1887

Chapter 9 : Hendra and Nipah Viruses: Lethal Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Hendra and Nipah Viruses: Lethal Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815592/9781555814441_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815592/9781555814441_Chap09-2.gif

Abstract:

An emerging or reemerging infectious disease is one which either has newly appeared in a population or, although previously recognized, has increased in incidence and/or expanded its known geographic range. Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are novel, zoonotic paramyxoviruses, and are biosecurity level 4 (BSL-4) restricted. This chapter focuses on Henipavirus biology. The HeV and NiV membrane-anchored envelope glycoproteins are the mediators of virus attachment and infection of susceptible host cells and major determinants of host cell tropism. The pathology caused by both HeV and NiV in horses is of greater severity than that caused by NiV in pigs. During the initial NiV outbreak in Malaysia, some patients were treated with ribavirin, and there was some evidence that this therapy may have been clinically beneficial. For the henipaviruses, the development of vaccines or therapeutics has largely focused on targeting virus attachment and infection. A major advance in furthering the development of specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has been through the implementation of the bacterial phage display platform with combinatorial antibody libraries. The development of potential livestock vaccines against henipaviruses may also be desirable, and recently, a recombinant canarypox-based vaccine candidate for swine has been examined. In light of the highly pathogenic natures of HeV and NiV, the development of recombinant subunit immunogens would also represent a viable approach for vaccine development because they are inherently safe and are administered without risk of infection.

Citation: Bishop K, Broder C. 2008. Hendra and Nipah Viruses: Lethal Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses, p 155-187. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch9

Key Concept Ranking

Live Attenuated Viral Vaccines
0.45284504
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
0.44640648
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
0.44640648
0.45284504
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Modes of henipavirus transmission. ( ) Maintenance of HeV and NiV in pteropid bat populations ( ). ( ) Transmission of NiV to pigs from bats, potentially through urine, uterine fluids, or saliva in partially masticated fruit. ( ) Transmission of NiV from pig to pig and from pigs to humans in close contact with them, such as farmers in the initial NiV outbreak in Malaysia and Singapore ( ). ( ) Transmission of HeV from bats to horses through a similar route(s) as to pigs. ( ) Transmission of HeV from horses to humans in close contact with them, such as veterinarians, through contaminated bodily fluids or respiratory secretions ( ). ( ) Transmission of NiV to humans through contaminated food or drink, such as date palm juice ( ). ( ) Transmission of NiV from person to person, presumably from close contact exposure involving respiratory secretions, as in the recent Bangladeshi outbreaks ( ). Key references are noted and are not intended to be exhaustive.

Citation: Bishop K, Broder C. 2008. Hendra and Nipah Viruses: Lethal Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses, p 155-187. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815592.ch09
1. AbuBakar, S.,, L. Y. Chang,, A. R. Ali,, S. H. Sharifah,, K. Yusoff,, and Z. Zamrod. 2004. Isolation and molecular identification of Nipah virus from pigs. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:22282230.
2. Allworth, A.,, K. Murray,, and J. Morgan. 1996. A case of encephalitis due to a lyssavirus recently identified in fruit bats. Commun. Dis. Intell. 20:504.
3. Anonymous. 1999. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: outbreak of Hendra-like virus—Malaysia and Singapore, 1998–1999. JAMA 281:17871788.
4. Anonymous. 2004. Hendra virus—Australia (Queensland). ProMED archive no. 20041214.3307. International Society for Infectious Diseases, Brookline, MA.
5. Anonymous. 2004. Nipah encephalitis outbreak over wide area of western Bangladesh, 2004. Health Sci. Bull. 2:711.
6. Anonymous. 2005. Nipah virus outbreak from date palm juice. Health Sci. Bull. 3:15.
7. Anonymous. 2007. Nipah virus, fatal—India (West Bengal). ProMED archive no. 20070511.1514. International Society for Infectious Diseases, Brookline, MA.
8. Anonymous. 2004. Person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus during outbreak in Faridpur District, 2004. Health Sci. Bull. 2:59.
9. Anonymous. 2007. Undiagnosed deaths, encephalitis—Bangladesh (Kushtia) (03): Nipah. ProMED archive no. 20071125.3816. International Society for Infectious Diseases, Brookline, MA.
10. Australian Government Department of Health and Aging. 2007. Nipah virus. Commun. Dis. Intell. 31:340341.
11. Barclay, A. J.,, and D. J. Paton. 2000. Hendra (equine morbillivirus). Vet. J. 160:169176.
12. Bellini, W. J.,, B. H. Harcourt,, N. Bowden,, and P. A. Rota. 2005. Nipah virus: an emergent paramyxovirus causing severe encephalitis in humans. J. Neurovirol. 11:481487.
13. Bishop, K. A.,, T. S. Stantchev,, A. C. Hickey,, D. Khetawat,, K. N. Bossart,, V. Krasnoperov,, P. Gill,, Y. R. Feng,, L. Wang,, B. T. Eaton,, L. F. Wang,, and C. C. Broder. 2007. Identification of Hendra virus G glycoprotein residues that are critical for receptor binding. J. Virol. 81:58935901.
14. Bonaparte, M. I.,, A. S. Dimitrov,, K. N. Bossart,, G. Crameri,, B. A. Mungall,, K. A. Bishop,, V. Choudhry,, D. S. Dimitrov,, L. F. Wang,, B. T. Eaton,, and C. C. Broder. 2005. Ephrin-B2 ligand is a functional receptor for Hendra virus and Nipah virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1065210657.
15. Bossart, K. N.,, J. Bingham,, and D. Middleton. 2007. Targeted strategies for henipavirus therapeutics. Open Virol. J. 1:1425.
16. Bossart, K. N.,, and C. C. Broder. 2006. Developments towards effective treatments for Nipah and Hendra virus infection. Expert Rev. Anti Infect. Ther. 4:4355.
17. Bossart, K. N.,, and C. C. Broder. Paramyxovirus entry. In S. Pöhlmann and, G. Simmons (ed.), Viral Entry into Host Cells, in press. Landes Bioscience, Austin, TX.
18. Bossart, K. N.,, and C. C. Broder. 2004. Viral glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion assays using vaccinia virus vectors. Methods Mol. Biol. 269:309332.
19. Bossart, K. N.,, G. Crameri,, A. S. Dimitrov,, B. A. Mungall,, Y. R. Feng,, J. R. Patch,, A. Choudhary,, L. F. Wang,, B. T. Eaton,, and C. C. Broder. 2005. Receptor binding, fusion inhibition, and induction of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies by a soluble G glycoprotein of hendra virus. J. Virol. 79:66906702.
20. Bossart, K. N.,, J. A. McEachern,, A. C. Hickey,, V. Choudhry,, D. S. Dimitrov,, B. T. Eaton,, and L. F. Wang. 2007. Neutralization assays for differential henipavirus serology using Bio-Plex protein array systems. J. Virol. Methods 142:2940.
21. Bossart, K. N.,, B. A. Mungall,, G. Crameri,, L. F. Wang,, B. T. Eaton,, and C. C. Broder. 2005. Inhibition of Henipavirus fusion and infection by heptad-derived peptides of the Nipah virus fusion glycoprotein. Virol. J. 2:57.
22. Bossart, K. N.,, L. F. Wang,, B. T. Eaton,, and C. C. Broder. 2001. Functional expression and membrane fusion tropism of the envelope glycoproteins of Hendra virus. Virology 290:121135.
23. Bossart, K. N.,, L. F. Wang,, M. N. Flora,, K. B. Chua,, S. K. Lam,, B. T. Eaton,, and C. C. Broder. 2002. Membrane fusion tropism and heterotypic functional activities of the Nipah virus and Hendra virus envelope glycoproteins. J. Virol. 76:1118611198.
24. Broder, C. C.,, P. L. Earl,, D. Long,, S. T. Abedon,, B. Moss,, and R. W. Doms. 1994. Antigenic implications of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope quaternary structure: oligomer-specific and -sensitive monoclonal antibodies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:1169911703.
25. Calisher, C. H.,, J. E. Childs,, H. E. Field,, K. V. Holmes,, and T. Schountz. 2006. Bats: important reservoir hosts of emerging viruses. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 19:531545.
26. Carbone, K. M.,, and S. Rubin. 2007. Mumps virus, p. 1527–1550. In D. M. Knipe and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 5th ed, vol. 1. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
27. Casadevall, A. 1999. Passive antibody therapies: progress and continuing challenges. Clin. Immunol. 93:515.
28. Casadevall, A.,, E. Dadachova,, and L. A. Pirofski. 2004. Passive antibody therapy for infectious diseases. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2:695703.
29. Chadha, M. S.,, J. A. Comer,, L. Lowe,, P. A. Rota,, P. E. Rollin,, W. J. Bellini,, T. G. Ksiazek,, and A. Mishra. 2006. Nipah virus-associated encephalitis outbreak, Siliguri, India. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:235240.
30. Chan, Y. P.,, K. B. Chua,, C. L. Koh,, M. E. Lim,, and S. K. Lam. 2001. Complete nucleotide sequences of Nipah virus isolates from Malaysia. J. Gen. Virol. 82:21512155.
31. Chen, L.,, P. M. Colman,, L. J. Cosgrove,, M. C. Lawrence,, L. J. Lawrence,, P. A. Tulloch,, and J. J. Gorman. 2001. Cloning, expression, and crystallization of the fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus. Virology 290:290299.
32. Chomel, B. B.,, A. Belotto,, and F. X. Meslin. 2007. Wildlife, exotic pets, and emerging zoonoses. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:611.
33. Chong, H. T.,, A. Kamarulzaman,, C. T. Tan,, K. J. Goh,, T. Thayaparan,, S. R. Kunjapan,, N. K. Chew,, K. B. Chua,, and S. K. Lam. 2001. Treatment of acute Nipah encephalitis with ribavirin. Ann. Neurol. 49:810813.
34. Chong, H. T.,, and C. T. Tan. 2003. Relapsed and late-onset Nipah encephalitis, a report of three cases. Neurol. J. Southeast. Asia 8:109112.
35. Chua, K. B. 2003. Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia. J. Clin. Virol. 26:265275.
36. Chua, K. B.,, G. Crameri,, A. Hyatt,, M. Yu,, M. R. Tompang,, J. Rosli,, J. McEachern,, S. Crameri,, V. Kumarasamy,, B. T. Eaton,, and L. F. Wang. 2007. A previously unknown reovirus of bat origin is associated with an acute respiratory disease in humans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:1142411429.
37. Chua, K. B.,, C. Lek Koh,, P. S. Hooi,, K. F. Wee,, J. H. Khong,, B. H. Chua,, Y. P. Chan,, M. E. Lim,, and S. K. Lam. 2002. Isolation of Nipah virus from Malaysian Island flying foxes. Microbes Infect. 4:145151.
38. Chua, K. B.,, L. F. Wang,, S. K. Lam,, G. Crameri,, M. Yu,, T. Wise,, D. Boyle,, A. D. Hyatt,, and B. T. Eaton. 2001. Tioman virus, a novel paramyxovirus isolated from fruit bats in Malaysia. Virology 283:215229.
39. Ciancanelli, M. J.,, and C. F. Basler. 2006. Mutation of YMYL in the Nipah virus matrix protein abrogates budding and alters subcellular localization. J. Virol. 80:1207012078.
40. Crameri, G.,, L. F. Wang,, C. Morrissy,, J. White,, and B. T. Eaton. 2002. A rapid immune plaque assay for the detection of Hendra and Nipah viruses and anti-virus antibodies. J. Virol. Methods 99:4151.
41. Dempster, G.,, E. I. Grodums,, and W. A. Spencer. 1961. Experimental coxsackie B-3 infection in the hibernating squirrel and bat. Can. J. Microbiol. 7:587594.
42. Desselberger, U. 2000. Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. J. Infect. 40:315.
43. de Weerd, N. A.,, S. A. Samarajiwa,, and P. J. Hertzog. 2007. Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. J. Biol. Chem. 282:2005320057.
44. Diederich, S.,, M. Moll,, H. D. Klenk,, and A. Maisner. 2005. The Nipah virus fusion protein is cleaved within the endosomal compartment. J. Biol. Chem. 280:2989929903.
45. Dobson, A. P. 2005. Virology. What links bats to emerging infectious diseases? Science 310:628629.
46. Doms, R. W.,, R. Lamb,, J. K. Rose,, and A. Helenius. 1993. Folding and assembly of viral membrane proteins. Virology 193:545562.
47. Dorig, R. E.,, A. Marcil,, A. Chopra,, and C. D. Richardson. 1993. The human CD46 molecule is a receptor for measles virus (Edmonston strain). Cell 75:295305.
48. Drescher, U. 2002. Eph family functions from an evolutionary perspective. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 12:397402.
49. Earp, L. J.,, S. E. Delos,, H. E. Park,, and J. M. White. 2005. The many mechanisms of viral membrane fusion proteins. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 285:2566.
50. Eaton, B. T.,, C. C. Broder,, D. Middleton,, and L. F. Wang. 2006. Hendra and Nipah viruses: different and dangerous. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 4:2335.
51. Eaton, B. T.,, C. C. Broder,, and L. F. Wang. 2005. Hendra and Nipah viruses: pathogenesis and therapeutics. Curr. Mol. Med. 5:805816.
52. Eaton, B. T.,, J. S. Mackenzie,, and L.-F. Wang. 2007. Henipaviruses, p. 1587–1600. In D. M. Knipe and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 5th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
53. Eaton, B. T.,, P. J. Wright,, L. F. Wang,, O. Sergeyev,, W. P. Michalski,, K. N. Bossart,, and C. C. Broder. 2004. Henipaviruses: recent observations on regulation of transcription and the nature of the cell receptor. Arch. Virol. Suppl. 2004:122131.
54. Epstein, J. H.,, H. E. Field,, S. Luby,, J. R. Pulliam,, and P. Daszak. 2006. Nipah virus: impact, origins, and causes of emergence. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 8:5965.
55. Field, H.,, P. Young,, J. M. Yob,, J. Mills,, L. Hall,, and J. Mackenzie. 2001. The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes Infect. 3:307314.
56. Field, H. E.,, P. C. Barratt,, R. J. Hughes,, J. Shield,, and N. D. Sullivan. 2000. A fatal case of Hendra virus infection in a horse in north Queensland: clinical and epidemiological features. Austr. Vet. J. 78:279280.
57. Field, H. E.,, A. C. Breed,, J. Shield,, R. M. Hedlefs,, K. Pittard,, B. Pott,, and P. M. Summers. 2007. Epidemiological perspectives on Hendra virus infection in horses and flying foxes. Aust. Vet. J. 85:268270.
58. Field, H. E.,, J. S. Mackenzie,, and P. Daszak. 2007. Henipaviruses: emerging paramyxoviruses associated with fruit bats. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 315:133159.
59. Fraser, G. C.,, P. T. Hooper,, R. A. Lunt,, A. R. Gould,, L. J. Gleeson,, A. D. Hyatt,, G. M. Russell,, and J. A. Kattenbelt. 1996. Encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus in fruit bats in Australia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2:327331.
60. Georges-Courbot, M. C.,, H. Contamin,, C. Faure,, P. Loth,, S. Baize,, P. Leyssen,, J. Neyts,, and V. Deubel. 2006. Poly(I)-poly(C12U) but not ribavirin prevents death in a hamster model of Nipah virus infection. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:17681772.
61. Gould, A. R.,, A. D. Hyatt,, R. Lunt,, J. A. Kattenbelt,, S. Hengstberger,, and S. D. Blacksell. 1998. Characterisation of a novel lyssavirus isolated from pteropid bats in Australia. Virus Res. 54:165187.
62. Graham, B. S.,, and J. E. Crowe. 2007. Immunization against viral diseases, p. 489–538. In D. M. Knipe and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 5th ed., vol. 1. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
63. Griffin, D. E. 1995. Immune responses during measles virus infection. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 191:117134.
64. Griffin, D. E. 2007. Measles virus, p. 1551–1585. In D. M. Knipe and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 5th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
65. Guillaume, V.,, H. Contamin,, P. Loth,, M. C. Georges-Courbot,, A. Lefeuvre,, P. Marianneau,, K. B. Chua,, S. K. Lam,, R. Buckland,, V. Deubel,, and T. F. Wild. 2004. Nipah virus: vaccination and passive protection studies in a hamster model. J. Virol. 78:834840.
66. Guillaume, V.,, H. Contamin,, P. Loth,, I. Grosjean,, M. C. Courbot,, V. Deubel,, R. Buckland,, and T. F. Wild. 2006. Antibody prophylaxis and therapy against Nipah virus infection in hamsters. J. Virol. 80:19721978.
67. Halpin, K.,, B. Bankamp,, B. H. Harcourt,, W. J. Bellini,, and P. A. Rota. 2004. Nipah virus conforms to the rule of six in a minigenome replication assay. J. Gen. Virol. 85:701707.
68. Halpin, K.,, A. D. Hyatt,, R. K. Plowright,, J. H. Epstein,, P. Daszak,, H. E. Field,, L. Wang,, and P. W. Daniels. 2007. Emerging viruses: coming in on a wrinkled wing and a prayer. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:711717.
69. Halpin, K.,, P. L. Young,, H. E. Field,, and J. S. Mackenzie. 2000. Isolation of Hendra virus from pteropid bats: a natural reservoir of Hendra virus. J. Gen. Virol. 81:19271932.
70. Hanna, J. N.,, W. J. McBride,, D. L. Brookes,, J. Shield,, C. T. Taylor,, I. L. Smith,, S. B. Craig,, and G. A. Smith. 2006. Hendra virus infection in a veterinarian. Med. J. Aust. 185:562564.
71. Harcourt, B. H.,, L. Lowe,, A. Tamin,, X. Liu,, B. Bankamp,, N. Bowden,, P. E. Rollin,, J. A. Comer,, T. G. Ksiazek,, M. J. Hossain,, E. S. Gurley,, R. F. Breiman,, W. J. Bellini,, and P. A. Rota. 2005. Genetic characterization of Nipah virus, Bangladesh, 2004. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:15941597.
72. Harcourt, B. H.,, A. Tamin,, K. Halpin,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. E. Rollin,, W. J. Bellini,, and P. A. Rota. 2001. Molecular characterization of the polymerase gene and genomic termini of nipah virus. Virology 287:192201.
73. Harcourt, B. H.,, A. Tamin,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. E. Rollin,, L. J. Anderson,, W. J. Bellini,, and P. A. Rota. 2000. Molecular characterization of Nipah virus, a newly emergent paramyxovirus. Virology 271:334349.
74. Hayden, M. S.,, L. K. Gilliland,, and J. A. Ledbetter. 1997. Antibody engineering. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 9:201212.
75. Heroult, M.,, F. Schaffner,, and H. G. Augustin. 2006. Eph receptor and ephrin ligand-mediated interactions during angiogenesis and tumor progression. Exp. Cell Res. 312:642650.
76. Hoar, B. R.,, B. B. Chomel,, F. J. Argazz Rodriguez,, and P. A. Colley. 1998. Zoonoses and potential zoonoses transmitted by bats. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 212:17141720.
77. Hoare, C. A. 1965. Academician Eugene N. Pavlovsky. Nature 208:11511152.
78. Hooper, P.,, S. Zaki,, P. Daniels,, and D. Middleton. 2001. Comparative pathology of the diseases caused by Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes Infect. 3:315322.
79. Hooper, P. T.,, A. R. Gould,, G. M. Russell,, J. A. Kattenbelt,, and G. Mitchell. 1996. The retrospective diagnosis of a second outbreak of equine morbillivirus infection. Aust. Vet. J. 74:244245.
80. Hooper, P. T.,, H. A. Westbury,, and G. M. Russell. 1997. The lesions of experimental equine morbillivirus disease in cats and guinea pigs. Vet. Pathol. 34:323329.
81. Horvath, C. M. 2004. Silencing STATs: lessons from paramyxovirus interferon evasion. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:117127.
82. Hsu, V. P.,, M. J. Hossain,, U. D. Parashar,, M. M. Ali,, T. G. Ksiazek,, I. Kuzmin,, M. Niezgoda,, C. Rupprecht,, J. Bresee,, and R. F. Breiman. 2004. Nipah virus encephalitis reemergence, Bangladesh. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:20822087.
83. Hudson, P. J.,, and C. Souriau. 2001. Recombinant antibodies for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Expert Opin. Biol. Ther. 1:845855.
84. Kang, A. S.,, T. M. Jones,, and D. R. Burton. 1991. Antibody redesign by chain shuffling from random combinatorial immunoglobulin libraries. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:1112011123.
85. Karron, R. A.,, and P. L. Collins. 2007. Parainfluenza viruses, p. 1497–1526. In D. M. Knipe and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 5th ed., vol. 1. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
86. Kilby, J. M.,, J. P. Lalezari,, J. J. Eron,, M. Carlson,, C. Cohen,, R. C. Arduino,, J. C. Goodgame,, J. E. Gallant,, P. Volberding,, R. L. Murphy,, F. Valentine,, M. S. Saag,, E. L. Nelson,, P. R. Sista,, and A. Dusek. 2002. The safety, plasma pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of subcutaneous enfuvirtide (T-20), a peptide inhibitor of gp41-mediated virus fusion, in HIV-infected adults. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 18:685693.
87. Lamb, R. A.,, and G. D. Parks. 2007. Paramyxoviridae: the viruses and their replication, p. 1449–1496. In D. M. Knipe and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 5th ed, vol. 1. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
88. Lau, S. K.,, P. C. Woo,, K. S. Li,, Y. Huang,, H. W. Tsoi,, B. H. Wong,, S. S. Wong,, S. Y. Leung,, K. H. Chan,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2005. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1404014045.
89. Lehle, C.,, G. Razafitrimo,, J. Razainirina,, N. Andriaholinirina,, S. M. Goodman,, C. Faure,, M. C. Georges-Courbot,, D. Rousset,, and J. M. Reynes. 2007. Henipavirus and Tioman virus antibodies in pteropodid bats, Madagascar. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:159161.
90. Leroy, E. M.,, B. Kumulungui,, X. Pourrut,, P. Rouquet,, A. Hassanin,, P. Yaba,, A. Delicat,, J. T. Paweska,, J. P. Gonzalez,, and R. Swanepoel. 2005. Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus. Nature 438:575576.
91. Levine, N. D. 1964. Zoonoses. Science 143:14641466.
92. Luby, S. P.,, M. Rahman,, M. J. Hossain,, L. S. Blum,, M. M. Husain,, E. Gurley,, R. Khan,, B. N. Ahmed,, S. Rahman,, N. Nahar,, E. Kenah,, J. A. Comer,, and T. G. Ksiazek. 2006. Foodborne transmission of Nipah virus, Bangladesh. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:18881894.
93. Magoffin, D. E.,, J. S. Mackenzie,, and L. F. Wang. 2007. Genetic analysis of J-virus and Beilong virus using minireplicons. Virology 364:103111.
94. Malaga Alba, A. 1954. Vampire bat as a carrier of rabies. APHA Nations Health 44:909918.
95. Meulendyke, K. A.,, M. A. Wurth,, R. O. McCann,, and R. E. Dutch. 2005. Endocytosis plays a critical role in proteolytic processing of the Hendra virus fusion protein. J. Virol. 79:1264312649.
96. Middleton, D. J.,, C. J. Morrissy,, B. M. van der Heide,, G. M. Russell,, M. A. Braun,, H. A. Westbury,, K. Halpin,, and P. W. Daniels. 2007. Experimental Nipah virus infection in pteropid bats (Pteropus poliocephalus). J. Comp. Pathol. 136:266272.
97. Middleton, D. J.,, H. A. Westbury,, C. J. Morrissy,, B. M. van der Heide,, G. M. Russell,, M. A. Braun,, and A. D. Hyatt. 2002. Experimental Nipah virus infection in pigs and cats. J. Comp. Pathol. 126:124136.
98. Morens, D. M.,, G. K. Folkers,, and A. S. Fauci. 2004. The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Nature 430:242249.
99. Mounts, A. W.,, H. Kaur,, U. D. Parashar,, T. G. Ksiazek,, D. Cannon,, J. T. Arokiasamy,, L. J. Anderson,, and M. S. Lye. 2001. A cohort study of health care workers to assess nosocomial transmissibility of Nipah virus, Malaysia, 1999. J. Infect. Dis. 183:810813.
100. Mungall, B. A.,, D. Middleton,, G. Crameri,, J. Bingham,, K. Halpin,, G. Russell,, D. Green,, J. McEachern,, L. I. Pritchard,, B. T. Eaton,, L. F. Wang,, K. N. Bossart,, and C. C. Broder. 2006. Feline model of acute Nipah virus infection and protection with a soluble glycoprotein-based subunit vaccine. J. Virol. 80:1229312302.
101. Mungall, B. A.,, D. Middleton,, G. Crameri,, K. Halpin,, J. Bingham,, B. T. Eaton,, and C. C. Broder. 2007. Vertical transmission and fetal replication of Nipah virus in an experimentally infected cat. J. Infect. Dis. 196:812816.
102. Murray, G. 2006. Miscellaneous: Hendra virus findings in Queensland, Australia. World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), Paris, France. www.oie.int/eng/info/hebdo/AIS_12.HTM#Sec8.
103. Murray, K.,, P. Selleck,, P. Hooper,, A. Hyatt,, A. Gould,, L. Gleeson,, H. Westbury,, L. Hiley,, L. Selvey,, B. Rodwell,, and P. Ketterer. 1995. A morbillivirus that caused fatal disease in horses and humans. Science 268:9497.
104. Naniche, D.,, G. Varior-Krishnan,, F. Cervoni,, T. F. Wild,, B. Rossi,, C. Rabourdin-Combe,, and D. Gerlier. 1993. Human membrane cofactor protein (CD46) acts as a cellular receptor for measles virus. J. Virol. 67:60256032.
105. Negrete, O. A.,, E. L. Levroney,, H. C. Aguilar,, A. Bertolotti-Ciarlet,, R. Nazarian,, S. Tajyar,, and B. Lee. 2005. EphrinB2 is the entry receptor for Nipah virus, an emergent deadly paramyxovirus. Nature 436:401405.
106. Negrete, O. A.,, M. C. Wolf,, H. C. Aguilar,, S. Enterlein,, W. Wang,, E. Muhlberger,, S. V. Su,, A. Bertolotti-Ciarlet,, R. Flick,, and B. Lee. 2006. Two key residues in ephrinB3 are critical for its use as an alternative receptor for Nipah virus. PLoS Pathog. 2:e7.
107. O’Sullivan, J. D.,, A. M. Allworth,, D. L. Paterson,, T. M. Snow,, R. Boots,, L. J. Gleeson,, A. R. Gould,, A. D. Hyatt,, and J. Bradfield. 1997. Fatal encephalitis due to novel paramyxovirus transmitted from horses. Lancet 349:9395.
108. Pager, C. T.,, W. W. Craft, Jr.,, J. Patch,, and R. E. Dutch. 2006. A mature and fusogenic form of the Nipah virus fusion protein requires proteolytic processing by cathepsin L. Virology 346:251257.
109. Pager, C. T.,, and R. E. Dutch. 2005. Cathepsin L is involved in proteolytic processing of the Hendra virus fusion protein. J. Virol. 79:1271412720.
110. Pager, C. T.,, M. A. Wurth,, and R. E. Dutch. 2004. Subcellular localization and calcium and pH requirements for proteolytic processing of the Hendra virus fusion protein. J. Virol. 78:91549163.
111. Pantaleo, G.,, and R. A. Koup. 2004. Correlates of immune protection in HIV-1 infection: what we know, what we don’t know, what we should know. Nat. Med. 10:806810.
112. Pasquale, E. B. 2004. Eph-ephrin promiscuity is now crystal clear. Nat. Neurosci. 7:417418.
113. Patch, J. R.,, G. Crameri,, L. F. Wang,, B. T. Eaton,, and C. C. Broder. 2007. Quantitative analysis of Nipah virus proteins released as virus-like particles reveals central role for the matrix protein. Virol. J. 4:1.
114. Philbey, A. W.,, P. D. Kirkland,, A. D. Ross,, R. J. Davis,, A. B. Gleeson,, R. J. Love,, P. W. Daniels,, A. R. Gould,, and A. D. Hyatt. 1998. An apparently new virus (family Paramyxoviridae) infectious for pigs, humans, and fruit bats. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4:269271.
115. Plemper, R. K.,, A. L. Hammond,, and R. Cattaneo. 2000. Characterization of a region of the measles virus hemagglutinin sufficient for its dimerization. J. Virol. 74:64856493.
116. Poliakov, A.,, M. Cotrina,, and D. G. Wilkinson. 2004. Diverse roles of Eph receptors and ephrins in the regulation of cell migration and tissue assembly. Dev. Cell 7:465480.
117. Quinnan, G. V. 1997. Immunization against viral diseases, p. 791–834. In G. Galasso,, R. Whitley, and, T. C. Merigan (ed.), Antiviral Agents and Human Viral Disease. Raven Press, New York, NY.
118. Rader, C.,, and C. F. Barbas III. 1997. Phage display of combinatorial antibody libraries. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 8:503508.
119. Reynes, J. M.,, D. Counor,, S. Ong,, C. Faure,, V. Seng,, S. Molia,, J. Walston,, M. C. Georges-Courbot,, V. Deubel,, and J. L. Sarthou. 2005. Nipah virus in Lyle’s flying foxes, Cambodia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:10421047.
120. Rockstroh, J. K.,, and S. Mauss. 2004. Clinical perspective of fusion inhibitors for treatment of HIV. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53:700702.
121. Rodriguez, J. J.,, and C. M. Horvath. 2004. Host evasion by emerging paramyxoviruses: Hendra virus and Nipah virus V proteins inhibit interferon signaling. Viral Immunol. 17:210219.
122. Rogers, R. J.,, I. C. Douglas,, F. C. Baldock,, R. J. Glanville,, K. T. Seppanen,, L. J. Gleeson,, P. N. Selleck,, and K. J. Dunn. 1996. Investigation of a second focus of equine morbillivirus infection in coastal Queensland. Aust. Vet. J. 74:243244.
123. Saez-Llorens, X.,, M. T. Moreno,, O. Ramilo,, P. J. Sanchez,, F. H. Top, Jr.,, and E. M. Connor. 2004. Safety and pharmacokinetics of palivizumab therapy in children hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus infection. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 23:707712.
124. Sejvar, J. J.,, J. Hossain,, S. K. Saha,, E. S. Gurley,, S. Banu,, J. D. Hamadani,, M. A. Faiz,, F. M. Siddiqui,, Q. D. Mohammad,, A. H. Mollah,, R. Uddin,, R. Alam,, R. Rahman,, C. T. Tan,, W. Bellini,, P. Rota,, R. F. Breiman,, and S. P. Luby. 2007. Long-term neurological and functional outcome in Nipah virus infection. Ann. Neurol. 62:235242.
125. Selvey, L. A.,, R. M. Wells,, J. G. McCormack,, A. J. Ansford,, K. Murray,, R. J. Rogers,, P. S. Lavercombe,, P. Selleck,, and J. W. Sheridan. 1995. Infection of humans and horses by a newly described morbillivirus. Med. J. Aust. 162:642645.
126. Sidwell, R. W.,, J. H. Huffman,, G. P. Khare,, L. B. Allen,, J. T. Witkowski,, and R. K. Robins. 1972. Broad-spectrum antiviral activity of Virazole: 1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide. Science 177:705706.
127. Simmons, N. B. 2005. Evolution. An Eocene big bang for bats. Science 307:527528.
128. Simmons, N. B. 2005. Order Chiroptera, p. 312–529. In D. E. Wilson and, D. M. Reeder (ed.), Mammalian Species of the World: a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vol. 1. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
129. Snell, N. J. 2001. Ribavirin—current status of a broad spectrum antiviral agent. Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 2:13171324.
130. Stewart, W. E.,, II, W. D. Scott,, and S. E. Sulkin. 1969. Relative sensitivities of viruses to different species of interferon. J. Virol. 4:147153.
131. Sulkin, S. E.,, and R. Allen. 1974. Virus infections in bats. Monogr. Virol. 8:1103.
132. Sulkin, S. E.,, R. Sims,, and R. Allen. 1964. Studies of arthropod-borne virus infections in Chiroptera. II. Experiments with Japanese B and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in the gravid bat. Evidence of transplacental transmission. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 13:475481.
133. Swanepoel, R.,, S. B. Smit,, P. E. Rollin,, P. Formenty,, P. A. Leman,, A. Kemp,, F. J. Burt,, A. A. Grobbelaar,, J. Croft,, D. G. Bausch,, H. Zeller,, H. Leirs,, L. E. O. Braack,, M. L. Libande,, S. Zaki,, S. T. Nichol,, T. G. Ksiazek,, J. T. Paweska, et al. 2007. Studies of reservoir hosts for Marburg virus. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:18471851.
134. Tan, C. T.,, and K. S. Tan. 2001. Nosocomial transmissibility of Nipah virus. J. Infect. Dis. 184:1367.
135. Tan, C. T.,, and K. T. Wong. 2003. Nipah encephalitis outbreak in Malaysia. Ann. Acad. Med. Singapore 32:112117.
136. Tanimura, N.,, T. Imada,, Y. Kashiwazaki,, and S. H. Sharifah. 2006. Distribution of viral antigens and development of lesions in chicken embryos inoculated with Nipah virus. J. Comp. Pathol. 135:7482.
137. Tatsuo, H.,, N. Ono,, K. Tanaka,, and Y. Yanagi. 2000. SLAM (CDw150) is a cellular receptor for measles virus. Nature 406:893897.
138. Tatsuo, H.,, N. Ono,, and Y. Yanagi. 2001. Morbilliviruses use signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (CD150) as cellular receptors. J. Virol. 75:58425850.
139. Taylor, L. H.,, S. M. Latham,, and M. E. Woolhouse. 2001. Risk factors for human disease emergence. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 356:983989.
140. Teeling, E. C.,, M. S. Springer,, O. Madsen,, P. Bates,, S. J. O’Brien,, and W. J. Murphy. 2005. A molecular phylogeny for bats illuminates biogeography and the fossil record. Science 307:580584.
141. Towner, J. S.,, X. Pourrut,, C. G. Albarino,, C. N. Nkogue,, B. H. Bird,, G. Grard,, T. G. Ksiazek,, J. P. Gonzalez,, S. T. Nichol,, and E. M. Leroy. 2007. Marburg virus infection detected in a common African bat. PLoS ONE 2:e764.
142. Truyen, U.,, C. R. Parrish,, T. C. Harder,, and O. R. Kaaden. 1995. There is nothing permanent except change. The emergence of new virus diseases. Vet. Microbiol. 43:103122.
143. Wacharapluesadee, S.,, B. Lumlertdacha,, K. Boongird,, S. Wanghongsa,, L. Chanhome,, P. Rollin,, P. Stockton,, C. E. Rupprecht,, T. G. Ksiazek,, and T. Hemachudha. 2005. Bat Nipah virus, Thailand. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:19491951.
144. Wain, L. V.,, E. Bailes,, F. Bibollet-Ruche,, J. M. Decker,, B. F. Keele,, F. Van Heuverswyn,, Y. Li,, J. Takehisa,, E. M. Ngole,, G. M. Shaw,, M. Peeters,, B. H. Hahn,, and P. M. Sharp. 2007. Adaptation of HIV-1 to its human host. Mol. Biol. Evol. 24:18531860.
145. Wang, B.,, N. Zhang,, K. X. Qian,, and J. G. Geng. 2005. Conserved molecular players for axon guidance and angiogenesis. Curr. Protein Pept. Sci. 6:473478.
146. Wang, L.,, B. H. Harcourt,, M. Yu,, A. Tamin,, P. A. Rota,, W. J. Bellini,, and B. T. Eaton. 2001. Molecular biology of Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes Infect. 3:279287.
147. Wang, L. F.,, M. Yu,, E. Hansson,, L. I. Pritchard,, B. Shiell,, W. P. Michalski,, and B. T. Eaton. 2000. The exceptionally large genome of Hendra virus: support for creation of a new genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. J. Virol. 74:99729979.
148. Weingartl, H.,, S. Czub,, J. Copps,, Y. Berhane,, D. Middleton,, P. Marszal,, J. Gren,, G. Smith,, S. Ganske,, L. Manning,, and M. Czub. 2005. Invasion of the central nervous system in a porcine host by Nipah virus. J. Virol. 79:75287534.
149. Weingartl, H. M.,, Y. Berhane,, J. L. Caswell,, S. Loosmore,, J. C. Audonnet,, J. A. Roth,, and M. Czub. 2006. Recombinant Nipah virus vaccines protect pigs against challenge. J. Virol. 80:79297938.
150. Weiss, C. D. 2003. HIV-1 gp41: mediator of fusion and target for inhibition. AIDS Rev. 5:214221.
151. Weiss, R. A.,, and A. J. McMichael. 2004. Social and environmental risk factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Nat. Med. 10:S70S76.
152. Westbury, H. A.,, P. T. Hooper,, S. L. Brouwer,, and P. W. Selleck. 1996. Susceptibility of cats to equine morbillivirus. Aust. Vet. J. 74:132134.
153. Westbury, H. A.,, P. T. Hooper,, P. W. Selleck,, and P. K. Murray. 1995. Equine morbillivirus pneumonia: susceptibility of laboratory animals to the virus. Aust. Vet. J. 72:278279.
154. White, J. R.,, V. Boyd,, G. S. Crameri,, C. J. Duch,, R. K. van Laar,, L. F. Wang,, and B. T. Eaton. 2005. Location of, immunogenicity of and relationships between neutralization epitopes on the attachment protein (G) of Hendra virus. J. Gen. Virol. 86:28392848.
155. Wiley, D. C.,, and J. J. Skehel. 1987. The structure and function of the hemagglutinin membrane glycoprotein of influenza virus. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 56:365394.
156. Williamson, M. M.,, P. T. Hooper,, P. W. Selleck,, L. J. Gleeson,, P. W. Daniels,, H. A. Westbury,, and P. K. Murray. 1998. Transmission studies of Hendra virus (equine morbillivirus) in fruit bats, horses and cats. Aust. Vet. J. 76:813818.
157. Williamson, M. M.,, P. T. Hooper,, P. W. Selleck,, H. A. Westbury,, and R. F. Slocombe. 2000. Experimental Hendra virus infection in pregnant guinea pigs and fruit bats (Pteropus poliocephalus). J. Comp. Pathol. 122:201207.
158. Williamson, M. M.,, P. T. Hooper,, P. W. Selleck,, H. A. Westbury,, and R. F. Slocombe. 2001. A guinea-pig model of Hendra virus encephalitis. J. Comp. Pathol. 124:273279.
159. Wong, K. T.,, I. Grosjean,, C. Brisson,, B. Blanquier,, M. Fevre-Montange,, A. Bernard,, P. Loth,, M. C. Georges-Courbot,, M. Chevallier,, H. Akaoka,, P. Marianneau,, S. K. Lam,, T. F. Wild,, and V. Deubel. 2003. A golden hamster model for human acute Nipah virus infection. Am. J. Pathol. 163:21272137.
160. Wong, K. T.,, W. J. Shieh,, S. Kumar,, K. Norain,, W. Abdullah,, J. Guarner,, C. S. Goldsmith,, K. B. Chua,, S. K. Lam,, C. T. Tan,, K. J. Goh,, H. T. Chong,, R. Jusoh,, P. E. Rollin,, T. G. Ksiazek,, and S. R. Zaki. 2002. Nipah virus infection: pathology and pathogenesis of an emerging paramyxoviral zoonosis. Am. J. Pathol. 161:21532167.
161. Wong, K. T.,, W. J. Shieh,, S. R. Zaki,, and C. T. Tan. 2002. Nipah virus infection, an emerging paramyxoviral zoonosis. Springer Semin. Immunopathol. 24:215228.
162. Wong, S.,, S. Lau,, P. Woo,, and K. Y. Yuen. 2007. Bats as a continuing source of emerging infections in humans. Rev. Med. Virol. 17:6791.
163. Wong, S. C.,, M. H. Ooi,, M. N. Wong,, P. H. Tio,, T. Solomon,, and M. J. Cardosa. 2001. Late presentation of Nipah virus encephalitis and kinetics of the humoral immune response. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 71:552554.
164. Woolhouse, M. E.,, and S. Gowtage-Sequeria. 2005. Host range and emerging and reemerging pathogens. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:18421847.
165. Wright, A.,, S. U. Shin,, and S. L. Morrison. 1992. Genetically engineered antibodies: progress and prospects. Crit. Rev. Immunol. 12:125168.
166. Wu, H.,, D. S. Pfarr,, S. Johnson,, Y. A. Brewah,, R. M. Woods,, N. K. Patel,, W. I. White,, J. F. Young,, and P. A. Kiener. 2007. Development of Motavizumab, an ultra-potent antibody for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in the upper and lower respiratory tract. J. Mol. Biol. 368:652665.
167. Yaiw, K. C.,, G. Crameri,, L. Wang,, H. T. Chong,, K. B. Chua,, C. T. Tan,, K. J. Goh,, D. Shamala,, and K. T. Wong. 2007. Serological evidence of possible human infection with Tioman virus, a newly described paramyxovirus of bat origin. J. Infect. Dis. 196:884886.
168. Yin, H. S.,, R. G. Paterson,, X. Wen,, R. A. Lamb,, and T. S. Jardetzky. 2005. Structure of the uncleaved ectodomain of the paramyxovirus (hPIV3) fusion protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:92889293.
169. Yin, H. S.,, X. Wen,, R. G. Paterson,, R. A. Lamb,, and T. S. Jardetzky. 2006. Structure of the parainfluenza virus 5 F protein in its metastable, prefusion conformation. Nature 439:3844.
170. Yob, J. M.,, H. Field,, A. M. Rashdi,, C. Morrissy,, B. van der Heide,, P. Rota,, A. bin Adzhar,, J. White,, P. Daniels,, A. Jamaluddin,, and T. Ksiazek. 2001. Nipah virus infection in bats (order Chiroptera) in peninsular Malaysia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:439441.
171. Young, P. L.,, K. Halpin,, P. W. Selleck,, H. Field,, J. L. Gravel,, M. A. Kelly,, and J. S. Mackenzie. 1996. Serologic evidence for the presence in Pteropus bats of a paramyxovirus related to equine morbillivirus. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2:239240.
172. Yu, M.,, E. Hansson,, J. P. Langedijk,, B. T. Eaton,, and L. F. Wang. 1998. The attachment protein of Hendra virus has high structural similarity but limited primary sequence homology compared with viruses in the genus Paramyxovirus. Virology 251:227233.
173. Zeitlin, L.,, R. A. Cone,, T. R. Moench,, and K. J. Whaley. 2000. Preventing infectious disease with passive immunization. Microbes Infect. 2:701708.
174. Zhang, J.,, and S. Hughes. 2006. Role of the ephrin and Eph receptor tyrosine kinase families in angiogenesis and development of the cardiovascular system. J. Pathol. 208:453461.
175. Zhu, Z.,, K. N. Bossart,, G. Crameri,, K. A. Bishop,, A. S. Dimitrov,, Y. Feng,, B. T. Eaton,, L. F. Wang,, C. C. Broder,, and D. S. Dimitrov. 2008. Exceptionally potent cross-reactive neutralization of Nipah and Hendra viruses by a human monoclonal antibody. J. Infect. Dis. 197:846853.
176. Zhu, Z.,, A. S. Dimitrov,, S. Chakraborti,, D. Dimitrova,, X. Xiao,, C. C. Broder,, and D. S. Dimitrov. 2006. Development of human monoclonal antibodies against diseases caused by emerging and biodefense-related viruses. Expert Rev. Anti Infect. Ther. 4:5766.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Serological evidence of henipaviruses in bats

Citation: Bishop K, Broder C. 2008. Hendra and Nipah Viruses: Lethal Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses, p 155-187. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Animal models of NiV and HeV infection and pathogenesis in comparison to human infection

Citation: Bishop K, Broder C. 2008. Hendra and Nipah Viruses: Lethal Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses, p 155-187. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Active immunization and passive antibody therapeutic strategies for NiV and HeV tested in animal models by virus challenge

Citation: Bishop K, Broder C. 2008. Hendra and Nipah Viruses: Lethal Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses, p 155-187. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch9

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error