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Enzyme-Mediated Resistance to Antibiotics: Mechanisms, Dissemination, and Prospects for Inhibition

Editors: Robert A. Bonomo1, Marcelo E. Tolmasky2
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Affiliations: 1: Section of Infectious Diseases, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106; 2: Department of Biological Science, California State University-Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92831
Content Type: Monograph
Format: Electronic, Hardcover
Publication Year: 2007

Category: Bacterial Pathogenesis

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, or “superbugs,” present an increasingly deadly threat to human health. The World Health Organization estimates that resistant bacteria now account for about 60% of nosocomial infections; the CDC estimates that of the ca. 60,000 deaths each year due to nosocomial infection, some 14,000 are the result of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. With chapters from the world’s leading researchers and scholars in this field, is a vital and timely overview of this critical subject.

Bacteria have evolved a wealth of different ways to resist the action of antibiotics, as well as to transfer these resistance traits once acquired. An important number of these mechanisms are mediated by enzymatic processes. Beta-Lactamases aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes are thoroughly discussed in this volume, as well as other enzymatic mechanisms that result in resistance. The different ways bacteria share resistance determinants, both vertically and horizontally, are also discussed. Finally, chapters offer strategies to control the dissemination of resistance genes and to combat these highly versatile inactivating enzymes.

This comprehensive volume will find a wide audience in researchers working in bacterial pathogenesis, enzymology, molecular microbiology, and antibiotic development. It will be indispensable for clinical research laboratories, hospitals, medical schools, and applied and pharmaceutical research laboratories.

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Doody Enterprises

19 June 2013

At A Glance

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, or "superbugs," present an increasingly deadly threat to human health. The World Health Organization estimates that resistant bacteria now account for about 60% of nonsocomial infections; the CDC estimates that of the ca. 60,000 deaths each year do to nosocomial infection, some 14,000 are the result of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. With chapters from the world's leading researchers and scholars in this field, Enzyme-Mediated Resistance to Antibiotics is a vital and timely overview of this critical subject. Bacteria have evolved a wealth of different ways to resist the action of antibiotics, as well as transfer these resistant traits once acquired. An important number of these mechanisms are mediated by enzymatic processes. B-Lactamases and aminoglycoside-modifying mechanisms that result in resistance. The different ways bacteria share resistance determinants, both vertically and horizontally, are also discussed. Finally, chapters offer strategies to control the dissemination of resistance genes and to combat these highly versatile inactivating enzymes. This comprehensive volume will find a wide audience in researchers working in bacterial pathogenesis, enzymology, molecular microbiology, and antibiotic development. It will be indispensable for clinical research laboratories, hospitals, medical school, and applied and pharmaceutical research laboratories.

Description

This book reviews the development of antibiotic resistance in clinical pathogens and the various enzymes associated with this resistance. It includes a comprehensive review of the enzymes' activity, the genes that code for these proteins, and the ease with which these genes are transferred between bacteria. It then emphasizes the serious problems that the dissemination of these proteins has had on clinical medicine.

Purpose

The purpose is to review the history of antibiotics and the resistance that resulted from the expanded use of these drugs in medicine and commerce. The book also gives a detailed view of how new antibiotics may be designed to combat this increasing resistance problem. The authors are all experts in the research of antibiotic structure and function and many are actively involved in discovering new antibiotics that will help to solve some of the problems of antibiotic resistance that have occurred in the last decades.

Audience

This book will be valuable to scientists working in areas of antibiotic development, enzymology, protein structure, and molecular pathogenic microbiology. This information will also be invaluable for clinical laboratories monitoring antibiotic resistance, hospital epidemiologists, and clinical pharmacists as well as physicians treating difficult antibiotic resistant infections. Eventually this will benefit the public by leading to newer antibiotics that will be effective without leading to resistant bacteria.

Features

Throughout the book, there are accounts of the history behind the discovery of enzymes causing antibiotic resistance in clinical disease. It then reviews the current problems and the spread of antibiotic resistance. Three major sections broadly explain the bacterial enzymes that allow bacteria to resist antibiotics. Topics vary from the details of the kinetics of beta-lactamases and penicillin binding proteins to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance by bacterial conjugation. An interesting feature is the great detail that is included about the structure of the proteins involved in antibiotic resistance and the modeling of these proteins using computer graphics. These 3-dimensional models have allowed for careful strategic design of new antibiotics that can continue to inhibit the activity of crucial bacterial enzymes, thus leading to bacterial death. The last section has several chapters that cover the reasons why antibiotic resistance has disseminated quickly and shows the cost of this dissemination to healthcare.

Assessment

This is a powerful book that explains in clear detail the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. It will be a wonderful resource for discovery of new antimicrobial drugs as well as a tool to help investigate the emergence of new resistance patterns. It is well written and engaging. It is not too large to sit on a desk and can be easily picked up when searching for answers to a puzzling antibiotic resistance pattern.

Doody Enterprises

Reviewer: Rebecca Horvat, PhD, D(ABMM) (University of Kansas Medical Center)

Review Date: Unknown

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