1887

Chapter 5 : rRNA Methylases and Resistance to Macrolide, Lincosamide, Streptogramin, Ketolide, and Oxazolidinone (MLSKO) Antibiotics

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

rRNA Methylases and Resistance to Macrolide, Lincosamide, Streptogramin, Ketolide, and Oxazolidinone (MLSKO) Antibiotics, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815615/9781555813031_Chap05-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815615/9781555813031_Chap05-2.gif

Abstract:

All the macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins, ketolides, and oxazolidinones (MLSKO) antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 50S bacterial ribosomal subunit, close to the peptidyltransferase center. The last group of acquired genes, and the focus of this chapter, are those that encode an adenine-N-methyltransferase (rRNA methylase). Currently, 32 different genes coding for enzymes that modify the 23S rRNA have been described in the chapter. This modification blocks the binding of the MLSK group of antibiotics and allows the bacterial ribosomes to continue to produce protein in the presence of macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B. Mobile elements often carry multiple different genes which confer antibiotic resistance to a variety of different antibiotic classes. Association of the genes with mobile elements (plasmids, conjugative transposons, and transposons) provides the potential to move from one species to another, one genus to another, and one ecosystem to another, between bacterial hosts, and from food to man and the environment. If DNA-DNA hybridization is used, confirmation by a PCR assay is advisable. One can speculate that as the newer macrolide derivatives became available in the 1980s this influenced the increase in carriage of macrolide resistance genes. It can be predicted that new innate genes may be found, which when mutated could provide increased levels of resistance to all the MSLKO antibiotics. It is even possible that new mechanisms of MLS resistance will be described in the coming years.

Citation: Roberts M. 2007. rRNA Methylases and Resistance to Macrolide, Lincosamide, Streptogramin, Ketolide, and Oxazolidinone (MLSKO) Antibiotics, p 53-63. In Bonomo R, Tolmasky M (ed), Enzyme-Mediated Resistance to Antibiotics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815615.ch5

Key Concept Ranking

MLSK Antibiotics
0.5559326
Gram-Negative Bacteria
0.5496947
Gram-Positive Bacteria
0.54238456
Gram-Positive Cocci
0.5184358
Efflux Pumps
0.50308645
0.5559326
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815615.ch05
1. Appelbaum, P. C. 1992. Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae: an overview. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:7783.
2. Arthur, M.,, A. Andremont, and, P. Courvalin. 1987. Distribution of erythromycin esterase and rRNA methylase genes in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae highly resistant to erythromycin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:404409.
3. Atkinson, B. A.,, A. Abu-Al-Jaibat, and, D. J. LeBlanc. 1997. Antibiotic resistance among enterococci isolated from clinical specimens between 1953 and 1954. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:15981600.
4. Aumercier, M.,, S. Bouchallab,, M. L. Capmau, and, F. Le Goffic. 1992. RP59500: a proposed mechanism for its bacterial activity. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 30:914.
5. Bozdogan, B.,, S. Galopin, and, R. Leclercq. 2004. Characterization of a new erm-related macrolide resistance gene present in probiotic strains of Bacillus clausii. Appl. Environ. Microbiolo. 70:280284.
6. Bryskier, A., and, A. Denis. 2001. Ketolides: novel antibacterial agents designed to overcome resistance to erythromycin A within gram-positive cocci, p. 97140. In W. Schonfeld and H. A. Kirst. (ed.), Macrolide Antibiotics. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland.
7. Call, D. R.,, M. K. Bakko,, M. J. Krug, and, M. C. Roberts. 2003. Identifying antimicrobial resistance genes using DNA microarrays. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:32903295.
8. Camps, M.,, G. Arrizabalaga, and, J. Boothroyd. 2002. An rRNA mutation identifies the apicoplast as the target for clindamycin in Toxoplasma gondii. Mol. Microbiol. 43:13091328.
9. Carfartan, G.,, P. Gerardin,, D. Turck, and, M.-O. Husson. 2004. Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of azithromycin on adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to bronchial mucins collected from cystic fibrosis patients. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53:686688.
10. Chung, W. O.,, C. Werckenthin,, S. Schwarz, and, M. C. Roberts. 1999. Host range of the ermF rRNA methylase gene in human and animal bacteria. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 43:514.
11. Cousin, S. L., Jr.,, W. L. Whittington, and, M. C. Roberts. 2003. Acquired macrolide resistance genes in pathogenic Neisseria spp. isolated between 1940 and 1987. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:38773880.
12. Daly, M.,, S. Doktor,, R. Flamm, and, V. Shortridge. 2004. Characterization and prevalence of MefA, MefE, and the associated msr(D) in Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:35703574.
13. Depardieu, F., and, P. Courvalin. 2001. Mutation in 23S rRNA responsible for resistance to 16-membered macrolides and streptogramins in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimi-crob. Agents Chemother. 45:319323.
14. Dixon, J. 1967. Pneumococcus resistant to erythromycin and lincomycin. Lancet 1:573.
15. Edlund, C.,, E. Sillerstrom,, E. Wahlund, and, C. E. Nord. 1998. In vitro activity of HMR 3647 against anaerobic bacteria. J. Chemother. 10:280284.
16. Flutt, A. C.,, M. R. Visser, and, F.-J. Schmitz. 2001. Molecular detection of antimicrobial resistance. Clin. Microbiolo Rev. 14:836871.
17. Frenck, R. W., Jr.,, A. Mansour,, I. Nakhla,, Y. Sultan,, S. Putam,, T. Wierzba,, M. Morsy, and, C. Knirshc. 2004. Short-course azithromycin for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in children and adolescents. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:951957.
18. Garza-Ramos, G.,, L. Xiong,, P. Zhong, and, A. Mankin. 2001. Binding site of macrolide antibiotics on the ribosome: new resistance mutation identifies a specific interaction of ketolides with rRNA. J. Bacteriol. 184:68986907.
19. Grkovic, S. G.,, M. H. Brown, and, R. A. Skurray. 2002. Regulation of bacterial drug export systems. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 66:671701.
20. Gupta, A.,, H. Vlamakis,, N. Shoemaker, and, A. A. Salyers. 2003. A new Bacteroides conjugative transposon that carries an ermB gene. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:64556463.
21. Hammerum, A. M.,, S. E. Flannagan,, D. B. Clewell, and, L. B. Jensen. 2001. Indication of transposition of a mobile DNA element containing the vat(D) and erm(B) genes in Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:32233225.
22. Hasman, H., and, F. M. Aarestrup. 2005. Relationship between copper, glycopeptide, and macrolide resistance among Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from pigs in Denmark between 1997 and 2003. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:454456.
23. Hecht, D. W.,, J. S. Thompson, and, M. H. Malamy. 1989. Characterization of the termini and transposition products of Tn4399, a conjugal mobilizing transposon of Bacteroides fragilis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:53405344.
24. Hsueh, P.-R.,, L.-J. Teng,, C.-M. Lee,, W.-K. Huang,, T.-L. Wu,, J.-H. Wan,, D. Yang,, J.-M. Shyr,, Y.-C. Chuang,, J.-J. Yan,, J.-J. Lu,, J.-J. Wu,, W.-C. Ko,, F.-Y. Chang,, Y.-C. Yang,, Y.-J. Lau,, Y.-C. Liu,, H.-S. Leu,, C.-Y. Liu, and, K.-T. Luh. 2003. Telithromycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes: SMART Program 2001 Data. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:21522157.
25. Hyde, T. B.,, K. Gay,, D. S. Stephens,, D. J. Vugia,, M. Pass,, S. Johnson,, N. L. Barrett,, W. Schaffner,, P. R. Cieslak,, P. S. Maupin,, E. R. Zell,, J. H. Jorgensen,, R. R. Facklam, and, C. G. Whitney. 2001. Macrolide resistance among invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. JAMA 286:18571862.
26. Iacoviello, V. R., and, S. H. Zinner. 2001. Macrolides: a clinical overview, p. 1524. In W. Schonfeld and, H. A. Kirst (ed.), Macrolide Antibiotics. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland.
27. Jaffe, A.,, F. Francis,, M. Rosenthal, and, M. Bush. 1998. Long-term azithromycin may improve lung function in children with cystic fibrosis. Lancet 351:420.
28. Jalava, J.,, J. Kataja,, H. Seppala, and, P. Huovinen. 2001. In vitro activities of the novel ketolide telithromycin (HMR 3647) against erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:789793.
29. Jensen, L. B.,, A. M. Hammerum, and, R. M. Aarestrup. 2000. Linkage of vat(E) and erm(B) in streptogramin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from Europe. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:22312232.
30. Kim, Y.-H.,, C.-J. Cha, and, C.-E. Cerniglia. 2002. Purification and characterization of an erythromycin esterase from an erythromycin-resistant Pseudomonas sp. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 210:239244.
31. Kudoh, S.,, A. Azuma,, M. Yamamoto,, T. Izumin, and, M. Ando. 1998. Improvement of survival in patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis treated with low-dose erythromycin. Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. 157:18291832.
32. Kugler, K. C.,, G. A. Denys,, M. L. Wilson, and, R. N. Jones. 2000. Serious streptococcal infections produced by isolates resistant to streptogramins (quinupristin-dalfopristin): case reports from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 36:269272.
33. Leclercq, R. 2002. Mechanisms of resistance to macrolides and lincosamides: nature of the resistance elements and their clinical implications. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:482492.
34. Leclercq, R., and, P. Courvalin. 2002. Resistance to macro-lides and related antibiotics in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:27272734.
35. Lee, S. Y.,, Y. Ning, and, J. C. Fenno. 2002. 23S rRNA point mutation associated with erythromycin resistance in Treponema denticola. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 207:3942.
36. Liebl, W.,, W. E. Kloos, and, W. Ludwig. 2002. Plasmid-borne macrolide resistance in Micrococcus luteus. Microbiology 148:24792487.
37. Lina, G.,, A. Quaglia,, M.-E. Reverdy,, R. Leclercq,, R. Vandenesch, and, J. Etienne. 1999. Distribution of genes encoding resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins among staphylococci. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:10621066.
38. Liu, M., and, D. S. Douthwaite. 2002. Activity of the ketolide telithromycin is refractory to erm monomethylation of bacterial rRNA. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:16291633.
39. Livermore, D. M. 2003. Linezolid in vitro: mechanism and antibacterial spectrum. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51: ii9ii16.
40. Luh, K.-T.,, P.-R. Hsueh.,, L.-J. Teng,, H.-J, Pan,, Y.-C. Chen,, J.-J. Lu,, J.-J. Wu, and, S.-W. Ho. 2000. Quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance among gram-positive bacteria in Taiwan. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:33743380.
41. Luna, V. A.,, M. Heiken,, K. Judge,, C. Uelp,, N. Van Kirk,, H. Luis,, M. Bernardo,, J. Leitao, and, M. C. Roberts. 2002. Distribution of the mef(A) gene in gram-positive bacteria from healthy Portuguese children. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:25132517.
42. MacGowan, A. P. 2003. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of linezolid in healthy volunteers and patients with gram-positive infections. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51: ii17ii25.
43. Martel, A.,, V. Meulenaere,, L. A. Devriese,, A. Decostere, and, F. Haesebrouck. 2003. Macrolide- and lincosamide-resistance in the Gram-positive nasal and tonsillar flora of pigs. Microb. Drug Resist. 9:293297.
44. Matsuoka, M.,, K. Endou,, H. Kobayashi,, M. Inoue, and, Y. Nakajima, Y. 1997. A dyadic plasmid that shows MLS and PMS resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 148:9196.
45. Matsuoka, M.,, M. Inoue,, Y. Nakajima, and, K. Endou. 2002. New erm gene in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:211215.
46. McDougal, L. K.,, F. C. Tenover,, L. N. Lee,, J. K. Rasheed,, J. E. Patterson,, J. H. Jorgensen, and, D. J. LeBlanc. 1998. Detection of Tn917-like sequences within a Tn916-like conjugative transposon (Tn3872) in erythromycin-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:23122318.
47. Montanari, M. P.,, I. Cochetti,, M. Mingoia, and, P. E. Varaldo. 2003. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:22362241.
48. Moore, P. B., and, T. A. Steitz. 2003. The structural basis of large ribosomal subunit function. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72:813850.
49. Nakamura, A.,, I. Miyakozawa,, K. Nakazawa,, K. O’Hara, and, T. Sawai. 2000. Detection and characterization of a macrolide 2′-phosphotransferase from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:32413242.
50. Nash, K. A., and, C. B. Inderlied. 1996. Rapid detection of mutations associated with macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium avium complex. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:17481750.
51. Nash, K. A. 2003. Intrinsic macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis is conferred by a novel erm gene, erm(38). Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:30533060.
52. Nash, K. A.,, Y. Zhang,, B. A. Brown-Elliott, and, R. J. Wallace, Jr. 2005. Molecular basis of intrinsic macrolide resistance in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium fortuitum. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 55:170177.
53. Noguchi, N.,, A. Emura,, H. Matsuyama,, K. O’Hara,, M. Sasatsum, and, M. Kono. 1995. Nucleotide sequence and characterization of erythromycin resistance determinant that encodes macrolide 2′-phosphotransferase I in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:23592363.
54. Ojo, K. K.,, C. Ulep,, N. Van Kirk,, H. Luis,, M. Bernardo,, J. Leitao, and, M. C. Roberts. 2004. The mef(A) gene predominates among seven macrolide resistant genes identified in 13 gram-negative genera from healthy Portuguese children. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:34513456.
55. Pereyre, S.,, P. Gonzalez,, B. de Barbeyrac,, A. Darnige,, H. Renaudin,, A. Charron,, S. Raherison,, C. Bebear, and, C. M. Bebear. 2002. Mutations in 23S rRNA account for intrinsic resistance to macrolides in Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma fermentans and for acquired resistance to mac-rolides in M. hominis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:31423150.
56. Plante, I.,, D. Centron, and, P. H. Roy. 2003. An integron cassette encoding erythromycin esterase, ere(A), from Providencia stuartii. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:787790.
57. Poehlsgaard, J., and, S. Douthwaite. 2003. Macrolide antibiotic interaction and resistance on the bacterial ribosome. Curr. Opin. Investig. Drugs 4:140148.
58. Porse, B. T., and, R. A. Garrett. 1999. Sites of interaction of streptogramin A and B antibiotics in the peptidyl transferase loop of 23S rRNA and the synergism of their inhibitory mechanisms. J. Mol. Biol. 286:275387.
59. Reig, M.,, J.-C. Galan,, F. Bazuero, and, J. C. Perez-Diaz. 2001. Macrolide resistance in Peptostreptococcus spp. mediated by ermTR: possible source of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:630632.
60. Reynolds, E.,, J. I. Ross, and, J. H. Cove. 2003. msr(A) and related macrolide/streptogramin resistance determinants: incomplete transporters? Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 22:228236.
61. Rice, L. B. 1998. Tn916 family conjugative transposons and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:18711877.
62. Roberts, M. C. Updated January 2007. 2000 rRNA Methylase Genes Table; Location of the Various Genes Table. [Online.] http://faculty.washington.edu/marilynr/.
63. Roberts, M. C., and, M. B. Brown. 1994. Macrolide-lincosamide resistance determinants in streptococcal species isolated from the bovine mammary gland. Vet. Microbiol. 40:253261.
64. Roberts, M. C.,, W. Chung, and, D. E. Roe. 1996. Characterization of tetracycline and erythromycin determinants in Treponema denticola. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:16901694.
65. Roberts, M. C.,, J. Sutcliffe,, P. Courvalin,, L. B. Jensen,, J. Rood, and, H. Seppala. 1999. Nomenclature for macrolide and macrolide-lincosamide streptogramin B antibiotic resistance determinants. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:28232830.
66. Saiman, L.,, Y. Chen,, P. San Gabriel, and, C. Knirsch. 2002. Synergistic activities of macrolide antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:11051107.
67. Saiman, L.,, B. C. Marshall,, N. Mayer-Hamblett,, J. L. Burns,, A. L. Quittner,, D. A. Cibene,, S. Coquillette,, A. Y. Fieberg,, F. J. Accurso, and, P. W. Campbell III. 2003. Azithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 290:17491756.
68. Schmitz, F.-J.,, W. Witte,, G. Werner,, J. Petridou,, A. C. Fluit, and, S. Schwarz. 2001. Characterization of the translational attenuator of 20 methicillin-resistant, quinupristin/dalfopris-tin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 48:939941.
69. Schmitz, F.-J.,, J. Petridou,, H. Jagusch,, N. Astfalk,, S. Scheuring, and, S. Schwarz. 2002. Molecular characterization of ketolide-resistance erm(A)-carrying Staphylococcus aureus isolates selected in vitro by telithromycin, ABT-773, quinu-pristin and clindamycin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 49:611617.
70. Schwarz, S.,, C. Kehrenberg, and, K. K. Ojo. 2002. Staphylo-coccus sciuri gene erm(33), encoding inducible resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B antibiotics, is a product of recombination between erm(C) and erm(A). Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:36213623.
71. Seppala, H.,, T. Klaukka,, J. Vuopio-Varkila,, A. Muotiala,, H. Helenius,, K. Lager, and, P. Huovinen. 1997. The effect of changes in the consumption of macrolide antibiotics on erythromycin resistance in Group A streptococci in Finland. N. Engl. J. Med. 337:441446.
72. Shoemaker, N. B.,, H. Vlamikis,, K. Hayes, and, A. A. Salyers. 2001. Evidence for extensive resistance gene transfer among Bacteroides spp. and between Bacteroides and other genera in the human colon. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:561568.
73. Shortridge, V. D.,, G. V. Doern,, A. B. Brueggmann,, J. M. Beyer, and, R. K. Flamm. 1999. Prevalence of macrolide resistance mechanism in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from a multi-center antibiotic resistance surveillance study conducted in the United States in 1994–1995. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:11861188.
74. Singh, K. V.,, K. Malathum, and, B. E. Murray. 2001. Disruption of an Enterococcus faecium species-specific gene, a homologue of acquired macrolide resistance genes of staphylococci, is associated with an increase in macrolide susceptiblity. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:36723673.
75. Speciale, A.,, K. La Ferla,, F. Caccamo, and, G. Nicoletti. 1999. Antimicrobial activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin, a new injectable streptogramin with wide Gram-positive spectrum. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 13:2128.
76. Stanton, T. B., and, S. B. Humphrey. 2003. Isolation of tetracycline-resistant Megasphaera elsdenii strains with novel mosaic gene combinations of tet(O) and tet(W) from swine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:38743882.
77. Sutcliffe, J. A., and, R. Leclercq. 2003. Mechanisms of resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and ketolides, p. 281317. In W. Schonfeld and, H. A. Kirst (ed.), Macrolide Antibiotics. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland.
78. Taylor, D. E.,, Z. Ge,, D. Purych,, T. Lo, and, K. Hiratsuka. 1997. Cloning and sequence analysis of two copies of a 23S rRNA gene from Helicobacter pylori and association of clarithromycin resistance with 23S rRNA mutations. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:26212628.
79. Tenson, T.,, M. Lovmar, and, M. Ehrenbert. 2003. The mechanism of action of macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B reveals the nascent peptide exit path in the ribosome. J. Mol. Biol. 330:10051014.
80. Thungapathra, M.,, Amita,, K. K. Sinha,, S. R. Chaudhuri,, P. Garg,, T. Ramamurthy,, G. B. Nair, and, A. Ghosh. 2002. Occurrence of antibiotic resistance gene cassettes aac(6p)-Ib, dfrA5, dfrA12, and ereA2 in Class I integrons in non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strains in India. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:29482955.
81. Tomasz, A. 1999. New faces of an old pathogen: emergence and spread of a multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Am. J. Med. 107:55S66S.
82. Valentine, P. J.,, N. B. Shoemaker, and, A. A. Salyers. 1988. Mobilization of Bacteroides plasmids by Bacteroides conjugal elements. J. Bacteriol. 170:13191324.
83. Vera-Cabrera, L.,, A. Gomez-Flores,, W. G. Escalante-Fuentes, and, O. Welsh. 2001. In vitro activity of PNU-100766 (linezolid), a new oxazolidinone antimicrobial, against Norcardia brasiliensis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:36293630.
84. Vester, B., and, S. Douthwaite. 2001 Macrolide resistance conferred by base substitutions in 23S rRNA. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:112.
85. Waites, K.,, C. Johnson,, B. Gray,, K. Edwards,, M. Crain, and, W. Benjamin, Jr. 2000. Use of clindamycin disks to detect macrolide resistance mediated by ermB and mefE in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from adults and children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:17311734.
86. Wang, Y.,, G. R., Wang,, A. Shelby,, N. B. Shoemaker, and, A. A. Salyers. 2003. A newly discovered Bacteroides conjugative transposon, CTnGERM1, contains genes also found in gram-positive bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:45944603.
87. Wasteson, Y.,, D. E. Roe,, K. Falk, and, M. C. Roberts. 1994. Characterization of antibiotic resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet. Microbiol. 48:4150.
88. Werner, G.,, I. Klare, and, W. Witte. 2002. Molecular analysis of streptogramin resistance in enterococci. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 292:8194.
89. Widdowson, C. A., and, L. P. Klugman. 1998. Emergence of M phenotype of erythromycin-resistance pneumococci in South Africa. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4:277281.
90. Wilcox, M. H. 2003. Efficacy of linezolid versus comparator therapies in Gram-positive infections. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51(Suppl. S2):ii27ii35.
91. Yagi, B. H., and, G. E. Zurenko. 2003. An in vitro time-kill assessment of linezolid and anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobe 9:13.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 5.1

Mechanism of MLS resistance

Citation: Roberts M. 2007. rRNA Methylases and Resistance to Macrolide, Lincosamide, Streptogramin, Ketolide, and Oxazolidinone (MLSKO) Antibiotics, p 53-63. In Bonomo R, Tolmasky M (ed), Enzyme-Mediated Resistance to Antibiotics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815615.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 5.2

Location of rRNA methylases in the published literature

Citation: Roberts M. 2007. rRNA Methylases and Resistance to Macrolide, Lincosamide, Streptogramin, Ketolide, and Oxazolidinone (MLSKO) Antibiotics, p 53-63. In Bonomo R, Tolmasky M (ed), Enzyme-Mediated Resistance to Antibiotics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815615.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 5.3

Linkage between rRNA methylase and other antibiotic resistance genes

Citation: Roberts M. 2007. rRNA Methylases and Resistance to Macrolide, Lincosamide, Streptogramin, Ketolide, and Oxazolidinone (MLSKO) Antibiotics, p 53-63. In Bonomo R, Tolmasky M (ed), Enzyme-Mediated Resistance to Antibiotics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815615.ch5

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error