Chapter 11 : : the Threat Remains

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is an important pathogen associated with a range of diseases in pigs, including meningitis, septicemia, pneumonia, endocarditis, and arthritis. The most important candidates for virulence factors in serotype 2 are the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and the virulence related proteins, like muramidase-released protein (MRP), extracellular protein factor (EF), suilysin, and adhesins. The majority of strains produce narrow zones of alpha-hemolysis on sheep blood agar plates. Presumptive identification based on four biochemical tests (Voges-Proskauer, salicin, trehalose, and 6.5% NaCl) is possible for almost all capsular types of . Drug resistance to antibiotics varies in different countries. Tetracycline resistance has been observed in almost all strains isolated from all locations. Various types of vaccines for control of have been developed for pigs, with varied protective efficacy. The major vaccine commonly used in the pig industry, however, remains an inactivated autogenous vaccine generated from virulent strains from sick pigs. The most common gross lesions are congestion of the meninges, lymph nodes, and lungs, and the most common histopathological findings are within the choroidal plexus. A reference procedure to identify the serotype 2 issued by the Chinese CDC, which included staining, hemolytic analysis, serological clarification, biochemical analysis, and PCR assay, was used in diagnosis during the outbreaks of in China in 2005.

Citation: Wang Q, Lun Z. 2008. : the Threat Remains, p 213-228. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch11
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Figure 1.

Gram stain of from CSF. The figure shows is a gram-positive coccoid rod that is arranged in pairs and short chains. The image is reproduced with permission from the ( ).

Citation: Wang Q, Lun Z. 2008. : the Threat Remains, p 213-228. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch11
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Countries or regions where cases of human infection have been reported. Country codes: 1, Sweden; 2, Denmark; 3, United Kingdom; 4, Belgium; 5, Germany; 6, The Netherlands; 7, France; 8, Hungary; 9, Austria; 10, Croatia; 11, Italy; 12, Spain; 13, Greece. The figure is reproduced with permission from ( ).

Citation: Wang Q, Lun Z. 2008. : the Threat Remains, p 213-228. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch11
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Figure 3.

Clinical appearance of subcutaneous hemorrhage found in a patient infected with . The image is reproduced from ( ).

Citation: Wang Q, Lun Z. 2008. : the Threat Remains, p 213-228. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch11
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Generic image for table
Table 1.

Reported cases of humans infected with worldwide

Citation: Wang Q, Lun Z. 2008. : the Threat Remains, p 213-228. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Clinical features of human cases in the 2005 outbreak of serotype 2 infections

Citation: Wang Q, Lun Z. 2008. : the Threat Remains, p 213-228. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch11

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