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Chapter 13 : Pertussis

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Abstract:

Compared to the prevaccination era, reported cases of pertussis declined by 92.2% and pertussis deaths by 99.3%. The proportion of reported pertussis cases that were confirmed by PCR in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System increased from 12% in 1997 to 44% in 2005. The organism produces a number of biologically active virulence factors that play different roles in the course of the disease. Well-characterized, standardized single-point serologic assays that distinguish between the immune response from clinical pertussis and vaccine-mediated immunity would provide useful adjuncts to pertussis diagnosis and surveillance. Early treatment of pertussis with recommended antimicrobials may ameliorate the severity and reduce the duration of clinical symptoms, eliminate from the nasopharynx, shorten the period of infectivity, and therefore reduce the risk of secondary spread to susceptible individuals. The recommended antimicrobial agents and dosing regimens for postexposure prophylaxis are the same as those for treatment of pertussis. Acellular vaccines contain inactivated pertussis toxoid and one or more of four other purified antigens (FHA, PRN, FIM2, and FIM3) derived from . A major priority for public health is the development of reliable standardized laboratory tests that are rapid and have high sensitivity and specificity early in the course of pertussis disease. Successful implementation of recommendations for newly licensed adolescent and adult pertussis vaccines should reduce the current disease burden and result in changes in the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of the disease.

Citation: Tiwari T. 2008. Pertussis, p 257-275. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch13

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Figures

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Figure 1.

Pertussis global annual reported incidence and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine coverage with three doses, 1980 to 2006. Reproduced from the WHO 2006 global summary ( ).

Citation: Tiwari T. 2008. Pertussis, p 257-275. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch13
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Cases of pertussis, United States, 1922 to 2006, as reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Citation: Tiwari T. 2008. Pertussis, p 257-275. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch13
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Tables

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Table 1.

Recommended antimicrobial treatment and postexposure prophylaxis for pertussis by age group

Citation: Tiwari T. 2008. Pertussis, p 257-275. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch13

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