Shao, X.,, X. Guo,, F. Esper,, C. Weibel,, and J. S. Kahn. 2007. Seroepidemiology of group I human coronaviruses in children. J. Clin. Virol. 40:207213.
87. Sloots, T. P.,, P. McErlean,, D. J. Speicher,, K. E. Arden,, M. D. Nissen,, and I. M. Mackay. 2006. Evidence of human coronavirus HKU1 and human bocavirus in Australian children. J. Clin. Virol. 35:99102.
88. Spaan, W. J. M.,, D. Brian,, D. Casvanagh,, R. J. de Groot,, L. Eujuanes,, A. E. Gorbalenya,, K. V. Holmes,, P. Masters,, P. Rottier,, F. Taguchi,, and P. Talbot. 2004. Coronaviridae, p. 945–962. In C. Fauquet,, M. A. Mayo,, J. Maniloff,, U. Desselberger, and, L. A. Ball (ed.), Virus Taxonomy: Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.
89. Sun, Z. F.,, and X. J. Meng. 2004. Antigenic cross-reactivity between the nucleocapsid protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and polyclonal antisera of antigenic group I animal coronaviruses: implication for SARS diagnosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:23512352.
90. Tablan, O. C.,, L. J. Anderson,, R. Besser,, C. Bridges,, and R. Hajjeh. 2004. Guidelines for preventing health-care-associated pneumonia, 2003: recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. Recomm. Rep. 53(RR-3):136.
91. Tan, K.,, B. D. Zelus,, R. Meijers,, J. H. Liu,, J. M. Bergelson,, N. Duke,, R. Zhang,, A. Joachimiak,, K. V. Holmes,, and J. H. Wang. 2002. Crystal structure of murine sCEACAM1a[1,4]: a coronavirus receptor in the CEA family. EMBO J. 21:20762086.
92. Tan, Y. J.,, P. Y. Goh,, B. C. Fielding,, S. Shen,, C. F. Chou,, J. L. Fu,, H. N. Leong,, Y. S. Leo,, E. E. Ooi,, A. E. Ling,, S. G. Lim,, and W. Hong. 2004. Profiles of antibody responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus recombinant proteins and their potential use as diagnostic markers. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 11:362371.
93. Tang, X. C.,, J. X. Zhang,, S. Y. Zhang,, P. Wang,, X. H. Fan,, L. F. Li,, G. Li,, B. Q. Dong,, W. Liu,, C. L. Cheung,, K. M. Xu,, W. J. Song,, D. Vijaykrishna,, L. L. Poon,, J. S. Peiris,, G. J. Smith,, H. Chen,, and Y. Guan. 2006. Prevalence and genetic diversity of coronaviruses in bats from China. J. Virol. 80:74817490.
94. Temperton, N. J.,, P. K. Chan,, G. Simmons,, M. C. Zambon,, R. S. Tedder,, Y. Takeuchi,, and R. A. Weiss. 2005. Longitudinally profiling neutralizing antibody response to SARS coronavirus with pseudotypes. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:411416.
95. Tresnan, D. B.,, R. Levis,, and K. V. Holmes. 1996. Feline aminopeptidase N serves as a receptor for feline, canine, porcine, and human coronaviruses in serogroup I. J. Virol. 70:86698674.
96. Vabret, A.,, J. Dina,, S. Gouarin,, J. Petitjean,, V. Tripey,, J. Brouard,, and F. Freymuth. 2007. Human (non-severe acute respiratory syndrome) coronavirus infections in hospitalised children in France. J. Paediatr. Child. Health 57:18761882.
97. van der Hoek, L.,, K. Pyrc,, M. F. Jebbink,, W. Vermeulen-Oost,, R. J. Berkhout,, K. C. Wolthers,, P. M. Wertheim-van Dillen,, J. Kaandorp,, J. Spaargaren,, and B. Berkhout. 2004. Identification of a new human coronavirus. Nat. Med. 10:368373.
98. van der Hoek, L.,, K. Sure,, G. Ihorst,, A. Stang,, K. Pyrc,, M. F. Jebbink,, G. Petersen,, J. Forster,, B. Berkhout,, and K. Uberla. 2005. Croup is associated with the novel coronavirus NL63. PLoS Med. 2:e240.
99. van Elden, L. J.,, A. M. van Loon,, F. van Alphen,, K. A. Hendriksen,, A. I. Hoepelman,, M. G. van Kraaij,, J. J. Oosterheert,, P. Schipper,, R. Schuurman,, and M. Nijhuis. 2004. Frequent detection of human coronaviruses in clinical specimens from patients with respiratory tract infection by use of a novel real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. J. Infect. Dis. 189:652657.
100. Wang, D.,, L. Coscoy,, M. Zylberberg,, P. C. Avila,, H. A. Boushey,, D. Ganem,, and J. L. DeRisi. 2002. Microarray-based detection and genotyping of viral pathogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:1568715692.
101. Wang, L.-F.,, Z. Shi,, S. Zhang,, H. Field,, P. Diaszak,, and B. T. Eaton. 2006. Review of bats and SARS. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:18341840.
102. Woo, P. C.,, S. K. Lau,, C. M. Chu,, K. H. Chan,, H. W. Tsoi,, Y. Huang,, B. H. Wong,, R. W. Poon,, J. J. Cai,, W. K. Luk,, L. L. Poon,, S. S. Wong,, Y. Guan,, J. S. Peiris,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2005. Characterization and complete genome sequence of a novel coronavirus, coronavirus HKU1, from patients with pneumonia. J. Virol. 79:884895.
103. Woo, P. C.,, S. K. Lau,, K. S. Li,, R. W. Poon,, B. H. Wong,, H. W. Tsoi,, B. C. Yip,, Y. Huang,, K. H. Chan,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2006. Molecular diversity of coronaviruses in bats. Virology 351:180187.
104. Woo, P. C.,, S. K. Lau,, H. W. Tsoi,, Y. Huang,, R. W. Poon,, C. M. Chu,, R. A. Lee,, W. K. Luk,, G. K. Wong,, B. H. Wong,, V. C. Cheng,, B. S. Tang,, A. K. Wu,, R. W. Yung,, H. Chen,, Y. Guan,, K. H. Chan,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2005. Clinical and molecular epidemiological features of coronavirus HKU1-associated community-acquired pneumonia. J. Infect. Dis. 192:18981907.
105. Woo, P. C.,, S. K. Lau,, B. H. Wong,, K. H. Chan,, C. M. Chu,, H. W. Tsoi,, Y. Huang,, J. S. Peiris,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2004. Longitudinal profile of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies against the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus nucleocapsid protein in patients with pneumonia due to the SARS coronavirus. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 11:665668.
106. Woo, P. C.,, S. K. Lau,, C. C. Yip,, Y. Huang,, H. W. Tsoi,, K. H. Chan,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2006. Comparative analysis of 22 coronavirus HKU1 genomes reveals a novel genotype and evidence of natural recombination in coronavirus HKU1. J. Virol. 80:71367145.
107. Woo, P. C.,, M. Wang,, S. K. Lau,, H. Xu,, R. W. Poon,, R. Guo,, B. H. Wong,, K. Gao,, H. W. Tsoi,, Y. Huang,, K. S. Li,, C. S. Lam,, K. H. Chan,, B. J. Zheng,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2007. Comparative analysis of twelve genomes of three novel group 2c and group 2d coronaviruses reveals unique group and subgroup features. J. Virol. 81:15741585.
108. Yam, W. C.,, K. H. Chan,, L. L. Poon,, Y. Guan,, K. Y. Yuen,, W. H. Seto,, and J. S. Peiris. 2003. Evaluation of reverse transcription-PCR assays for rapid diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome associated with a novel coronavirus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:45214524.
109. Yeager, C. L.,, R. A. Ashmun,, R. K. Williams,, C. B. Cardellichio,, L. H. Shapiro,, A. T. Look,, and K. V. Holmes. 1992. Human aminopeptidase N is a receptor for human coronavirus 229E. Nature 357:420422.
110. Yu, I. M.,, C. L. Gustafson,, J. Diao,, J. W. Burgner II,, Z. Li,, J. Zhang,, and J. Chen. 2005. Recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus nucleocapsid protein forms a dimer through its C-terminal domain. J. Biol. Chem. 280:2328023286.
111. Zhu, Z.,, S. Chakraborti,, Y. He,, A. Roberts,, T. Sheahan,, X. Xiao,, L. E. Hensley,, P. Prabakaran,, B. Rockx,, I. A. Sidorov,, D. Corti,, L. Vogel,, Y. Feng,, J. O. Kim,, L. F. Wang,, R. Baric,, A. Lanzavecchia,, K. M. Curtis,, G. J. Nabel,, K. Subbarao,, S. Jiang,, and D. S. Dimitrov. 2007. Potent cross-reactive neutralization of SARS coronavirus isolates by human monoclonal antibodies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:1212312128.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Species-specific coronavirus infections

Citation: Anderson L, Haynes L. 2008. Novel Non-SARS Coronaviruses, p 1-19. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch1

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error