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Chapter 2 : Isolation and Identification of

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Isolation and Identification of , Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Due to the association of with neonatal infections, the organism has primarily been associated with powdered infant formula. However, is widely distributed in the environment and in foods, with the most probable sources of the organism being water, soil, and vegetables. It is important that infection from rehydrated infant formula can arise from contaminated water, introduction by the caregiver, or the environment. In addition to specific criteria for , the replacement of the original indicator organism group, coliforms with , has been proposed. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved method is a presumptive, most-probable-number test based on the three-tube enrichment format, so that low levels of the organism, if present in the product, can be detected and quantified. A chromogenic agar was developed, designated Druggan-Forsythe-Iversen (DFI) agar, where a chromogenic substrate, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3- indolyl-α-D-glucopyranoside, is used as an indicator of α-glucosidase activity. Rapid development of laboratory detection and recognition methods for infectious agents has been aided by the rapid and innovative developments in nucleic acid amplification technologies. Molecular subtyping of bacteria by profiling either proteins or nucleic acids is a useful approach to investigate the epidemiological relationship(s) of isolates involved in outbreaks of food-borne disease. A multilocus sequence typing method using 10 housekeeping genes is presently under development for and looks very promising as a molecular typing tool for the epidemiology of .

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2

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Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
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Gram-Negative Bacteria
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Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis
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Gram-Positive Bacteria
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Figure 1

Conventional cultural detection of (from Forsythe, ).

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
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Figure 2

XbaI-generated PFGE profiles for a collection of isolates.

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
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Figure 3

ERIC-PCR DNA profiles for a collection of isolates and a strain.

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
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Tables

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Table 1

Sources of

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
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Table 2

Summary of cultured from different infant formulations

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 3

Surveys of powdered infant formula or milk powders for

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 4

General microbial flora cultured from powdered infant formula

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 5

Proposed CCFH and ICMSF microbiological criteria

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 6

Presence of in samples in which were present in or absent from powdered infant formula samples

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 7

Culture methods for the detection of in powdered infant formula

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 8

Composition of enrichment broths

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 9

Composition of selective and differential agars for

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 10

Percentage of strains showing increase in optical density after 24 h of incubation in enrichment media

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 11

Percent growth of strains and other on various selective and differential agars

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 12

Comparison of sensitivity and specificity of the FDA method with ISO (DTS 22964) for the isolation of

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 13

Sensitivity and specificity of three biochemical profiling methods

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 14

biotypes and 16S rRNA gene sequence cluster groups

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 15

PCR primers and their thermodynamic characteristics, genome targets, and sequences used for the detection of

Citation: Fanning S, Forsythe S. 2008. Isolation and Identification of , p 27-59. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch2

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