1887

Chapter 10 : Combating and Predicting Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks: a Scientific and Geopolitical Challenge for the Future

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Combating and Predicting Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks: a Scientific and Geopolitical Challenge for the Future, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815592/9781555814441_Chap10-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815592/9781555814441_Chap10-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter provides an updated presentation of the clinical features and the epidemiology of rift valley fever (RVF). RVF is a rather complex disease that may emerge and be maintained in different types of ecosystems. The chapter describes persistence of the virus in affected areas and scenarios for disease emergence, and reviews the potential further dissemination of the virus and possible changes in outbreak occurrence in the future. It also provides proposals to improve one's knowledge of the ecology of the disease and to strengthen the prediction and early warning tools that can be used to adapt existing surveillance and control measures in new global economic, ecological, and climatic contexts. RVF is caused by an RNA virus belonging to the genus ( family). The duration of viremia depends on the species affected, ranging from 16 h in lambs to 7 days in adult sheep, goats, and cattle. Virus isolation can be performed in suckling or weaned mice by intraperitoneal inoculation, and RVFV can be identified in tissue culture. Vectorial transmission is probably the main transmission mechanism for RVFV in animals during interepizootic periods. RVF has been reported in arid ecosystems, where watering places are temporary. The use of vaccines for at-risk human populations and vulnerable people (farmers, veterinarians, etc.) in the case of animal outbreaks should be studied on the basis of well-designed sociological and epidemiological surveys.

Citation: Chevalier V, Martin V, La Rocque S, Roger F. 2008. Combating and Predicting Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks: a Scientific and Geopolitical Challenge for the Future, p 189-212. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch10

Key Concept Ranking

Rift Valley Fever
0.49589315
Reverse Transcriptase PCR
0.4941613
West Nile Fever
0.49186152
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
0.4856413
0.49589315
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Theoretical epidemiological cycle of RVF.

Citation: Chevalier V, Martin V, La Rocque S, Roger F. 2008. Combating and Predicting Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks: a Scientific and Geopolitical Challenge for the Future, p 189-212. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

RVF ecozones and dissemination routes. Adapted from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention map (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/rvf/rvfmap.htm).

Citation: Chevalier V, Martin V, La Rocque S, Roger F. 2008. Combating and Predicting Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks: a Scientific and Geopolitical Challenge for the Future, p 189-212. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815592.ch10
1. Abd El-Rahim, I. H. A.,, U. A. El-Hakim,, and M. Hussein. 1999. An epizootic of Rift Valley fever in Egypt in 1997. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epizoot. 18:741748.
2. Abdo-Salem, S.,, G. Gerbier,, P. Bonnet,, M. Al-Qadasi,, A. Tran,, E. Thiry,, G. Al-Eryni,, and F. Roger. 2006. Descriptive and spatial epidemiology of Rift Valley fever outbreak in Yemen 2000–2001. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1081:240242.
3. Ahmad, K. 2000. More deaths from Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Lancet 356:1422.
4. Akakpo, A. J.,, J. F. Saluzzo,, R. Bada,, P. Bornarel,, and P. Sarradin. 1991. Epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in West Africa. 1. Serological investigation of small ruminants in Niger. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. Filiales 84:217224.
5. Akakpo, A. J.,, M. J. Some,, P. Bornarel,, A. Jouan,, and J. P. Gonzalez. 1989. Epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in western Africa. I. Serologic survey in domestic ruminants of Burkina Faso. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. Filiales 82:321331.
6. Anyamba, A.,, K. J. Linthicum,, and C. J. Tucker. 2001. Climate-disease connections: Rift Valley Fever in Kenya. Cad. Saude Publica 17(Suppl.):133140.
7. Arishi, H. M.,, A. Y. Aqeel,, and M. M. Al Hazmi. 2006. Vertical transmission of fatal Rift Valley fever in a newborn. Ann. Trop. Pediatr. 26:251253.
8. Arthur, R. R.,, M. S. el-Sharkawy,, S. E. Cope,, B. A. Botros,, S. Oun,, J. C. Morrill,, R. E. Shope,, R. G. Hibbs,, M. A. Darwish,, and I. Z. Imam. 1993. Recurrence of Rift Valley fever in Egypt. Lancet 342:11491150.
9. Balkhy, H. H.,, and Z. A. Memish. 2003. Rift Valley Fever: an uninvited zoonosis in the Arabian Peninsula. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 21:153157.
10. Beaty, B. J.,, and W. C. Marquardt. 1996. The Biology of Disease Vectors. University Press of Colorado, Niwot.
11. Boiro, I.,, O. K. Konstaninov,, and A. D. Numerov. 1987. Isolation of Rift Valley fever virus from bats in the Republic of Guinea. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. Filiales 80:6267.
12. Caplen, H.,, C. J. Peters,, and D. H. Bishop. 1985. Mutagen-directed attenuation of RVF as a method for vaccine development. J. Gen. Virol. 66:22712277.
13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007. Rift Valley fever outbreak—Kenya, November 2006–January 2007. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 56:7376.
14. Chevalier, V.,, R. Lancelot,, Y. Thiongane,, B. Sall,, and B. Mondet. 2005. Incidence of Rift Valley fever in small ruminants in the Ferlo pastoral system (Senegal) during the 2003 rainy season. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:16931700.
15. Christensen, J. H.,, B. Hewitson,, A. Busuioc,, A. Chen,, X. Gao,, I. Held,, R. Jones,, R. K. Kolli,, W. T. Kwon,, R. Lapise,, V. Magana Rueda,, L. Mearns,, C. G. Menendez,, J. Raisanen,, A. Rinke,, A. Sarr,, and P. Whetton. 2007. Regional climate projection, p. 94. In S. D. Solomon,, M. Manning,, Z. Chen,, M. Marquis,, K. B Averyt,, M. Tignor, and, H. L. Miller (ed.), Climate Change 2007: the Physical Basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
16. Daubney, R.,, J. R. Hudson,, and P. C. Garnham. 1931. Enzootic hepatitis or Rift Valley fever: an undescribed disease of sheep, cattle and man from East Africa. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 89:545579.
17. Davies, F. G.,, and L. Karstad. 1981. Experimental infection of the African buffalo with the virus of Rift Valley fever. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 13:185188.
18. Davies, F. G.,, E. Kilelu,, K. J. Linthicum,, and R. G. Pegram. 1992. Patterns of Rift Valley fever activity in Zambia. Epidemiol. Infect. 108:185191.
19. Davies, F. G.,, and V. Martin. 2006. Recognizing Rift Valley fever. Vet. Ital. 42:3153.
20. Davies, F. G.,, and M. J. Nunn. 1998. Risk of Rift Valley Fever from Livestock Imported into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from the Horn of Africa. FAO, Rome, Italy.
21. Digoutte, J. P.,, and C. J. Peters. 1989. General aspects of the 1987 Rift Valley fever epidemic in Mauritania. Res. Virol. 140:2730.
22. Diop, G.,, Y. Thiongane,, J. Thonnon,, D. Fontenille,, M. Diallo,, A. A. Sall,, T. D. Ruel,, and J. P. Gonzalez. 2000. The potential role of rodents in the enzootic cycle of Rift Valley fever virus in Senegal. Microbes Infect. 2:343346.
23. EFSA. 2005. The risk of Rift Valley fever incursion and its persistence within the community. EFSA-Q-2004-050; EFSA1. EFSA, Parma, Italy.
24. EMPRES. 2006. EMPRES watch: possible reemergence of RVF in East Africa. FAO, Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/docs/eims/upload//217874/EW_hornafrica_nov06_rvf.pdf.
25. Fontenille, D.,, M. Traore-Lamizana,, H. Zeller,, M. Mondo,, M. Diallo,, and J. P. Digoutte. 1995. Rift Valley fever in western Africa: isolations from Aedes mosquitoes during an interepizootic period. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 52:403404.
26. Geering, W.,, F. G. Davis,, and V. Martin. 2003. Préparations des Plans d’Intervention Contre la Fièvre de la Vallée du Rift. FAO, Rome, Italy.
27. Georges, A. J.,, S. A. Wahid,, D. Y. Meunier,, M. C. Georges,, J. F. Saluzzo,, C. J. Peters,, J. B. McCormick,, and J. P. Gonzalez. 1983. Serological evidence of endemic Zinga virus and Rift Valley fever virus in Central African Republic. Lancet i:1338.
28. Gerdes, G. H. 2004. Rift Valley fever. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epizoot. 23:613623.
29. Gonzalez, J. P.,, J. B. McCormick,, J. F. Saluzzo,, and A. J. Georges. 1983. Les fièvres hémorragiques Africaines d’origine virale. Contribution à leur étude en République Centrafricaine. Cahiers l’ORSTOM Entomol. Méd. Parasitol. 21:119130.
30. Gubler, D. J. 2002. The global emergence/resurgence of arboviral diseases as public health problems. Arch. Med. Res. 33:330342.
31. Imam, I. Z.,, M. A. Darwish,, and R. E. Karamany. 1978. Epidemic of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Egypt: virological diagnosis of RVF in man. J. Egypt. Public Health Assoc. 53:205208.
32. Institut de Veille Sanitaire. 2007. Cas Importé de Fièvre de la Vallée du Rift. Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Paris, France.
33. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007. Climate Change 2007: the Physical Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
34. Jouan, A.,, B. Le Guenno,, J. P. Digoutte,, B. Philippe,, O. Riou,, and F. Adam. 1988. An RVF epidemic in southern Mauritania. Ann. Inst. Pasteur Virol. 139:307308.
35. Kokernot, R. H.,, V. M. R. Casaca,, M. P. Weinbren,, and B. M. Mcintosh. 1965. Survey for antibodies against arthropod-borne viruses in the sera of indigenous residents of Angola. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 59:563570.
36. Kokernot, R. H.,, E. L. Szlamp,, J. Levitt,, and B. M. Mcintosh. 1965. Survey for antibodies against arthropod-borne viruses in the sera of indigenous residents of the Caprivi Strip and Bechuanaland Protectorate. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 59:553562.
37. Lebreton, M.,, S. Umlauf,, C. Djoko,, P. Daszak,, D. S. Burke,, P. Kwenkam,, and N. Wolfe. 2006. Rift Valley fever in goats, Cameroon. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:702703.
38. Lefèvre, P. C.,, J. Blancou,, and R. Chermette (ed.). 2003. Principales Maladies Infectieuses et Parasitaires du Bétail. Europe et Régions Chaudes, vol. 1. Lavoisier, London, England.
39. Linthicum, K. J.,, A. Anyamba,, C. J. Tucker,, P. W. Kelley,, M. F. Myers,, and C. J. Peters. 1999. Climate and satellite indicators to forecast Rift Valley fever epidemics in Kenya. Science 285:397400.
40. Linthicum, K. J.,, C. L. Bailey,, F. G. Davies,, and C. J. Tucker. 1987. Detection of Rift Valley fever viral activity in Kenya by satellite remote sensing imagery. Science 235:16561659.
41. Linthicum, K. J.,, F. G. Davies,, A. Kairo,, and C. L. Bailey. 1985. Rift Valley fever virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus). Isolations from Diptera collected during an inter-epizootic period in Kenya. J. Hyg. 95:197209.
42. Marrama, L.,, A. Spiegel,, K. Ndiaye,, A. A. Sall,, E. Gomes,, M. Diallo,, Y. Thiongane,, C. Mathiot,, and J. P. Gonzalez. 2005. Domestic transmission of Rift Valley fever virus in Diawara (Senegal) in 1998. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 36:14871495.
43. McIntosh, B. M.,, and P. G. Jupp. 1981. Epidemiological aspects of Rift Valley fever in South Africa with reference to vectors. Contrib. Epidemiol. Biostat. 3:9299.
44. McIntosh, B. M.,, P. G. Jupp,, I. Dos Santos,, and A. C. Rowe. 1983. Field and laboratory evidence implicating Culex zambiensis and Aedes circumluteolus as vector of Rift Valley fever in coastal South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 79:6164.
45. Meegan, J. M.,, H. Hoogstraal,, and M. I. Moussa. 1979. An epizootic of Rift Valley fever in Egypt in 1977. Vet. Rec. 105:124125.
46. Meiswinkel, R.,, T. Baldet,, R. De Deken,, W. Takken,, J. C. Delécolle,, and P. Mellor. Distribution and dynamics of vector species. Epidemiological analysis of the 2006 bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic in north-western Europe. Prev. Vet. Med., in press.
47. Mondet, B.,, A. Diaïté,, J. A. Ndione,, A. G. Fall,, V. Chevalier,, R. Lancelot,, M. Ndiaye,, and N. Ponçon. 2005. Rainfall patterns and population dynamics of Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans arabiensis Patton, 1905 (Diptera, Culicidae), a potential vector of Rift Valley fever virus in Senegal. J. Vector Ecol. 30:102110.
48. Morvan, J.,, P. E. Rollin,, and J. Roux. 1992. Rift Valley fever in Madagascar in 1991. Sero-epidemiological studies in cattle. Rev. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays. Trop. 45:121127.
49. Muller, R.,, J. F. Saluzzo,, N. Lopez,, T. Dreier,, M. Turell,, J. Smith,, and M. Bouloy. 1995. Characterization of clone 13, a naturally attenuated avirulent isolate of Rift Valley fever virus, which is altered in the small segment. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 53:405411.
50. Niklasson, B. S.,, and T. P. Gargan. 1985. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Rift Valley fever virus antigen in mosquitoes. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 34:400405.
51. Oelofsen, M. J.,, and E. Van der Ryst. 1999. Could bats act as reservoir hosts for Rift Valley fever virus? Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 66:5154.
52. O’Malley, C. M. 1990. Aedes vexans (Meigen): an old foe. Proc. N. J. Mosquito Control Assoc. 1990:9095.
53. Paweska, J. T.,, B. J. Barnard,, and R. Williams. 1995. The use of sucrose-acetone-extracted Rift Valley fever virus antigen derived from cell culture in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and haemagglutination-inhibition test. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 62:227233.
54. Pretorius, A.,, M. J. Oelofsen,, M. S. Smith,, and E. Van der Ryst. 1997. Rift Valley fever virus: a seroepidemiologic study of small terrestrial vertebrates in South Africa. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 57:693698.
55. Purse, B. V.,, P. S. Mellor,, D. J. Rogers,, A. R. Samuel,, P. P. Mertens,, and M. Baylis. 2005. Climate change and the recent emergence of bluetongue in Europe. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 3:171181.
56. Racloz, V.,, C. Griot,, and K. D. C. Stärk. 2007. Sentinel surveillance systems with special focus on vector-borne diseases. Anim. Health Res. Rev. 7:7179.
57. Ringot, D.,, J. P. Durand,, H. Tolou,, J. P. Boutin,, and B. Davoust. 2004. Rift Valley fever in Tchad. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:945947.
58. Saleh, A. S.,, K. A. Mohammed,, M. M. Hassan,, T. J. Bucci,, and J. M. Meegan. 1981. Antibodies to Rift Valley fever virus in the human population of Sudan. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 75:129130.
59. Sall, A. A.,, J. Thonnon,, O. K. Sene,, A. Fall,, M. Ndiaye,, B. Baudez,, C. Mathiot,, and M. Bouloy. 2001. Single-tube and nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for detection of Rift Valley fever virus in human and animal sera. J. Virol. Methods 91:8592.
60. Saluzzo, J. F.,, G. W. Anderson, Jr.,, L. A. Hodgson,, J. P. Digoutte,, and J. F. Smith. 1989. Antigenic and biological properties of Rift Valley fever virus isolated during the 1987 Mauritanian epidemic. Res. Virol. 140:155164.
61. Saluzzo, J. F.,, J. P. Digoutte,, C. Chartier,, D. Martinez,, and R. Bada. 1987. Focus of Rift Valley fever virus transmission in southern Mauritania. Lancet i:504.
62. Shaman, J.,, J. F. Day,, and M. Stieglitz. 2005. Drought induced amplification and epidemic transmission of West Nile virus in southern Florida. J. Med. Entomol. 42:134141.
63. Shoemaker, T.,, C. Boulianne,, M. J. Vincent,, L. Pezzanite,, M. M. Al-Qahtani,, Y. Al-Mazrou,, A. S. Khan,, P. E. Rollin,, R. Swanepoel,, T. G. Ksiazek,, and S. T. Nichol. 2002. Genetic analysis of viruses associated with emergence of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, 2000–2001. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:14151420.
64. Soti, V.,, V. Chevalier,, J. Maura,, A. Tran,, E. Etter,, C. Lelong,, D. Sow,, M. Ndiaye,, B. Sall,, Y. Thiongane,, R. Lancelot,, and S. De La Rocque. 2007. Application of very high spatial resolution remote sensing data for the characterization of risk areas for Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Senegal. Presented at the GISVet Conference, 20 to 24 August 2007, Copenhagen, Denmark. http://www.gisvet.org/Documents/GisVet07/Poster/Soti_poster.pdf.
65. Stark, K. D.,, G. Regula,, J. Hernandez,, L. Knopf,, K. Fuchs,, R. S. Morris,, and P. Davis. 2006. Concepts for risk-based surveillance in the field of veterinary medicine and veterinary public health: review of current approaches. BMC Health Serv. Res. 6:20.
66. Swanepoel, R. 1981. Observations on Rift Valley fever in Zimbabwe. Contrib. Epidemiol. Biostat. 3:8391.
67. Thiongane, Y.,, and V. Martin. 2003. Système sous-régional d’alerte et de contrôle de la Fièvre de la Vallée du Rift (FVR) en Afrique de l’Ouest. Bulletin d’Information, no. 7. ISRA-FAO, Dakar, Senegal.
68. Tillard, E. 2006. Situation et risques sanitaires de l’élevage à Mayotte. CIRAD, Montpellier, France.
69. Turell, M. J. 1989. Effect of environmental temperature on the vector competence of Aedes fowleri for Rift Valley fever virus. Res. Virol. 140:147154.
70. Turell, M. J.,, M. E. Faran,, M. Cornet,, and C. L. Bailey. 1988. Vector competence of Senegalese Aedes fowleri (Diptera: Culicidae) for Rift Valley fever virus. J. Med. Entomol. 25:262266.
71. Vialat, P.,, A. Billecocq,, A. Kohl,, and M. Bouloy. 2000. The S segment of Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) carries determinants for attenuation and virulence in mice. J. Virol. 74:15381543.
72. Ward, M. P.,, M. Flanagan,, T. E. Carpenter,, D. W. Hird,, M. C. Thurmond,, S. J. Johnson,, and M. E. Dashort. 1995. Infection of cattle with bluetongue viruses in Queensland, Australia: results of a sentinel herd study, 1990–1992. Vet. Microbiol. 45:3544.
73. WHO. 2007. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Kenya, Somalia, and United Republic of Tanzania, December 2006–April 2007. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 82:169180.
74. WHO. 2003. Rift Valley fever in Egypt. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.who.int/csr/don/2003_09_02a/en/.
75. Woods, C.,, A. Karpati,, T. Grein,, M. Mac Carthy,, P. Gaturuku,, E. Muchiri,, L. Dunster,, A. Henderson,, A. Khan,, R. Swanepoel,, I. Bonmarin,, L. Martin,, L. Mann,, B. Smoak,, M. Ryan,, T. Ksiazek,, R. Arthur,, A. Ndikuyeze,, N. Agata,, and C. Peters. 2002. An outbreak of Rift Valley fever in northeastern Kenya, 1997–1998. Emerg. Infect. Dis 8:138144.
76. Zeller, H. G.,, D. Fontenille,, M. Traore-Lamizana,, Y. Thiongane,, and J. P. Digoutte. 1997. Enzootic activity of Rift Valley fever virus in Senegal. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 56:265272.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

RVFV pathosystems and known or assumed emergence and persistence processes

Citation: Chevalier V, Martin V, La Rocque S, Roger F. 2008. Combating and Predicting Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks: a Scientific and Geopolitical Challenge for the Future, p 189-212. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch10

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error