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Chapter 8 : Powdered Infant Formula in Developing and Other Countries—Issues and Prospects

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Powdered Infant Formula in Developing and Other Countries—Issues and Prospects, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The first infant formula was developed by Henri Nestlé in 1860 in response to the high mortality rate among infants born to working-class women in Switzerland who had no time to nurse. Regarding the minimization of bacterial contamination, the suggestions on powdered infant formula (PIF) products in developing countries such as Indonesia are adequate. The majority of women resort to traditional foods to supplement or replace breast milk. Not all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive mothers infect their babies, but vertical transmission is far more likely than sexual transmission or intravenous transmission of HIV. The solutions being used in Thailand to deter the transmission of HIV from mother to infant have not been implemented in Zambia, one of several African countries where HIV infects up to 25% of the population. In sub- Saharan Africa, extreme poverty, inadequate caring practices for children, low levels of education, and poor access to health services are among the major factors causing malnutrition. Biological evidence shows that the health benefits of breast-feeding for infants are far greater than the benefits of formula feeding. In many developing countries, the proportion of special subpopulations consisting of low-birth-weight infants and infants of HIV-infected mothers is higher than it is in developed countries. Human milk fortifiers are required to compensate for the nutritional needs of very-low-birth-weight infants. In circumstances where the mother cannot breast-feed or chooses not to breast-feed for any reason, special PIF may be required for the feeding of low-birth-weight infants.

Citation: Estuningsih S, Sani N. 2008. Powdered Infant Formula in Developing and Other Countries—Issues and Prospects, p 221-234. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch8

Key Concept Ranking

Vertical Transmission
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Sexual Transmission
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Real-Time PCR
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References

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Tables

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Table 1

Comparison of breast-feeding among infants in Jakarta, Indonesia, over a 5-year period (1997 to 2002)

Citation: Estuningsih S, Sani N. 2008. Powdered Infant Formula in Developing and Other Countries—Issues and Prospects, p 221-234. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 2

Access to clean water in urban and rural areas in some developing countries

Citation: Estuningsih S, Sani N. 2008. Powdered Infant Formula in Developing and Other Countries—Issues and Prospects, p 221-234. In Farber J, Forsythe S, Doyle M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815608.ch8

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