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Chapter 4 : Disease and Epidemiology

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Abstract:

The epidemiology of is poorly understood, because infection is rare and is not a reportable condition in most countries. However, incidence appears to differ by demographic group and underlying health status; infants and immunocompromised persons appear to be at higher risk of invasive infections than other persons. Among four reported adult cases of bacteremia, two had surgical procedures with complications shortly before infection, and one of these patients died despite treatment with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Another adult developed urosepsis secondary to urinary retention, and a fourth developed sepsis without an obvious source; both of these patients were treated with appropriate antimicrobial agents and survived. Standard blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), urine, and tissue culture specimens can be used to diagnose infection, and isolates grow well on standard nonselective media. There are no comparative studies guiding treatment options for infections. However, inference from antimicrobial susceptibility studies may be useful. Thus, investigations of outbreaks have provided the most information about the epidemiology of infections. A section also reviews published investigations of outbreaks of disease.

Citation: Bowen A, Braden C. 2008. Disease and Epidemiology, p 101-125. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch4

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Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis
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Figures

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Figure 1

Number of invasive infant cases by year. The year of onset was used when available; otherwise, the report year was used.

Citation: Bowen A, Braden C. 2008. Disease and Epidemiology, p 101-125. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch4
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Figure 2

Encephalomalacia following meningitis. Courtesy of Michelle Hulse, Children’s Hospital of Saint Paul, Saint Paul, MN.

Citation: Bowen A, Braden C. 2008. Disease and Epidemiology, p 101-125. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch4
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Figure 3

Recommendations for preparation and administration of powdered infant formula in health care settings (adapted from the American Dietetic Association [2003]).

Citation: Bowen A, Braden C. 2008. Disease and Epidemiology, p 101-125. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch4
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Characteristics of infants with invasive infection

Citation: Bowen A, Braden C. 2008. Disease and Epidemiology, p 101-125. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 2

Characteristics of infants with bacteremia or meningitis

Citation: Bowen A, Braden C. 2008. Disease and Epidemiology, p 101-125. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 3

Published outbreaks due to

Citation: Bowen A, Braden C. 2008. Disease and Epidemiology, p 101-125. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch4

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