Chapter 19 : Non- Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Non- Infections, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815592/9781555814441_Chap19-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815592/9781555814441_Chap19-2.gif


There has been an increase in both the proportion as well as prevalence of non-albicans species, including patients who experience breakthrough infection with non- strains. was the least common cause of bloodstream infection (BSI) in Latin America (7.5%) and the most common in Canada (20.1%) and the United States (18.3%). Understandably, local institutional antifungal pressure affects the local epidemiology of candidiasis as well as affecting antimicrobial resistance. was more frequently seen in patients with hematologic malignancies in one study. While some centers have reported an increased mortality associated with non- species compared to , there is no consistent pattern. In discussing mortality, it should be emphasized that multiple host factors and treatment variables other than the virulence of the yeast strain involved can contribute to and influence mortality. Testing was always indicated for persistent and recurrent candidemia and for unique clinical scenarios, e.g., , particularly with the presence of non- species. The explanation for this phenomenon is still incomplete but includes small numbers of patients with non- species infections and the impact of host factors, e.g., inconsistent catheter removal, abscess drainage, etc., diluting the importance of species differences in drug susceptibility. Individual cases have also been reported in which the reduced susceptibility or resistance of individual isolates, especially those of non- species, do influence clinical outcome and validate the importance of in vitro susceptibility tests.

Citation: Sobel J, Revankar S. 2008. Non- Infections, p 393-411. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch19

Key Concept Ranking

Antifungal Agents
Candida albicans
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Incidence of BSIs in hospital ICUs in the United States. Reprinted from reference with permission.

Citation: Sobel J, Revankar S. 2008. Non- Infections, p 393-411. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abi-Said, D.,, E. Anaissie,, O. Uzun,, I. Raad,, H. Pinzcowski,, and S. Vartivarian. 1997. The epidemiology of hematogenous candidiasis caused by different Candida species. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:11221128.
2. Almirante, B.,, D. Rodriguez,, M. Cuenca-Estrella,, M. Almela,, F. Sanchez,, J. Ayats,, C. Alonso-Tarres,, J. L. Rodriguez-Tudela,, and A. Pahissa. 2006. Epidemiology, risk factors, and prognosis of Candida parapsilosis bloodstream infections: case-control population-based surveillance study of patients in Barcelona, Spain, from 2002 to 2003. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:16811685.
3. Arendrup, M.,, T. Horn,, and N. Frimodt-Moller. 2002. In vivo pathogenicity of eight medically relevant Candida species in an animal model. Infection 30:286291.
4. Barchiesi, F.,, V. Morbiducci,, F. Ancarani,, and G. Scalise. 1993. Emergence of oropharyngeal candidiasis caused by non-albicans species of Candida in HIV-infected patients. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 9:455456.
5. Barchiesi, F.,, E. Spreghini,, M. Maracci,, A. W. Fothergill,, I. Baldassarri,, M. G. Rinaldi,, and G. Scalise. 2004. In vitro activities of voriconazole in combination with three other antifungal agents against Candida glabrata. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:33173322.
6. Barchiesi, F.,, E. Spreghini,, S. Tomassetti,, A. Della Vittoria,, D. Arzeni,, E. Manso,, and G. Scalise. 2006. Effects of caspofungin against Candida guilliermondii and Candida parapsilosis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:27192727.
7. Bassetti, M.,, E. Righi,, A. Costa,, R. Fasce,, M. P. Molinari,, R. Rosso,, F. B. Pallavicini,, and C. Viscoli. 2006. Epidemiological trends in nosocomial candidemia in intensive care. BMC Infect. Dis. 6:21.
8. Bedini, A.,, C. Venturelli,, C. Mussini,, G. Guaraldi,, M. Codeluppi,, V. Borghi,, F. Rumpianesi,, F. Barchiesi,, and R. Esposito. 2006. Epidemiology of candidaemia and antifungal susceptibility patterns in an Italian tertiary-care hospital. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 12:7580.
9. Bennett, J. E.,, K. Izumikawa,, and K. A. Marr. 2004. Mechanism of increased fluconazole resistance in Candida glabrata during prophylaxis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:17731777.
10. Bodey, G. P.,, M. Mardani,, H. A. Hanna,, M. Boktour,, J. Abbas,, E. Girgawy,, R. Y. Hachem,, D. P. Kontoyiannis,, and I. I. Raad. 2002. The epidemiology of Candida glabrata and Candida albicans fungemia in immunocompromised patients with cancer. Am. J. Med. 112:380385.
11. Borst, A.,, M. T. Raimer,, D. W. Warnock,, C. J. Morrison,, and B. A. Arthington-Skaggs. 2005. Rapid acquisition of stable azole resistance by Candida glabrata isolates obtained before the clinical introduction of fluconazole. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:783787.
12. Brito, L. R.,, T. Guimaraes,, M. Nucci,, R. C. Rosas,, L. Paula Almeida,, D. A. Da Matta,, and A. L. Colombo. 2006. Clinical and microbiological aspects of candidemia due to Candida parapsilosis in Brazilian tertiary care hospitals. Med. Mycol. 44:261266.
13. Chai, Y. A.,, Y. Wang,, A. L. Khoo,, F. Y. Chan,, C. Chow,, G. Kumarasinghe,, K. Singh,, and P. A. Tambyah. 2007. Predominance of Candida tropicalis bloodstream infections in a Singapore teaching hospital. Med. Mycol. 45:435439.
14. Chen, S.,, M. Slavin,, Q. Nguyen,, D. Marriott,, E. G. Playford,, D. Ellis,, and T. Sorrell. 2006. Active surveillance for candidemia, Australia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:15081516.
15. Clark, T. A.,, S. A. Slavinski,, J. Morgan,, T. Lott,, B. A. Arthington-Skaggs,, M. E. Brandt,, R. M. Webb,, M. Currier,, R. H. Flowers,, S. K. Fridkin,, and R. A. Hajjeh. 2004. Epidemiologic and molecular characterization of an outbreak of Candida parapsilosis bloodstream infections in a community hospital. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:44684472.
16. Colombo, A. L.,, A. S. Melo,, R. F. Crespo Rosas,, R. Salomao,, M. Briones,, R. J. Hollis,, S. A. Messer,, and M. A. Pfaller. 2003. Outbreak of Candida rugosa candidemia: an emerging pathogen that may be refractory to amphotericin B therapy. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 46:253257.
17. Colombo, A. L.,, M. Nucci,, B. J. Park,, S. A. Nouer,, B. Arthington-Skaggs,, D. A. da Matta,, D. Warnock,, and J. Morgan. 2006. Epidemiology of candidemia in Brazil: a nationwide sentinel surveillance of candidemia in eleven medical centers. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:28162823.
18. Cuenca-Estrella, M.,, D. Rodriguez,, B. Almirante,, J. Morgan,, A. M. Planes,, M. Almela,, J. Mensa,, F. Sanchez,, J. Ayats,, M. Gimenez,, M. Salvado,, D. W. Warnock,, A. Pahissa,, and J. L. Rodriguez-Tudela. 2005. In vitro susceptibilities of bloodstream isolates of Candida species to six antifungal agents: results from a population-based active surveillance programme, Barcelona, Spain, 2002–2003. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 55:194199.
19. Davis, S. L.,, J. A. Vazquez,, and P. S. McKinnon. 2007. Epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes of Candida albicans versus non-albicans candidemia in nonneutropenic patients. Ann. Pharmacother. 41:568573.
20. de Leon, E. M.,, S. J. Jacober,, J. D. Sobel,, and B. Foxman. 2002. Prevalence and risk factors for vaginal Candida colonization in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. BMC Infect. Dis. 2:1.
21. de Wet, N.,, A. Llanos-Cuentas,, J. Suleiman,, E. Baraldi,, E. F. Krantz,, M. Della Negra,, and H. Diekmann-Berndt. 2004. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, dose-response study of micafungin compared with fluconazole for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis in HIV-positive patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:842849.
22. Edwards, J. E., Jr. 1991. Invasive Candida infections—evolution of a fungal pathogen. N. Engl. J. Med. 324:10601062.
23. Eggimann, P.,, J. Garbino,, and D. Pittet. 2003. Epidemiology of Candida species infections in critically ill non-immunosuppressed patients. Lancet Infect. Dis. 3:685702.
24. Forrest, G. N.,, K. Mankes,, M. A. Jabra-Rizk,, E. Weekes,, J. K. Johnson,, D. P. Lincalis,, and R. A. Venezia. 2006. Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization-based identification of Candida albicans and its impact on mortality and antifungal therapy costs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:33813383.
25. Fridkin, S. K.,, D. Kaufman,, J. R. Edwards,, S. Shetty,, and T. Horan. 2006. Changing incidence of Candida bloodstream infections among NICU patients in the United States: 1995–2004. Pediatrics 117:16801687.
26. Girmenia, C.,, G. Pizzarelli,, F. Cristini,, F. Barchiesi,, E. Spreghini,, G. Scalise,, and P. Martino. 2006. Candida guilliermondii fungemia in patients with hematologic malignancies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:24582464.
27. Gudlaugsson, O.,, S. Gillespie,, K. Lee,, J. Vande Berg,, J. Hu,, S. Messer,, L. Herwaldt,, M. Pfaller,, and D. Diekema. 2003. Attributable mortality of nosocomial candidemia, revisited. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:11721177.
28. Gumbo, T.,, C. M. Isada,, G. Hall,, M. T. Karafa,, and S. M. Gordon. 1999. Candida glabrata fungemia. Clinical features of 139 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 78:220227.
29. Hajjeh, R. A.,, A. N. Sofair,, L. H. Harrison,, G. M. Lyon,, B. A. Arthington-Skaggs,, S. A. Mirza,, M. Phelan,, J. Morgan,, W. Lee-Yang,, M. A. Ciblak,, L. E. Benjamin,, L. T. Sanza,, S. Huie,, S. F. Yeo,, M. E. Brandt,, and D. W. Warnock. 2004. Incidence of bloodstream infections due to Candida species and in vitro susceptibilities of isolates collected from 1998 to 2000 in a population-based active surveillance program. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:15191527.
30. Imhof, A.,, S. A. Balajee,, D. N. Fredricks,, J. A. Englund,, and K. A. Marr. 2004. Breakthrough fungal infections in stem cell transplant recipients receiving voriconazole. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:743746.
31. Jabra-Rizk, M. A.,, J. K. Johnson,, G. Forrest,, K. Mankes,, T. F. Meiller,, and R. A. Venezia. 2005. Prevalence of Candida dubliniensis fungemia at a large teaching hospital. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41:10641067.
32. Jarvis, W. R. 1995. Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections, with emphasis on Candida species. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:15261530.
33. Kauffman, C. A. 2005. Candiduria. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41(Suppl. 6):S371S376.
34. Kaur, R.,, R. Domergue,, M. L. Zupancic,, and B. P. Cormack. 2005. A yeast by any other name: Candida glabrata and its interaction with the host. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 8:378384.
35. Klevay, M. J.,, E. J. Ernst,, J. L. Hollanbaugh,, J. G. Miller,, M. A. Pfaller,, and D. J. Diekema. 2007. Therapy and outcome of Candida glabrata versus Candida albicans bloodstream infection. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 60:273277.
36. Krause, D. S.,, A. E. Simjee,, C. van Rensburg,, J. Viljoen,, T. J. Walsh,, B. P. Goldstein,, M. Wible,, and T. Henkel. 2004. A randomized, double-blind trial of anidulafungin versus fluconazole for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:770775.
37. Krogh-Madsen, M.,, M. C. Arendrup,, L. Heslet,, and J. D. Knudsen. 2006. Amphotericin B and caspofungin resistance in Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a critically ill patient. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:938944.
38. Lin, M. Y.,, Y. Carmeli,, J. Zumsteg,, E. L. Flores,, J. Tolentino,, P. Sreeramoju,, and S. G. Weber. 2005. Prior antimicrobial therapy and risk for hospital-acquired Candida glabrata and Candida krusei fungemia: a case-case-control study. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:45554560.
39. Magill, S. S.,, C. Shields,, C. L. Sears,, M. Choti,, and W. G. Merz. 2006. Triazole cross-resistance among Candida spp.: case report, occurrence among bloodstream isolates, and implications for antifungal therapy. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:529535.
40. Malani, A.,, J. Hmoud,, L. Chiu,, P. L. Carver,, A. Bielaczyc,, and C. A. Kauffman. 2005. Candida glabrata fungemia: experience in a tertiary care center. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41:975981.
41. Marchetti, O.,, J. Bille,, U. Fluckiger,, P. Eggimann,, C. Ruef,, J. Garbino,, T. Calandra,, M. P. Glauser,, M. G. Tauber,, and D. Pittet. 2004. Epidemiology of candidemia in Swiss tertiary care hospitals: secular trends, 1991–2000. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:311320.
42. Marr, K. A.,, K. Seidel,, T. C. White,, and R. A. Bowden. 2000. Candidemia in allogeneic blood and marrow transplant recipients: evolution of risk factors after the adoption of prophylactic fluconazole. J. Infect. Dis. 181:309316.
43. Martin, G. S.,, D. M. Mannino,, S. Eaton,, and M. Moss. 2003. The epidemiology of sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000. N. Engl. J. Med. 348:15461554.
44. Metwally, L.,, M. J. Walker,, P. V. Coyle,, R. J. Hay,, S. Hedderwick,, B. V. McCloskey,, H. J. O’Neill,, C. H. Webb,, and R. McMullan. 2007. Trends in candidemia and antifungal susceptibility in a university hospital in Northern Ireland 2001–2006. J. Infect. 55:174178.
45. Mora-Duarte, J.,, R. Betts,, C. Rotstein,, A. L. Colombo,, L. Thompson-Moya,, J. Smietana,, R. Lupinacci,, C. Sable,, N. Kartsonis,, and J. Perfect. 2002. Comparison of caspofungin and amphotericin B for invasive candidiasis. N. Engl. J. Med. 347:20202029.
46. Morgan, J. 2005. Global trends in candidemia: review of reports from 1995–2005. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 7:429439.
47. Nakamura, T.,, and H. Takahashi. 2006. Epidemiological study of Candida infections in blood: susceptibilities of Candida spp. to antifungal agents, and clinical features associated with the candidemia. J. Infect. Chemother. 12:132138.
48. Nucci, M.,, and A. L. Colombo. 2007. Candidemia due to Candida tropicalis: clinical, epidemiologic, and microbiologic characteristics of 188 episodes occurring in tertiary care hospitals. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 58:7782.
49. Nyirjesy, P.,, A. B. Alexander,, and M. V. Weitz. 2005. Vaginal Candida parapsilosis: pathogen or bystander? Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 13:3741.
50. Olson, J. A.,, J. P. Adler-Moore,, P. J. Smith,, and R. T. Proffitt. 2005. Treatment of Candida glabrata infection in immunosuppressed mice by using a combination of liposomal amphotericin B with caspofungin or micafungin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:48954902.
51. Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.,, J. H. Rex,, P. G. Pappas,, R. J. Hamill,, R. A. Larsen,, H. W. Horowitz,, W. G. Powderly,, N. Hyslop,, C. A. Kauffman,, J. Cleary,, J. E. Mangino,, and J. Lee. 2003. Antifungal susceptibility survey of 2,000 bloodstream Candida isolates in the United States. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:31493154.
52. Panackal, A. A.,, J. L. Gribskov,, J. F. Staab,, K. A. Kirby,, M. Rinaldi,, and K. A. Marr. 2006. Clinical significance of azole antifungal drug cross-resistance in Candida glabrata. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:17401743.
53. Pappas, P. G.,, C. A. Kauffman,, D. Andes,, D. Benjamin,, T. F. Calandra,, J. E. Edwards, Jr.,, S. G. Filler,, J. F. Fisher,, B. J. Kulberg,, L. Ostrosky-Zeichner,, A. C. Reboli,, J. H. Rex,, T. J. Walsh,, and J. D. Sobel. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2008 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Clin. Infect. Dis., in press.
54. Pappas, P. G.,, J. H. Rex,, J. Lee,, R. J. Hamill,, R. A. Larsen,, W. Powderly,, C. A. Kauffman,, N. Hyslop,, J. E. Mangino,, S. Chapman,, H. W. Horowitz,, J. E. Edwards,, and W. E. Dismukes. 2003. A prospective observational study of candidemia: epidemiology, therapy, and influences on mortality in hospitalized adult and pediatric patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:634643.
55. Pappas, P. G.,, J. H. Rex,, J. D. Sobel,, S. G. Filler,, W. E. Dismukes,, T. J. Walsh,, and J. E. Edwards. 2004. Guidelines for treatment of candidiasis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:161189.
56. Pfaller, M. A.,, L. Boyken,, R. J. Hollis,, J. Kroeger,, S. A. Messer,, S. Tendolkar,, and D. J. Diekema. 2008. In vitro susceptibility of invasive isolates of Candida spp. to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin: six years of global surveillance. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:150156.
57. Pfaller, M. A.,, and D. J. Diekema. 2004. Twelve years of fluconazole in clinical practice: global trends in species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 10(Suppl. 1):1123.
58. Pfaller, M. A.,, D. J. Diekema,, A. L. Colombo,, C. Kibbler,, K. P. Ng,, D. L. Gibbs,, and V. A. Newell. 2006. Candida rugosa, an emerging fungal pathogen with resistance to azoles: geographic and temporal trends from the ARTEMIS DISK antifungal surveillance program. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:35783582.
59. Pfaller, M. A.,, R. N. Jones,, G. V. Doern,, H. S. Sader,, R. J. Hollis,, S. A. Messer, et al. 1998. International surveillance of bloodstream infections due to Candida species: frequency of occurrence and antifungal susceptibilities of isolates collected in 1997 in the United States, Canada, and South America for the SENTRY Program. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:18861889.
60. Pfaller, M. A.,, R. N. Jones,, S. A. Messer,, M. B. Edmond,, R. P. Wenzel, et al. 1998. National surveillance of nosocomial blood stream infection due to species of Candida other than Candida albicans: frequency of occurrence and antifungal susceptibility in the SCOPE Program. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 30:121129.
61. Pfaller, M. A.,, S. A. Messer,, L. Boyken,, C. Rice,, S. Tendolkar,, R. J. Hollis,, and D. J. Diekema. 2003. Caspofungin activity against clinical isolates of fluconazole-resistant Candida. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:57295731.
62. Pfaller, M. A.,, S. A. Messer,, L. Boyken,, S. Tendolkar,, R. J. Hollis,, and D. J. Diekema. 2004. Geographic variation in the susceptibilities of invasive isolates of Candida glabrata to seven systemically active antifungal agents: a global assessment from the ARTEMIS Antifungal Surveillance Program conducted in 2001 and 2002. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:31423146.
63. Pfaller, M. A.,, S. A. Messer,, R. J. Hollis,, R. N. Jones,, G. V. Doern,, M. E. Brandt,, and R. A. Hajjeh. 1998. In vitro susceptibilities of Candida bloodstream isolates to the new triazole antifungal agents BMS-207147, Sch 56592, and voriconazole. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:32423244.
64. Reboli, A. C.,, C. Rotstein,, P. G. Pappas,, S. W. Chapman,, D. H. Kett,, D. Kumar,, R. Betts,, M. Wible,, B. P. Goldstein,, J. Schranz,, D. S. Krause,, and T. J. Walsh. 2007. Anidulafungin versus fluconazole for invasive candidiasis. N. Engl. J. Med. 356:24722482.
65. Rex, J. H.,, J. E. Bennett,, A. M. Sugar,, P. G. Pappas,, C. M. van der Horst,, J. E. Edwards,, R. G. Washburn,, W. M. Scheld,, A. W. Karchmer,, A. P. Dine, et al. 1994. A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with amphotericin B for the treatment of candidemia in patients without neutropenia. N. Engl. J. Med. 331:13251330.
66. Rex, J. H.,, P. G. Pappas,, A. W. Karchmer,, J. Sobel,, J. E. Edwards,, S. Hadley,, C. Brass,, J. A. Vazquez,, S. W. Chapman,, H. W. Horowitz,, M. Zervos,, D. McKinsey,, J. Lee,, T. Babinchak,, R. W. Bradsher,, J. D. Cleary,, D. M. Cohen,, L. Danziger,, M. Goldman,, J. Goodman,, E. Hilton,, N. E. Hyslop,, D. H. Kett,, J. Lutz,, R. H. Rubin,, W. M. Scheld,, M. Schuster,, B. Simmons,, D. K. Stein,, R. G. Washburn,, L. Mautner,, T. C. Chu,, H. Panzer,, R. B. Rosenstein,, and J. Booth. 2003. A randomized and blinded multicenter trial of high-dose fluconazole plus placebo versus fluconazole plus amphotericin B as therapy for candidemia and its consequences in nonneutropenic subjects. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36:12211228.
67. Roilides, E.,, E. Farmaki,, J. Evdoridou,, J. Dotis,, E. Hatziioannidis,, M. Tsivitanidou,, E. Bibashi,, I. Filioti,, D. Sofianou,, C. Gil-Lamaignere,, F. M. Mueller,, and G. Kremenopoulos. 2004. Neonatal candidiasis: analysis of epidemiology, drug susceptibility, and molecular typing of causative isolates. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 23:745750.
68. Roy, B.,, and S. A. Meyer. 1998. Confirmation of the distinct genotype groups within the form species Candida parapsilosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:216218.
69. Sandven, P.,, L. Bevanger,, A. Digranes,, H. H. Haukland,, T. Mannsaker,, and P. Gaustad. 2006. Candidemia in Norway (1991 to 2003): results from a nationwide study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:19771981.
70. San Miguel, L. G.,, J. Cobo,, E. Otheo,, A. Sanchez-Sousa,, V. Abraira,, and S. Moreno. 2005. Secular trends of candidemia in a large tertiary-care hospital from 1988 to 2000: emergence of Candida parapsilosis. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 26:548552.
71. Scherer, S.,, and D. A. Stevens. 1987. Application of DNA typing methods to epidemiology and taxonomy of Candida species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:675679.
72. Shin, J. H.,, S. J. Kee,, M. G. Shin,, S. H. Kim,, D. H. Shin,, S. K. Lee,, S. P. Suh,, and D. W. Ryang. 2002. Biofilm production by isolates of Candida species recovered from nonneutropenic patients: comparison of bloodstream isolates with isolates from other sources. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:12441248.
73. Shorr, A. F.,, D. R. Lazarus,, J. H. Sherner,, W. L. Jackson,, M. Morrel,, V. J. Fraser,, and M. H. Kollef. 2007. Do clinical features allow for accurate prediction of fungal pathogenesis in bloodstream infections? Potential implications of the increasing prevalence of non-albicans candidemia. Crit. Care Med. 35:10771083.
74. Skiest, D. J.,, J. A. Vazquez,, G. M. Anstead,, J. R. Graybill,, J. Reynes,, D. Ward,, R. Hare,, N. Boparai,, and R. Isaacs. 2007. Posaconazole for the treatment of azole-refractory oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in subjects with HIV infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:607614.
75. Sobel, J. D.,, S. K. Bradshaw,, C. J. Lipka,, and N. A. Kartsonis. 2007. Caspofungin in the treatment of symptomatic candiduria. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:e46e49.
76. Sobel, J. D.,, W. Chaim,, V. Nagappan,, and D. Leaman. 2003. Treatment of vaginitis caused by Candida glabrata: use of topical boric acid and flucytosine. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 189:12971300.
77. Sobel, J. D.,, H. C. Wiesenfeld,, M. Martens,, P. Danna,, T. M. Hooton,, A. Rompalo,, M. Sperling,, C. Livengood III,, B. Horowitz,, J. Von Thron,, L. Edwards,, H. Panzer,, and T. C. Chu. 2004. Maintenance fluconazole therapy for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. N. Engl. J. Med. 351:876883.
78. Sood, G.,, P. Nyirjesy,, M. V. Weitz,, and A. Chatwani. 2000. Terconazole cream for non-Candida albicans fungal vaginitis: results of a retrospective analysis. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 8:240243.
79. Sullivan, D. J.,, T. J. Westerneng,, K. A. Haynes,, D. E. Bennett,, and D. C. Coleman. 1995. Candida dubliniensis sp. nov.: phenotypic and molecular characterization of a novel species associated with oral candidosis in HIV-infected individuals. Microbiology 141:15071521.
80. Tavanti, A.,, A. D. Davidson,, N. A. Gow,, M. C. Maiden,, and F. C. Odds. 2005. Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis spp. nov. to replace Candida parapsilosis groups II and III. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:284292.
81. Trick, W. E.,, S. K. Fridkin,, J. R. Edwards,, R. A. Hajjeh,, and R. P. Gaynes. 2002. Secular trend of hospital-acquired candidemia among intensive care unit patients in the United States during 1989–1999. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:627630.
82. van ’t Wout, J. W. 1996. Fluconazole treatment of candidal infections caused by non-albicans Candida species. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:238242.
83. Vazquez, J. A.,, J. D. Sobel,, G. Peng,, L. Steele-Moore,, P. Schuman,, W. Holloway,, and J. D. Neaton. 1999. Evolution of vaginal Candida species recovered from human immunodeficiency virus-infected women receiving fluconazole prophylaxis: the emergence of Candida glabrata? Clin. Infect. Dis. 28:10251031.
84. Viscoli, C.,, C. Girmenia,, A. Marinus,, L. Collette,, P. Martino,, B. Vandercam,, C. Doyen,, B. Lebeau,, D. Spence,, V. Krcmery,, B. De Pauw,, and F. Meunier. 1999. Candidemia in cancer patients: a prospective, multicenter surveillance study by the Invasive Fungal Infection Group (IFIG) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Clin. Infect. Dis. 28:10711079.
85. Vos, M. C.,, H. P. Endtz,, D. Horst-Kreft,, J. Doorduijn,, E. Lugtenburg,, H. A. Verbrugh,, B. Lowenberg,, S. de Marie,, C. van Pelt,, and A. van Belkum. 2006. Candida krusei transmission among hematology patients resolved by adapted antifungal prophylaxis and infection control measures. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:11111114.
86. Weinberger, M.,, L. Leibovici,, S. Perez,, Z. Samra,, I. Ostfeld,, I. Levi,, E. Bash,, D. Turner,, A. Goldschmied-Reouven,, G. Regev-Yochay,, S. D. Pitlik,, and N. Keller. 2005. Characteristics of candidaemia with Candida-albicans compared with non-albicans Candida species and predictors of mortality. J. Hosp. Infect. 61:146154.
87. White, M. H. 1997. The contribution of fluconazole to the changing epidemiology of invasive candidal infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:11291130.
88. Wingard, J. R. 1995. Importance of Candida species other than C. albicans as pathogens in oncology patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:115125.
89. Wisplinghoff, H.,, T. Bischoff,, S. M. Tallent,, H. Seifert,, R. P. Wenzel,, and M. B. Edmond. 2004. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in US hospitals: analysis of 24,179 cases from a prospective nationwide surveillance study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:309317.
90. Zaoutis, T. E.,, J. Argon,, J. Chu,, J. A. Berlin,, T. J. Walsh,, and C. Feudtner. 2005. The epidemiology and attributable outcomes of candidemia in adults and children hospitalized in the United States: a propensity analysis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41:12321239.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

Pathogenic species

Citation: Sobel J, Revankar S. 2008. Non- Infections, p 393-411. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Factors associated with emergence of non- infections

Citation: Sobel J, Revankar S. 2008. Non- Infections, p 393-411. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Major pathogenic species and their characteristics

Citation: Sobel J, Revankar S. 2008. Non- Infections, p 393-411. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 4.

General patterns of susceptibility of species

Citation: Sobel J, Revankar S. 2008. Non- Infections, p 393-411. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 5.

Treatment guidelines for non- infections

Citation: Sobel J, Revankar S. 2008. Non- Infections, p 393-411. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch19

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error